Video: Watering Young And Fruiting Trees. Orchard Care. Fruit And Berry. A Photo
All fruit trees are very demanding on moisture. The less rainfall, the more the trees need for regular watering. In the southern regions, without watering, the growth and high productivity of trees is impossible. Especially a lot of moisture is consumed by fruit trees in the first half of the growing season, when there is an increased growth of shoots, the formation and ripening of fruits. But moisture should be in sufficient quantity in autumn and winter, as the drying roots and tissues of trees become less cold-resistant, easily damaged by frost.
Young trees are less sensitive to a lack of moisture, while fruiting and old ones are very sensitive. With insufficient soil moisture, the ovary crumbles, and in mature trees, earlier fruit shedding may occur. The roots of trees that grow on poorly moisture-supplied soils are usually excessively thick, the diameter of the root system is much larger than the diameter of the crown. If there is enough moisture, the root system is fibrous, well developed, and forms within the diameter of the crown.
But excess moisture is no less harmful for trees. Growing a garden in stagnant waters has the most dire consequences. Due to the lack of circulation, such water is poor in oxygen, the root system of the tree rots and dies off. If the garden is grown on normally moist soil, but excessive watering is carried out in the second half of the growing season, the growth of trees is delayed, fruiting is delayed, the trees tolerate frost worse.
For each type of soil, an optimal moisture regime is required. To define it, use the concept of field moisture capacity. It defines as follows: between the soil particles there must be a certain amount of water and air. If we take the amount of water and air together as 100%, then the field moisture capacity on sandy and sandy loam soils is within 60 - 65%, on clay and loamy - 70 - 80%. This soil moisture regime must be maintained throughout the growing season. It is not necessary to moisturize the soil in such quantities throughout the garden. It is important that it contains the required percentage of moisture in the root layer. It is extremely rare for trees to receive their entire amount of water from precipitation. Therefore, from late spring - early summer to late August - early September, trees are watered every 20 to 30 days.In the southern regions, watering ends later than in the northern ones. When watering, you need to ensure that the soil is well moistened to a depth of at least 1 m, since this is where the bulk of the roots is concentrated.
© Brandon Stafford
Young trees up to 5-6 years of age are watered according to the diameter of the crown, best of all in holes, spending 5-6 buckets of water for each tree. Fruiting trees need to be watered over the entire garden area, using 8 - 10 buckets of water per square meter. The irrigation rate is adjusted depending on the amount of precipitation and soil moisture.
If the garden is located on an area with a high level of groundwater occurrence, and the groundwater contains a large amount of salt, irrigation is carried out so that the irrigation water does not mix with the groundwater. This mixing can lead to soil salinity.
If winter and autumn bring little precipitation in the form of rain and snow, enough moisture does not accumulate in the soil by spring. In this case, on the eve of a winter with little snow and dry autumn, water recharge irrigation is carried out. Water the soil in late autumn, before frost, in early spring when the soil thaws, and in the case of a warm winter - in winter.
For irrigation, in addition to holes, furrows are used. They are dug to a depth of 20 cm. If the garden is laid out on an uneven area or on a slope and it is difficult to distribute moisture during watering, the trees are watered by sprinkling. Water is supplied to sprinklers installed under the crowns so that the leaves and fruits do not get wet, as this leads to fungal diseases.