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Amateur gardeners often consider aphids less dangerous than other insects, because, as a rule, they do not damage fruits. Meanwhile, the main harm affects the second year, when she herself may no longer be in the garden. Settling on plants in whole colonies, sucking out the sap of plants, these small inactive insects thereby greatly oppress them. After that, leaves and shoots are deformed, sooty mushrooms settle on them, the general condition of the plant worsens. Damaged plants lay fewer fruit buds, leave weakened in winter and may partially or even completely die from low temperatures.
Sometimes aphids are difficult to notice due to the fact that they take on the color of those parts of plants on which their ovoid bodies are located, convex from the side of the back, covered with soft waxy secretions in the form of pollen or delicate fluff. Insect eggs are black, shiny, elongated.
Aphids are very different. More often than others, green apple aphids, plum-pollinated aphids, thistle aphids and cherry aphids are harmful. Here's more about them.
The green apple aphid damages apple, pear and some other crops. She herself is small (about 2 mm), green. Its eggs hibernate on the shoots of the apple tree, and larvae hatch during the blooming of the fruit buds. First, they suck on the tips of the blossoming leaves, then move on to young leaves and buds. During flowering, the plant develops for the second generation, in which there are winged individuals flying to other trees and quickly settling in the garden. Over the summer, aphids are able to give 17 (!) Generations.
Plum-pollinated aphids damage all stone fruit crops. With strong propagation, the underside of the leaves and the tops of the shoots are completely covered with a layer of insects. This aphid is larger, its size reaches 3 mm, it is lighter. It also hibernates in the egg phase near the buds and in the cracks of the shoot bark. Larvae appear when the scales on the buds of the plant move apart. Gives up to 10 generations per season.
Thistle aphids also harm stone fruits. Damaged leaves curl randomly, and shoots are bent. Aphids are bright green, 2.5 mm in size. Eggs overwinter. The larvae emerge even before bud break and suck the juice from young shoots. Starting from the third generation, winged individuals appear, flying over thistles, sunflowers and other Asteraceae plants. From the middle of summer, aphids mainly fly out of the garden and return only in the fall to lay eggs.
Cherry aphids harm both cherries and cherries. Leaves damaged by insects turn black, wrinkle and dry out. With mass reproduction, the pest can transfer to fruits. This aphid is black, shiny, up to 2.5 mm in size. Eggs overwinter among the buds at the top of the shoots. The increase in the number of the pest occurs very quickly. On cherries, aphids give up to 14 generations.
|Plants to protect the garden|
|Plant||What parts of the plant to collect, collection time||Method of preparing infusion or decoction|
|Chemeritsa Lobel||Roots and aerial parts. In the "green cone" phase||1 kg of raw plants, 500 g of semi-dry, 250 g of dry or 100 g of rhizomes are infused for 24 - 48 hours in 10 liters of water. For broth: after insisting 2-3 hours in the same proportions, boil for 30 minutes in a closed vessel|
|Tobacco, makhorka||Leaves, stems||For infusion: 400 g of dried raw materials are infused for 2 days in 10 liters of water. Another 10 liters of water are added to the resulting infusion. For the broth: 400 g of raw materials are infused for 1 day in 10 liters of water and boiled for 2 hours. Another 10 liters of water are added to the cooled broth|
|Horse sorrel||Roots||300-400 g pour 10 liters of hot water, insist 2-3 hours|
|Celandine big||Whole plant||3-4 kg of raw grass (or 1 kg of dry) are infused for 24-36 hours in 10 liters of water|
|Alder gray||Leaves||2 kg of fresh (or 1 kg of dry) leaves are infused for 24 hours and boiled for 30-40 minutes|
|Scots pine||Annual increments||2 kg of needles insist 5-7 days. in 8 liters of water. The infusion is stirred daily. Before spraying, dilute with water 1:10|
|Capsicum||Pods||1 kg of raw or 0.5 kg of dry fruits is infused for 2 days in 10 liters of water. For a decoction, 1 kg of cut fruits is boiled for 1 hour in 10 liters of water, then insisted for 2 days. Diluted in water in a ratio of 1: 7. For spraying, take 100 g of concentrate per 10 liters of water|
|Potatoes||Tops||1.2 kg of green mass or 600-800 g dry insist 3-4 hours in 10 liters of water|
|pharmaceutical camomile||Leaves and inflorescences during flowering||1 kg of dry mass is infused for 12 hours. Before spraying, dilute with water 1: 8|
|Yarrow, Common dandelion||Aerial part during flowering, Leaves and roots during flowering||800 g of dry grass is steamed with boiling water for 30-40 minutes, added with water to 10 liters and infused for 36-48 hours.The broth is boiled for 30 minutes 200-300 g of chopped roots or 400 g of fresh leaves (or 20-30 g of dry) insist 2-3 h in 10 l of water|
|Bulb onions||Bulbs, scales||200 g insist 12-17 hours in 10 liters of water|
|Sowing garlic||Heads||200 g is insisted in a liter of water for 5 days in a tightly sealed container. 250 ml of infusion for 10 liters of water|
|Ash-soap solution||300 g of softwood ash (or 150 g of hardwood) pour 10 liters of hot water, bring to a boil, strain the solution|
|Soap solution||Dissolve 250-300 g of household soap in 10 liters of water (soft)|
In the fight against aphids, one circumstance should be taken into account. Over 60% of hibernating eggs are laid by females on root shoots and fat shoots (tops), so if these shoots are cut and burned in winter, then the number of harmful insects in the garden can be largely reduced.
Protecting the garden from aphids, it is quite possible to do without pesticides. It is better to use infusions and decoctions of various plants for this. Moreover, the more the plant is crushed, the better it works. It should be sprayed as soon as the first insects are found. There is no need to wait until they multiply in large numbers. Before spraying, 30-40 g of soap should be added to decoctions and herbal infusions for better adhesion. And one more thing to remember is that some plants (for example, Lobel's hellebore) are poisonous, therefore, when using them, one should not forget about safety measures.
If the aphids did not have enemies, then the offspring of one female could cover the ground with a multi-meter layer per year. Fortunately, this does not happen, since aphids really have a lot of enemies: ladybugs, lace-eyed, and sirfid flies, etc. Therefore, our task is to preserve and promote the reproduction of these friends and allies in the fight against a dangerous pest in every possible way.