Permaculture Is Biological Farming In A Closed System. What Is Permaculture

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Permaculture Is Biological Farming In A Closed System. What Is Permaculture
Permaculture Is Biological Farming In A Closed System. What Is Permaculture

Video: Permaculture Is Biological Farming In A Closed System. What Is Permaculture

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Video: PERMACULTURE FARMING | What is Permaculture? Why is permaculture important? How is it sustainable? 2023, January

In recent years, more and more mini-farms and individual landowners supply the market with ecologically clean and healthy products grown without the use of fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and other drugs that have a negative impact on human health and his environment. With the advent of the opportunity to have their own piece of land (summer cottage, house on land, cottage in the countryside, etc.), amateur gardeners, gardeners also began to intensively introduce in their small farms farming methods that exclude partially or completely the use of chemicals for the purpose of preserving and raising soil fertility and obtaining healthy products. Agriculture was divided into two areas of agricultural production:

  • classic or industrial,
  • traditional (since the founding of agriculture) or organic farming.
Vegetable garden in permaculture
Vegetable garden in permaculture

Industrial agriculture

The classical direction is the conduct of agricultural production, in which all the achievements of science and practice are used, which ensure the preservation and increase of soil fertility, and obtaining high yields of good quality. It is suitable for agricultural production in large areas. Provides the possibility of high mechanization of labor with obtaining sufficient yields, but with such a management of the economy, in a year you can lose the entire fertile soil layer, which is formed as a result of natural soil processes at a rate of 1 cm in 100 years.

The humus reserves produced in the fertile layer are restored (according to research results) in the 0.5 cm layer after about 250 years and directly depend on the climatic conditions of the regions. Complex destruction of vegetation cover (plowing, drainage, pollution of natural reservoirs and soil with chemicals, etc.) leads, by and large, to the degradation of ecosystems. The use of new agricultural production technologies, causing a temporary outbreak of an increase in soil fertility, and hence crop yields, does not lead to an increase in natural soil fertility - this is a ghostly well-being.

With the systematic application of fertilizers, organic matter does not decompose, which forms humus, the basis of plant nutrition. On the contrary, humus decomposes and the liberated salts, used by plants, provide a temporary burst of crop yields. With this method of farming, hundreds of thousands of hectares of fertile land are lost annually.

Organic (biological) agriculture

The second direction, officially called traditional or organic farming, is more suitable for small areas. This is due to the high labor costs, the use of manual labor. The yield of crops grown with organic or biological technologies is lower than with classical farming, but the resulting products do not contain substances that reduce the quality of life of the population.

This direction is associated with the use of different methods of growing agricultural products without the use of substances unusual for the soil, up to mineral fertilizers. Bits of knowledge, collected together, allowed to develop a technology for natural restoration of soil fertility, its treatment and "revitalization". Many methods have been proposed and developed for preserving and increasing the natural microculture of the fertile soil layer (beneficial fungi, bacteria, earthworms, etc.), processing it with minimal damage.

So, according to the results of the research, they came to the conclusion that the southern soils need deep processing (25-27 cm) with a seam turnover. The warm autumn period contributes to the strong growth of weeds and their insemination, the preservation of pests in the upper layer, which actively attack cultivated plantings in the spring. Prolonged rains cause the development of fungal diseases. And, conversely, in soils with a small humus reserve (chestnut, brown), it is impossible to disrupt the order of the soil horizons by turning the lower layer outward and moving down the upper fertile layer.

The developed technologies recommended the annual introduction of organic and some part of mineral fertilizers, but without the use of herbicides and pesticides, the use of crop rotations in large areas and crop rotations in small summer cottages, which had a positive effect on the condition of the soil, relieved soil fatigue, and slowed down destructive physical and chemical processes … The developed technologies of organic agriculture, as a rule, affect only work “on the ground”, without involving the rest of rural life in a single system.

Over time, supporters of agricultural production according to the permaculture system began to appear and are gaining more and more.

Vegetable garden in permaculture
Vegetable garden in permaculture

What is permaculture?

Against the background of the two methods of agricultural production discussed above, a third direction appeared, called by the founders - permaculture. Translated from English, it means permanent agriculture. Permaculture has combined and uses the methods of traditional farming and modern technologies, non-violent interference in natural processes, in a single system.

The basic principle of permaculture-type farming is to create a system of biological farming with the involvement of all types of farming in a single circulation. This is a type of agricultural production, where the components of a single system are all the elements that surround a person (his family): a house, a vegetable garden, a garden, a fence, a subsidiary farm, pets, an irrigation system, natural fertilizers, etc.

The main task of permaculture is the non-violent return of all spent energy losses into the created system. So, according to the concepts of permaculture, the introduction of mineral fertilizers, pesticides is violence against the natural ecosystem. The use of waste from domestic animals and poultry, humans (manure, chicken droppings, compost, other household waste) is the return to a single cycle of substances that have gone beyond the boundaries of the economy.

For example: kitchen waste is processed into compost, which is added to the soil as fertilizer. Decomposing by microorganisms, in the form of humus, it turns into affordable food for vegetable, garden and other crops that will be used as food for animals and poultry, and they will serve as food for humans, etc. Waste of sanitary places after treatment with effective microorganisms (EM culture), become suitable for irrigation and soil application. After refining, the natural bakeries will turn into ponds with lovely resting places and a supply of water for irrigation.

Vegetable garden in permaculture
Vegetable garden in permaculture

The main differences between permaculture and other farming methods

1. Lack of classical culture circulation. Plants grow in natural conditions on the basis of good neighborliness (potatoes with beans, strawberries with garlic, peppers and eggplants in the same field, etc.) with herbaceous plants, shrubs, fruit trees.

2. A design solution for the entire site with the most convenient placement of crops, which helps to minimize labor costs for planting, care, harvesting, etc. For example: from a water source, crops that need frequent watering diverge star-like like chamomile petals (cucumbers, tomatoes, strawberries and other water-loving crops), which reduces the time and labor required to deliver water and conduct irrigation.

3. Providing the site with moisture without using artesian tanks, wells, wells. Moisture accumulates in reservoirs built by changing the surface of the site (natural pool, pond, elevation from which water will be supplied to the field by gravity). When constructing such reservoirs, it is allowed to use heavy equipment, but without the use of concrete and plastics when decorating the banks (only natural fencing).

4. Construction of housing and other utility rooms only from natural materials.

5. Using established varieties of plants and animals with the provision of the possibility of their symbiotic interaction.

6. The farm must have a variety of plants and animals in order to obtain a wide range of products and the necessary nutrition for plants.

Vegetable garden in permaculture
Vegetable garden in permaculture

Practical use of permaculture technology

Permaculture is the use of natural "fertilizers" to increase the natural fertility of the soil and provide plants with nutrients. For this, it is necessary to provide in such an eco-farm:

  • Place of bookmarks for reheating manure, compost, cleaning sanitary waste (dry closet, water after taking a shower, bath, laundry, dishwashing).
  • Construction of a chicken coop (obtaining poultry manure for fertilizers and meat for the diet). In a large farm, this is the maintenance of cattle, horses (manure, milk, meat, driving power).
  • Independent production of biofertilizers using dung or red Californian worm - vermicompost.

In the creation of biofertilizer and its distribution, 2 types of worms are involved: the creators of humus and its eaters and distributors. Representatives of the first group live under the topsoil. They use in food all organic waste and some part of the soil (respectively in parts 9: 1). As a result, vermicompost is formed, from which humus is formed with the help of beneficial fungal and bacterial microorganisms.

The second group of worms lives in the lower layers of the soil. They are called humus-eating. They make a large number of strokes in the soil, thereby increasing its aeration. Using recycled organic matter, biohumus is mixed with soil, deepening the layer of fertile soil. Ready vermicompost is applied under garden crops in the form of top dressing or basic fertilizer.

Protection from diseases and pests with the help of the obtained infusions, decoctions, extracts from plants with fungicidal and insecticidal properties. The developers of the permaculture system deny the possibility of using artificially obtained drugs. I believe that the use of biological products can still be allowed for use at least at the beginning of the launch of such an ecosystem

Vegetable garden in permaculture
Vegetable garden in permaculture

It is safer and safer to protect plants from diseases and pests with biological preparations, biofungicides and bioinsecticides, made on the basis of beneficial microorganisms (fungi and bacteria). Biofungicides include Fitosporin, Barrier, Zaslon, Fitop, Integral, Baktofit, Agate, Planzir, Trichodermin, Gamair-P. Glyocladin and others.

Of the biosecticides, the most popular are Bitoxibacillin, Boverin, Aktofit (Akarin), Fitoverm, Lepidotsid, Metarizin, Nematofagin, Dachnik, Verticillin.

They are safe for plants and family members, animals, birds and fish. Some biological products can be used to treat plants up to harvest.

Of course, their use would, to some extent, violate the requirements of permaculture. But, since they are biologicals, their use will not be opposed to natural farming. The use of decoctions, infusions, extracts from herbs, roots, leaves of wild and cultivated plants recommended by permaculture does not always bring the expected effect. For example: orange peels, onion husks, heads of garlic, tobacco dust, calendula flowers and others are powerless with severe damage to plants in epiphytotic years.

Please note! Decoctions and infusions of some herbs have strong toxic properties. Be careful and careful when using hemlock, aconite, hogweed, black henbane. It is enough, after spraying with such a natural broth, to eat an unwashed fruit or vegetable to get severe poisoning.

Parsley in permaculture
Parsley in permaculture

In conclusion, I would like to warn the reader that not every owner can manage the economy according to the closed system of permaculture. This requires knowledge, skill, the habit of working in the agricultural sector and, of course, permanent residence in a closed, sustainable system that is able to meet its own needs and recycle its waste. Arriving at the dacha 1-2 times a week or only on Sundays will not give the desired result.

The choice is yours, reader. Of the three proposed systems, you are free to choose any, but if permaculture attracted your attention, then you can start with any separate method on the farm and gradually extend it to the entire system (for example: from the garden, fertilizers and fertilizing, plant protection, etc.) etc.).

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