A Healthy Vegetable Garden Without Chemicals. Biotechnology Of Growing Vegetable Crops

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A Healthy Vegetable Garden Without Chemicals. Biotechnology Of Growing Vegetable Crops
A Healthy Vegetable Garden Without Chemicals. Biotechnology Of Growing Vegetable Crops

Video: A Healthy Vegetable Garden Without Chemicals. Biotechnology Of Growing Vegetable Crops

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Video: Plant Nutrition | Plants | Biology | FuseSchool 2023, February
  • Part 1. Healthy vegetable garden without chemicals
  • Part 2. Self-preparation of EM preparations
  • Part 3. Increase of natural soil fertility using EM technology

Dear Reader! You are offered a series of 3 articles on the technology of improving soil fertility and improving the soil fertility using the drug Baikal EM-1, on the biotechnology of growing vegetable crops, their protection from diseases and pests on this basis.

In recent years, the Internet has been very actively discussing the issue of obtaining an ecological harvest in small private plots (summer cottage, garden house, house on the ground), increasing soil fertility, minimizing soil cultivation and generally performing labor-intensive manual work. There are given positive examples of cultivating a garden plot without digging the soil, growing vegetables in a "beautiful" vegetable garden, squeezed from all sides by a wooden or cement box. Sound voices are heard that one should listen to nature, use biological rather than chemical preparations, etc. How to find that golden mean, which today is fashionably called organic farming, technology of the 21st century, permaculture, return system in agriculture and other definitions.

Harvest organically grown carrots
Harvest organically grown carrots

A little "home" reasoning

The above list of technologies leads to the idea that the whole essence of the search comes down to the technology of biological farming and it is not important what it will be called, but the main thing is what it will provide as a result.

There are many advertising fables around each new technology, but in each there is a rational grain based on years of observation, home experiments and scientific field experiments.

So, in the south it is irrational to maintain a plot of cultivated land without digging, surface treatment without seam turnover does not always provide the desired result. A long warm autumn promotes the growth and insemination of weeds, the preservation of pests in the upper soil layer. Frost-free days with prolonged rains cause increased development of fungal diseases. Heavy southern chernozems are compacted, the physical and thermal properties of the soil deteriorate, the scattered manure and compost remaining on the surface, instead of decomposition, simply dry up.

Shallow tillage without turning is more suitable on soils with a small humus horizon - dark chestnut, brown, on some southern chernozems, light air and permeable soils.

The increase in natural soil fertility with the systematic use of mineral fertilizers is a myth. With such an industrial technology, the yield of crops really temporarily increases, but the natural fertility of the soil decreases due to excessive mineralization of humus with the systematic introduction of large doses of mineral fertilizers. That is, the applied mineral fertilizers do not decompose organic matter, but accelerate the decomposition of the formed humus and thus form a temporary burst of crop yields.

The illiterate use of the recommended technologies leads to the depletion of the soil with natural regenerators, which work to form humus from the organic matter of the soil.

Composting to create humus
Composting to create humus

Biological farming

The living component of the soil in the form of effective microflora and other inclusions performs the main function in the soil, turning it into fertile soil. The restoration of natural natural fertility, and, consequently, the receipt of decent harvests, is associated with filling the soil with humus. The main reproducers of soil fertility are effective microflora (EM) and useful fauna, including earthworms. It is they who decompose the organic substances that have got into the soil, and turn them into humus and then into organo-mineral compounds (chelates) available to plants. In parallel, part of the intermediate products of humus decomposition, with the participation of effective heterotrophic fungi, participates in the synthesis of new humic substances, that is, in increasing the natural soil fertility.

Natural restoration and enhancement of soil fertility, ecological orientation of harvesting are most acceptable through biological or organic farming. Biologization of agriculture includes the use of natural means of increasing soil fertility (manure, humus, biohumus), the use of biological means of protecting plants from diseases and pests. Providing agricultural crops with nutrients involves growing green manures (green fertilizers), sometimes together with rational doses of mineral fertilizers, the use of biological products (natural regenerators) to increase soil vermicompost, including in the form of effective microflora. On its basis, the EM technology of biological farming has been developed, which many farmers consider the technology of the XXI century.

What is EM technology?

EM technology is a method of saturating the soil with a complex of effective living flora and fauna of the soil, which destroys pathogenic microflora and converts organic matter into organomineral compounds available to plants.

The basis is EM preparations containing several dozen strains of beneficial aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that freely live in the soil. They include lactic acid, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast, fermenting fungi. Introduced into the soil, they multiply rapidly and activate the local saprophytic microflora. Together they process organic matter into organomineral compounds easily assimilated by plants. For 3-5 years, the humus content increases several times. Please note that for EM technology to work, it takes not 1 year (as disappointed readers write about the lack of effect), but several years. There will be no effect when buying a fake instead of a real drug.

Shallots in the organic garden
Shallots in the organic garden

Useful qualities of EM drugs

  • The soil becomes more water and air permeable, which improves the conditions for the cultivation of garden crops.
  • Organic waste is converted into vermicompost in a few weeks (but not years!).
  • Due to the effective work of microorganisms, the temperature of the root layer rises within + 2 … + 5 ° C, which accelerates the yield of crops by 5-10 days.
  • A more complete supply of nutrients to plants has a positive effect on crop yield, product quality, and keeping quality.
  • Plant immunity is increased, which leads to resistance against fungal, bacterial and (partially) viral diseases.

The first drug developed for EM technology is the domestic drug Baikal EM-1. The drug has state registration and a hygienic certificate. In the reference book, fertilizers are approved for use in agriculture in the Russian Federation. The drug is safe for humans, animals, beneficial insects.

Characteristics of the drug "Baikal EM-1"

Baikal EM-1 is a yellow-brown liquid concentrate. Capacity glass or solid plastic, dark color, 40, 30 and 14 ml. The liquid has a pleasant kefir-silage smell. The effective microorganisms in the vial are inactive. A change in smell may indicate the death of microflora or a fake. When used, the concentrate is diluted to base and working solutions. For fermentation of EM solutions, cultures need a nutrient medium. You can buy it in addition to the concentrate (EM syrup) or use homemade jam without berries, honey, sugar.

Preparing the stock solution

  • Pour 3-4 liters of de-chlorinated water into an enamelled container (for every 10 ml of concentrate, 1 liter of water). It is better to boil water and cool it to a temperature of + 25 … + 30 ° С.
  • Pour all of the EM molasses into the water or add 2 tablespoons for each liter of water (if the container with the EM molasses is large).
  • Instead of EM syrup, you can add 3 tablespoons of honey or 4-5 spoons of jam strained from berries to the entire volume.
  • Honey is not added immediately, but 1 tablespoon for 3 days (it is a strong preservative). The number of spoons of jam depends on the amount of sugar. The higher the sugar concentration, the fewer spoons of jam.
  • Pour “Baikal EM-1” into the prepared nutrient solution.
  • Mix the mixture thoroughly and pour into dark bottles, filling them under the lid so that there is no air in the container.
  • Place the bottles in a dark place with an ambient temperature of + 20 … + 30 ° С for 5-7 days.
  • In the early days, there will be a violent fermentation with the release of gases. Therefore, starting from the 3rd day, the containers with the solution must be opened daily to release the accumulated gases.
  • The end of the fermentation of the solution is evidenced by a pleasant sour smell, sometimes weakly ammoniacal or clearly yeast with a bloom of mold (or without it). The flakes are harmless.
  • A putrid smell is associated with the death of microflora. In this case, the solution is not suitable for use.
  • The matured stock solution is stored in a dark place at room temperature. It remains highly active for 6-7 months. It is advisable to use the entire volume for this period.
Mulching potatoes with straw
Mulching potatoes with straw

Preparation of working solution

The basic solution of the EM-preparation "Baikal EM-1" contains a high concentration of effective microflora. When plants are sprayed with such a solution, a strong oppression of plants and even their death is observed. Therefore, the base solution is used to obtain low-concentrated working solutions used for spraying, soaking seeds, treating tubers and bulbs, and applying to the soil. For each type of treatment, a working solution is prepared with a different concentration of EO. Working solutions should be very weakly concentrated. Shake the base drug before dilution.

For spraying plants, the concentration is 1: 500-1000 or for 1 liter of water, respectively, 2-1 ml of the stock solution. For application to the soil, the concentration increases and is 1:10 or 1: 100, that is, for 1 liter of water already 100 or 10 ml of the stock solution, respectively. For the treatment of seedlings and indoor flowers, only 0.5 ml of a stock solution (concentration 1: 2000) is added to 1 liter of water. The concentration is so small that it is more convenient to write it not in%, but in ratios.

For example: you need to prepare a solution at a dilution of 1: 1000 for spraying plants. If you need 1 bucket of solution (10 l), then you need to add 10 ml of the stock solution and 10 ml or a spoonful of old jam without berries (2 tablespoons of sugar can be used). Mix the resulting working solution thoroughly, leave for 2-3 hours and start spraying. Remember! When preparing the working solution, the water should not contain chlorine and have a temperature of + 20… + 25 ° С. When processing garden crops, the consumption of the working solution is 1 l / sq. m of land area.

Dear readers, in the second article, the presentation of the material on the use of working solutions of Baikal EM-1 will be continued. Manufacturing of EM-5 working solution for pest and disease control of garden crops.

  • Part 1. Healthy vegetable garden without chemicals
  • Part 2. Self-preparation of EM preparations
  • Part 3. Increase of natural soil fertility using EM technology

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