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Video: The Main Mistakes In The Use Of Pesticides. Types Of Pesticides
Before talking about the main mistakes of using pesticides on the site, you need to understand what, in general, it is - pesticides, and why they are needed. So, everyone, probably, is well aware that if plants are planted on loose and nutritious soil, fed with moderate doses of fertilizers, observed crop rotation when planting, do not thicken and remove weeds in time, they will grow together and give us a good harvest. But this can be said about young plants, the older they get, the more often they get sick, and the pests, noticing the victim, make their attacks almost every year. Here you can't solve the problem with ideal agricultural technology, you have to use various pesticides …
- Are pesticides so scary?
- What are pesticides?
- Pesticide use errors
Are pesticides so scary?
Some gardeners and gardeners take such a "risk" boldly, since all kinds of pesticides make life much easier: they kill weeds, cure diseases, exterminate pests - and live peacefully while waiting for the harvest.
Others, knowing that pesticides are additional chemicals that are already impregnated with our food, air and our clothes and shoes, often refuse to use them altogether. But is it right?
What are pesticides?
What is a pesticide? The word is Latin, two-part and in translation means "killing infection". That is, it is clear that this agent is chemical and is intended for the very real murder - pathogens and fungal infections, pests, weeds, etc. Repellants are often included in the pesticide category, but we're getting a little ahead of ourselves, let's talk about the classification of pesticides.
All pesticides are usually divided into groups depending on their action. It's pretty simple - that the pesticide kills, it belongs to that group. There are quite a few of these groups, as many as ten.
The first group of pesticides includes herbicides that are well known to all of us, and are used at least once in a lifetime by each of us.
Group two - these are algicides, they are used to combat algae, often such pesticides are used to purify water from algae in swimming pools, artificial reservoirs and similar water structures. Algaecides usually work exclusively on algae.
Defoliants are pesticides for removing foliage, they are usually used in nurseries, for example, before digging up seedlings, when, instead of picking off the leaves by hand, before digging out the leaves, the plants are treated with defoliants, and the leaves themselves fall off without causing any harm to the plants.
Another group of pesticides is deflorants (root - flora), these chemicals are used to remove flowers. Thus, in gardens, the ovary is usually normalized. First of all, this event is aimed at leveling the frequency of fruiting by adjusting the number of flowers, a side effect is an increase in the mass of fruits, and sometimes - an improvement in their taste.
Further, another most common and well-known to all of us group of pesticides is fungicides. They are designed to fight any fungal infection on plants.
Bactericides are pesticides that fight harmful bacteria.
Insecticides are another well-known group, these are pesticides that destroy insect pests.
Acaricides are a group of chemicals that can be used to effectively combat ticks. There are not only spider-type mites, but also those that live in the forest.
Rodenticides are pesticides that can be used to more than effectively control rodents.
And finally, a very rare group that very few people have heard of is avicides. These are pesticides that kill birds (yes, there are some).
As you can see, there are a lot of pesticide groups and there is no need to disassemble them all right now, although in the future on the pages of our site we will tell you more about them in more detail.
Pesticide use errors
1. Misuse of pesticides
In general, we can say that the first mistakes of gardeners and gardeners are associated with the fact that some people confuse pesticide groups or use them completely incorrectly, so you need to figure it out.
Improper use of herbicides
So, herbicides, as we described above, - with their help you can literally kill weeds and you will not need to wave a hoe all summer long to keep the soil clean. However, everything is not so simple, since many do not know that herbicides also have a separation, and a very important one.
So, the first group includes herbicides for sterilizing the soil, that is, after processing the site with them, nothing will grow on it (nothing at all). Usually sodium chloride and borax are included in the composition of such herbicides.
The second group of herbicides is one of the most beloved by gardeners and gardeners. It includes drugs that kill plants selectively, that is, the cultivated remain, and the weeds die. The composition of these herbicides necessarily includes 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which in no time copes with dicotyledonous weeds, kills American maple, but, say, does not touch cereals.
The third group is herbicides, which, as in the first case, kill all living things, but they do not sterilize the soil. These are convenient to use, say, from autumn on the soil on which sowing or planting is planned in spring. Few people know that the very first herbicide that belonged to this group was banal kerosene.
Group four - these are herbicides that kill any plants, but only when they get on them. For example, in the plantings of cultivated tomato plants, you can easily kill self-seeding of flowers or dill, if necessary, and so on. The effect of these herbicides is to move from the point of contact along the vascular system down to the roots and inhibit the absorption of water and / or nutrients by them.
So, here's your first, one might say, mistake, when a gardener or gardener, without reading literally a couple of lines on the package about the action of a particular herbicide, waters it all in a row, and then wonders why, along with American maple, on his site, the honeysuckle also dried up, or why, after applying the herbicide, nothing grows at all in his garden …
Improper use of fungicides
The next group of pesticides, which I would like to talk about in more detail, is fungicides. Applying them, gardeners and gardeners also make mistakes. You should be aware that the vast majority of fungicides are inorganic substances and contain elements such as sulfur, copper or even mercury in their composition. Initially, the very first fungicide was sulfur in general in its pure form. For a very long time and very successfully, it was used to combat powdery mildew in literally all crops on which this infection appeared.
There are, of course, fungicides based on organic compounds, for example, formaldehyde. Currently, the market is literally flooded with fungicides, considered synthetic organic, such as dithiocarbomate. You can also use fungicides, which are based on antibiotics such as the well-known streptomycin for all of us, but these fungicides are more appropriate to fight against a bacterial rather than a fungal infection.
When buying this or that fungicide, again, you need to carefully read the instructions on the package: after all, there are, for example, fungicides of systemic action that may not cure the powdery mildew on the leaf surface, but moving throughout the plant will heal it from internal infection … And there are contact actions, which, on the contrary, will not be able to penetrate deep into the plant, but will heal from all manifestations of fungal infection on the surface of plants. Here's another mistake for you - misuse of fungicides. And finally, you need to use them according to the weather. For example, in wet weather contact fungicides do not use any wash, but systemic ones can manage to penetrate into plants and heal them.
2. Use of pesticides prohibited for use
From mistakes associated with carelessness, we move on to more serious mistakes associated, rather, with a lack of knowledge. The most common mistake is the use of pesticides that are already banned for use. In fact, it is extremely easy to find out whether a pesticide is approved for use or prohibited - just look in the catalog of pesticides approved for use. This catalog is available both for free sale and on the Internet. In addition to the fact that there are pesticides permitted in the current season, they also give a brief description and even their purpose.
Most likely, readers will have a question, why, in fact, are certain pesticides suddenly banned? Usually, the main reasons for blacklisting a particular pesticide is the increased stability of the drug in the plant, in other words, you applied the pesticide, and its components remained in the soil, leaf blades, shoots, fruits and berries, and they will definitely get to us in organism.
There are other reasons - for example, the increased toxicity of the drug or some negative consequences from its use. For example, in the cloudless Soviet era, dust - DDT was widely used, then it turned out that it was actively accumulating literally everywhere, after which it was banned everywhere.
3. Choosing a pesticide by brand, not by active ingredient
Rather, this error will only affect your wallet. With the development of market relations, a huge number of companies have appeared that stamp all kinds of pesticides, simply by reprinting the name and changing the packaging. Naturally, there is a large-scale advertisement that their pesticide is the best.
So, in order not to be mistaken and not to buy the same for 1000 that costs 100, always read the packaging, which must indicate the active ingredient of the drug. Well, let's say the drug "Arrivo" is the same as "Cymbush" and "Sherpa" (and so on).
4. Failure to comply with the dosage of pesticides
As in the case of irrigation and fertilization, so in the case of pesticides, it is important to observe the dosage, the pesticide is not oil, but plants are not porridge, they can spoil any living creature and harm the environment. Therefore, when buying a pesticide, again, carefully read the composition, in which the active ingredient must be indicated in percent, on the basis of which the dosage is easy to calculate.
From myself, I can say that if there is a choice to take a pesticide in an ampoule or in a closed jar, then it is better to take the second one. You can pour the drug out of the jar, use the required dosage, and keep the leftovers in a safe and inaccessible place for children for a couple of months, until the end of the season. In the case of an ampoule, the remains of the drug have to be thrown away. Usually, gardeners or gardeners feel sorry for the contents, and they either process everything with leftovers, or increase the dosage - this is where troubles are possible.
5. Annual use of the same insecticides or acaricides
The point here is not whether they are allowed or prohibited, but the banal addiction of the pest to the poison and its survival in these conditions. Now there are many complaints on the Internet - the Colorado potato beetle, whitefly, aphids and the like do not die. It is highly likely that, for various reasons, a gardener or gardener uses the same pesticide from year to year and the pests on his site are simply used to it and do not die. To avoid such incidents, it is necessary to change insecticides and acaricides annually, and ideally in every treatment of the current season, since the choice is now huge.
6. Long-term storage of pesticides
Another mistake, often due to trivial savings, or perhaps out of ignorance. A gardener or gardener at the end of the season, when sales of various kinds of pesticides begin - “five packs for the price of one” - buys a lot of them at once, stores them out of the reach of children and uses them. Not only do the pests get used to it, it also breaks down in the composition, over time, the active substance itself, therefore, the pesticide banally ceases to work (only one winter in the country and 12-15% of the active substance evaporates).
Sometimes it also happens that substances change their structure and even become dangerous for plants, sometimes causing severe burns. In order not to make this mistake, do not buy a lot of pesticides (for the rest of your life), take as much as you need in the current season and, again, read the package, the expiration date should be indicated there, because no one is insured against the purchase of a "delay" …
7. Storage of working solutions of pesticides
Another error follows from the previous mistake - this is the storage of working solutions of pesticides between treatments (that is, when too much pesticide is diluted and left in the bottle until the next use). In addition to the fact that the working solution is likely to lose most or all of its properties, it is also dangerous.
Being in a room, it can poison the air that you and your household breathe, and often real misfortunes occur when, unknowingly, a pesticide in a beautiful bottle can be drunk by someone. There is only one advice - to dilute the amount of solution that you need right now, and it is better to pour out the remains, but not store.
8. Mixing pesticides
Another mistake is mixing different pesticides and treating plants with them. It is difficult even to predict that, in the best case, they will not work.
Some will wonder why you should do this? It turns out that many people do this, for example, aphids and powdery mildew attacked a rose, they take and mix an insecticide with a fungicide, and if a spider mite is also wound up, then acaricide is also added to the "explosive mixture". The end result can be anything - from leaf burns to plant death. You should not experiment like this, but three treatments can be carried out at intervals of a day or at least after 10-12 hours, neglecting the dubious saving of time.
9. Failure to comply with processing time
Failure to comply with the terms of treatment with pesticides is another mistake, and okay if you banally processed plants from a butterfly, when its years have already ended and it has produced an ovipositor. It is a completely different matter if the treatments are carried out so late that the drug does not have time to disintegrate and remains on the surface of berries or fruits, or even accumulates inside them.
Remember that the vast majority of drugs such as fungicides, insecticides and acaricides can be applied at least 20 days before harvest and no later. In the future, it is better to use folk remedies, the effect is certainly not the same, but there will be no harm either. Detailed processing times, again, are indicated in the instructions.
10. Use of pesticides to harm the environment
Finally, it is also a mistake to use pesticides regardless of the environment. That is, the gardener or gardener does not always think about the environment, for example, about beneficial insects, which include, for example, bees, or about the inhabitants of the nearest reservoir.
It must be firmly learned that pesticides can be used only by strictly following the instructions on the package, it must be indicated there whether the pesticide is dangerous for fish or beneficial insects, and if so, then all measures must be taken so as not to harm them. The simplest measure can be night treatments in extremely calm weather.
These are, in fact, all the mistakes in using pesticides on the site, but if you, our dear readers, know others, then write in the comments, I think it will be useful to everyone.