Table of contents:
- Variety planning of an apple orchard
- Apple varieties for central and northern regions of Russia
- Winter-hardy apple varieties for the southern regions
- Apple varieties by species
- Columnar varieties of apple trees
- Growing conditions for apple trees
Video: The Best Apple Varieties For Different Regions. Description, Photo
Happy owners of summer cottages are always in a hurry to master their native weave in the shortest possible time. At the dacha, you want to have the whole set of fruits and berries, especially apples. And here, amateur beginners make the first and very serious mistake. They clutter up the garden with a large list of crops planted without regard to their environmental requirements and compatibility with neighbors. They are of little interest in the types of selected crops, which will require the appropriate space and area, and buy tall varieties with a spreading crown. In the struggle for survival, such crops will purposefully oppress small neighbors.
A small or large family needs a different amount of fruit and berry products, but everyone wants to have fresh fruits and berries for a long time. A thoughtful selection of varieties of the desired culture can serve as a fulfillment of desire. Breeders for different regions of the Russian Federation offer a huge list of varieties and they are all temptingly beautiful on color applications. However, the garden consists of perennials (for apple trees 30-35 years old) and it can be very difficult to correct the mistake.
To avoid mistakes, you need to think in advance what types and varieties of apple trees are suitable for your site, select the ones you like. Novice gardeners should begin acquaintance with the varieties in the winter, using their garden diary, in which to enter the desired selected varieties and your possibilities when laying an apple orchard or planting several seedlings in a small cottage or land plot.
Variety planning of an apple orchard
On a summer cottage of 6 acres for a family of 4-5 people, 5-6 varieties of apple trees are enough. Of these, 2 varieties are summer, 1 medium and 2 late. To decorate a resting corner, a decorative fence, you can purchase a couple of small-fruited varieties of apple trees (ranetka, kitaika, paradise apple and others). In a garden diary, make a table in which you briefly describe the desired qualities of the fruit and select varieties for them.
Apple trees can be divided into several groups
According to the habit of the bush: tall, semi-dwarf, dwarf, columnar.
Tall apple trees are crops with a plant height of up to 8 m, a well-developed root system that penetrates deeply into the soil (Zhigulevskoe, Bellefleur-Kitaika). It is recommended to grow them only in areas where groundwater is below 3 m depth.
Semi-dwarf apple trees - crops up to 5 m high (Elena). For them, a site with groundwater occurrence no higher than 2.5 m is suitable.
Dwarf apple trees are undersized crops, up to 2.5 m in height (Gloucester, Solnyshko). The root system is relatively shallow, located in a meter layer of soil. The varieties are suitable for areas with a high groundwater table (up to 1.5 m).
By resistance to cold: frost-resistant, thermophilic.
By species: summer, autumn, winter, late winter.
By taste: sour, sweet, dessert and others.
Apple varieties for central and northern regions of Russia
For the middle and northern regions of Russia, characterized by a cold climate with prolonged frosts, when selecting varieties of apple trees, one should focus on their frost resistance.
Winter-hardy varieties of apple trees are: White filling, Candy, Grushovka Moskovskaya, Borovinka, Antonovka ordinary, Anis scarlet, Zvezdochka, Medunitsa, Sinap, Moskovskoe, Elena, Solnyshko and others.
Recently, breeders have proposed new frost-resistant varieties that can withstand temperatures down to -35 ° C: Marat Busurin, Mayak Zagorya, Winter Beauty, Imrus, Brusnichnoe, Narodnoe, Young Naturalist.
The first place in terms of winter hardiness from new varieties of apple trees is taken by Gift to Grafsky, Skala, which can withstand 40-42 degrees of frost.
Of the varieties of apple trees that are not resistant to frost, one can distinguish: Cinnamon striped, Melba, Mantent, Champion, Augusta, Koreyanka, Vatutin, Freshness, Lobo, Bogatyr, Bellefleur-Chinese, Pepin. However, this property does not detract from their other qualities. They are suitable for medium-sized regions with a short cold period, without persistent severe frosts.
Winter-hardy apple varieties for the southern regions
When buying apple seedlings for your small garden, be sure to ask about its species. Crops intended for middle and northern regions (even frost-resistant ones) in southern growing conditions may die from return spring frosts.
For the south, apple trees are most suitable for the weather conditions: Simirenko, Babushkino, Buzhor, Wagner, Golden, Glory to the Winner, White filling, Yellow Arkad, etc.
Apple varieties by species
Summer varieties of apple trees
By species, apple varieties are subdivided into summer, autumn, winter, late winter. Fruiting of summer and so-called dessert varieties begins in July, the main harvest peak is in August. But summer varieties do not have keeping quality. The shelf life of fruits does not exceed 1-2 weeks. They must be used for food immediately after harvesting. Pleasant sweet-sour or sweet, juicy pulp, with a strong, often honey aroma, induces an appetite.
The brightest representatives of early or summer apples are Elena, Medunitsa, Bely naliv, Mantent, Melba, Grushovka Moskovskaya, Candy, Borovinka, Korichnoe and others.
Autumn varieties of apple trees
The first apples of autumn varieties appear at the end of August. The main fruiting occurs in September. Their keeping quality is low, and its duration does not exceed 2-3 months. The pulp is juicy, sweet with sourness. When choosing a variety of apple trees for your garden, keep in mind that it is summer and autumn varieties that are used for winter preparations in the form of juices, compotes, jams and others. Winter-hardy autumn varieties can be stored for up to 3 months, retaining their taste.
The winter-hardy autumn varieties of apple trees include Narodnoye, Streyfling, Orlovskoye, Bessemyanka, Aromatnoye, Korichnoye, Koreyanka and others. Among them there are fast-maturing (Orlovskoe), sweet (Narodnoe). On the market you can always buy Koreyanka, Cinnamon striped, and other varieties of this type. Determine which flavor and aroma you like best and enter the data in your garden diary.
For southern regions with "warm winters" apple varieties Champion, Aydaret are suitable.
Winter varieties of apple trees
When choosing a variety of apple trees, the main attention should be paid to winter and late winter varieties, since they will provide the body with vitamins during the most impoverished period - February-April: Bogatyr, Antonovka, Welsey, Pepin, Zhigulevskoe, Zvezdochka, Aphrodite, Orlovskoe, Solnyshko and others.
The crop is removed at technical maturity in September-October. They cannot be eaten immediately. Their taste is usually sour, some have tart, the flesh is rough. They are perfectly stored for six months, and Simirenko, Bogatyr, Zvezdochka do not lose their qualities up to 9 months of storage.
Many gardeners consider the Moskovsky variety to be the champion in winter hardiness and storage duration, whose fruits are stored until the next harvest. Winter varieties in the south, in the middle regions, need a long warm autumn, hot summer. During this period, apple trees accumulate the necessary sugars and aromatic compounds, which give a unique taste and smell to the fruits when they reach biological maturity, which falls on the winter months (Simirenko, Antonovka).
Winter varieties of apple trees, as a rule, have good keeping quality. For long-term storage, winter varieties with a sour taste of fruits are worthy of attention: Berkutovskoe, Afrodita, Bogatyr, Moskovskoe later. Their high pulp density and sour taste limit their fresh use immediately after harvest. Possessing good keeping quality, winter varieties gradually ripen during storage and by February-March they gain the whole bouquet of taste: juiciness, pleasant sourness, aroma.
Late winter varieties of apple trees
Of the late winter varieties, the most famous varieties are Bellefleur-Kitayka, Sinap, Lobo, Moskovskoe, Freshness. The Lobo and Svezhest varieties are well stored for a long time, but they have mediocre winter hardiness, and the Bellefleur-Kitayka is distinguished by its tallness and large crown habit. All late winter (of the considered varieties) are large-fruited.
Columnar varieties of apple trees
A separate group includes columnar apple trees, which have recently been rapidly adapting to private garden estates. This type is remarkable in that it does not have side branches. The crop grows in one trunk, the habit of the bush is 0.25-1.0 m, the yield is formed right on the trunk, the yield is high.
The varieties of apple trees of this type differ in their high resistance to diseases and pests, they are resistant to frost, but have a shallow penetrating root system. The length of individual roots does not exceed 25-30 cm and are located so close to the soil surface that even shallow loosening can damage them. The superficial root system of columnar apple trees requires attention, needs watering (2-3 times a week, followed by mulching) and top dressing. Drip irrigation is suitable for them.
The best varieties of columnar apple trees that can be grown in the middle and Siberian regions are Vasyugan, Moscow Necklace, Senator, President, Ostankino, Triumph, Currency, Arbat, Medok, Jin, Dialogue.
Of these, the most frost-resistant, develop well and form harvests in the Siberian regions - the Moscow necklace and Vasyugan.
The summer varieties of columnar apple trees include Malyukha, President, Medoc. A very interesting variety Medoc. It belongs to the summer-autumn varieties, but is late-ripening. Fruits in technical ripeness are harvested at the end of August.
Winter varieties of columnar apple trees Amber necklace, Bolero, Currency, Moscow necklace are distinguished by high keeping quality. The late-ripening variety Moscow Necklace is removed at the end of September. It retains its qualities until March.
Growing conditions for apple trees
Apple trees grow and bear fruit on average for 30-35 years. Therefore, when laying an apple orchard, and even when planting several seedlings, you need to be extremely attentive to the agrotechnical requirements of the culture.
Apple trees do not tolerate low-lying places, where spring frosts slide and stagnate. From recurrent and prolonged frosts in all regions (including southern ones), complete freezing or severe damage to flower buds and blossoming flowers of this culture is possible. This means that at the dacha you need to pick up a site that is elevated and protected from streams of cold air. If possible, select a separate, with suitable conditions, area for 5-8 apple trees. So full care can be provided and the requirements for agricultural technology can be met.
In a small summer cottage, pay attention to the columnar apple trees. A small crop habit will allow planting up to 12-15 varieties in a relatively small area. Some gardeners planted them in a bed, creating a unique, elegant, "fragrant" path during the flowering and ripening of apples.
Apple trees don't like shade. They need evenly lit areas, and not occupied by someone else's root system. Therefore, try to plant young seedlings at a distance from old trees. If the site allows, apple trees can be planted in small groups in places that are suitable for environmental and agricultural requirements. In the garden diary, on the general scheme of the site, mark the places allocated for the apple trees. The next concern is the composition and quality of the soil in the areas allocated for apple trees.
Soil for apple trees
For apple trees, neutral soils with a pH of 5.5-6.5 are necessary, provided with sufficient nutrients, especially nitrogen, with good drainage properties, it is possible of medium density (loamy chernozems, ordinary), but air and permeable with high moisture capacity. The most suitable are ordinary chernozems, loamy with a predominance of sandy loam, loess-like loam. On light soils, constant irrigation is necessary. Peaty, highly acidic soils, with a close location of underground waters, with stagnant waters after rains and irrigation are not suitable. Apple trees with a deep root system develop poorly and die early on sandy or clay-sandy soils.
Having chosen a good location and type of soil, you can buy seedlings in the spring and plant your apple orchard.
Attention! We ask you to write in the comments to this article: what varieties of apple trees do you grow, how much they satisfy you, how they correspond to the declared characteristics. Do not forget to indicate your region and features of agricultural technology. Thanks!