Apple Tree Pests - Control Methods. Protection And Processing. Photo

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Apple Tree Pests - Control Methods. Protection And Processing. Photo
Apple Tree Pests - Control Methods. Protection And Processing. Photo

Video: Apple Tree Pests - Control Methods. Protection And Processing. Photo

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Pest Management for Apple Trees 2023, January
Anonim
  • Part 1. Fungal and viral diseases of apple trees
  • Part 2. Protecting apple trees from bacterial infection
  • Part 3. Apple tree pests - methods of struggle

Work on protecting apple trees from pests can be rationally divided into:

  • autumn-winter,
  • spring and summer.
Apple tree
Apple tree

Autumn-winter work to protect apple trees from pests

Many pests hibernate in the soil. Some are hiding in dead leaves and weeds. Therefore, the soil under the apple trees is freed from weeds and fallen leaves, mummified fruits. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied and dug up to 10-20 cm, so as not to damage the root system of trees.

In winter, the main active pests are mice, hares and bright sun.

  • To save the trunks from burns on winter days (especially young apple trees), they are whitened with a solution of freshly slaked lime and clay. Copper sulfate and glue are added to the mixture for better adhesion. You can add any insecticidal and fungicidal preparations for pests and diseases.
  • Trapping belts are applied to old trees at a height of 30-40 cm, fixing them to the trunk with special caterpillar glue, which does not dry out over time. They are smeared with 30-40 cm of the trunk and skeletal branches in March-April. Awakened pests stick to the adhesive base and die, including ants.
  • From the changes in winter-spring temperatures, which cause cracking of the young bark, they close in the south, and in the middle and northern regions they insulate the trunks of young apple trees with roofing material, burlap with other materials. In young seedlings, the shelter covers the stem and skeletal branches (sometimes up to the top).
  • In winter, mice intensify their wrecking activity. They damage the root system, gnaw the young bark. The wounds become infected, the tree becomes sick and gradually dies. From autumn, mice must be poisoned. The poison bait is prepared from a mixture of any grain and sunflower seeds. Add 50-70 g of sunflower oil to the mixture (enhances adhesion), 70-100 g of rat poison or other poisonous drug, mix thoroughly and lay out at the minks or in a section after 3-4 m. The poisoned grain must be covered with unnecessary heavy plastic, iron, wooden blocks (so as not to be blown away by the wind) to protect against birds.
  • In winter, after the next snowfalls, you need to trample the snow around the trunks. This exercise will reduce the availability of horticultural crops to mice.
  • In recent years, hares have bred, which in winter cause noticeable harm, especially to young trees. They easily overcome warming wraps and gnaw on young bark. Protection against hares is a chain-link mesh, dressed with a cover over the insulation for about 1 m in height. From below, the mesh must be dug into the ground.
Young tree eaten by hares
Young tree eaten by hares

Each garden should have feeders, birdhouses that attract birds. They are very helpful in killing pests in the spring and summer.

Spring-summer work to protect apple trees from pests

In spring, the garden has the largest amount of work. In a short period, it is necessary to perform a huge amount of work in the garden and prepare garden crops for the growing season.

General and preventive measures

  • We examine the apple trees again. We remove overwintered nests with pests, clean tree trunks from lagging bark, close up hollows and cracks in the bark, whitewash or paint over the cuts.
  • With the onset of stable warm weather, we remove the insulation, process the used materials with drugs to destroy pests and diseases and put them indoors until autumn.
  • We remove the trapping belts and burn them. To protect the trunks of perennial trees, skeletal branches and stems of young apple trees from the hot spring sun, we repeat the whitewash, adding to the main mixture the pungent-smelling pesticides dichlorvos, BI-58 and others that attract pests. To whitewash young apple trees, instead of lime, it is better to use chalk, water emulsion or other materials that will not cause burns to the young bark. Nitrofen can be added to the whitewash mixture at the rate of 200 g per bucket of water. The drug is effective against hibernating pest eggs. The same solution can be used to process the crown of apple trees before bud break.
  • After whitewashing, we apply special anti-caterpillar glue and fix new trapping belts, treating them with pesticides. Ants and other pests will die in trapping belts and sticky paths. We replace the fishing belts in the spring again after 10-12 days. We must burn the used ones.
  • With the onset of warmth, spreading the sheets of film under the crowns of still leafless trees, shake the tree branches with a long pole. At a temperature of + 6- + 9 ° C, weevils and sawflies numb from the cold will sprinkle on the litter. It remains to collect and destroy pests. The work carried out will help to significantly reduce the number of pests in the garden.
Apple tree trunks whitewashed in spring
Apple tree trunks whitewashed in spring

Types of pests on apple trees

According to the method of causing harm to plants, pests are divided into 2 groups: sucking and gnawing.

By sucking pests are those that settled on the plants suck the juice through punctures, depriving normal food crops (aphids, mites, scale insects, psylla, leafhoppers, spittlebugs).

Gnawing pests feed on leaves, ovaries, buds, flowers, young shoots and roots. Eating young vegetative and generative organs, they cause irreparable harm to plants. This group includes caterpillars of various butterflies, weevils, click beetles, barbel beetles, May beetles, etc.

Sucking pests (aphids, leaf beetles, suckers), actively multiplying, from early spring in a short time form large colonies, which, with epiphytoties, cover young buds, green shoots and blossoming leaves in several layers. As a result of the vital activity of the pest colony, they emit "honeydew". Sweet liquid is a favorite food of ants and a good breeding ground for saprophytic fungi. Ants, feeding on honeydew, unwittingly carry many fungal diseases.

Insect Pest Trap
Insect Pest Trap

Before and during flowering, the larvae of ticks join the aphids and flea beetles, and after the massive flowering of apple trees, larvae of the slobbery and comma-shaped scabbard appear from the eggs laid. They creep along the young shoots of the crown and feed on plant juices. As a result, young plants may die, and in adult fruiting crops, individual perennial branches dry out.

Sucking pest control methods on apple trees

Sucking pest control methods are divided into agrotechnical (discussed in the article above), chemical and folk. Searching for special preparations for each pest is not cost-effective and unnecessarily troublesome. For them, systemic chemicals are most suitable. Accumulating in the tissues of the culture, they, together with the poisoned sap of the plants, enter the intestines of the pests and cause their death.

Chemical application system against sucking pests

Chemicals require strict adherence to safety precautions. It is necessary to use chemical preparations for processing plants in accordance with the recommendations and instructions. It is very important to maintain the processing time after which the fruit can be used for food. It is imperative to work in protective clothing, in calm weather, preferably in a gas mask. Change clothes and shower after finishing work.

  • Before bud break, we spray the trunk and crown of apple trees with nitrophene. Prepare the solution using 200 g of the drug per bucket of water. Nitrofen destroys the eggs of pests laid in the autumn in the vegetative organs of plants.
  • Spraying with a solution of DNOC with a concentration of 100 g per 10 liters of water is also effective before bud break.
  • In the phase of swelling of the buds, before and after flowering, it is advisable to spray with a tank mixture of HOM and Fufanon preparations, according to the attached recommendation.
  • Of the systemic drugs that destroy the gastrointestinal tract of sucking pests, they are most effective against all types of aphids, leaf beetles, comma-shaped scabbard, pseudo-scabbard rovikurt, karbofos, benzophosphate.
Adhesive mixture to protect trees from insect pests
Adhesive mixture to protect trees from insect pests

New drugs have been released that act both selectively and on the entire group of sucking pests:

  • Sunmite is recommended for use against ticks and whiteflies at all stages of apple tree development;
  • Nisaran, borneo destroy not only the larvae, but also the eggs of pests. When processing trees, nitrophene can be replaced;
  • styrrap acts purposefully against spider mites;
  • aktara, confidor effectively destroy aphids;
  • Mospilan and Prestige are drugs of systemic and contact action and destroy eggs, larvae and adult pests.

Use of biologicals against sucking pests

At home, it is better to use biological preparations (bioinsecticides) to protect apple trees from pests. They are harmless to family members, pets and beneficial insects (bees). They can be used almost until the end of the growing season, including harvesting.

The basis for bioinsecticides are living cultures of beneficial microflora, which in the process of their vital activity destroy pests, settling into their body.

Of the bioinsecticides for plant treatments, the most effective are boverin, fitoverm, actofit, bitoxibacillin, lepidocid, bicol. Doses and treatment times are indicated for each drug in the accompanying recommendations and instructions. It should be noted that bioinsecticides are easily combined with other biological products, which reduces the load on the tree during processing.

  • Aphids and whiteflies effectively destroy verticillin.
  • Bitoxibacillin and Bicol quickly act on aphids and spider mites.

Bioinsecticides have systemic and contact effects. They cause the death of sucking pests and at the same time, possessing properties of the neurotoxin type, cause paralysis and death of adult forms. Bioinsecticides have a shorter duration of exposure to pests and require more frequent use of drugs. However, health is more expensive!

Apple tree treatment with special preparations
Apple tree treatment with special preparations

Gnawing pests on the apple tree

Unlike sucking pests, gnawing pests cause physical harm to apple trees, using the vegetative and generative organs for food. This group includes kidney beetles, flower beetles, leaf beetles, weevils, click beetles, barbel beetles. Moths specialize in damaging fruits, and numerous butterflies are the main producers of caterpillars that can destroy crops in a short time. In most cases, pests hibernate in the waste of the crops themselves (volunteer fruits, fallen leaves, parts of branches from pruning, bark, etc.) in the form of adults or lay eggs, from which larvae, caterpillars parasitizing on plant organs emerge with the onset of spring and heat …

Methods of protection against gnawing pests

Chemicals

To protect against gnawing pests, the same chemicals are used as for sucking representatives - karbofos, benzophosphate, aktara, decis, fastak.

Trichlorometaphos is recommended specifically against sawflies and miner moths. Along with other drugs against the moth, rovikurt and zolone are effective.

Biologicals

Bioinsecticide Fitoverm is the leading biological product. According to the selective action on pests, actofit, aversectin-C, avertin-N are successfully used against nematodes, caterpillars at the initial stages of development, and ticks.

Hanging biological traps on apple trees
Hanging biological traps on apple trees

In conclusion, it should be noted that in the vast majority of cases, the same insecticides, both chemical and biological, are used to control sucking and gnawing pests. It is quite rare that apple trees are affected by only one type of pest, therefore, using the drug against one individual, you actually protect the apple trees from the rest. The main condition for effective protection is the exact implementation of the instructions and recommendations for their application.

  • Part 1. Fungal and viral diseases of apple trees
  • Part 2. Protecting apple trees from bacterial infection
  • Part 3. Apple tree pests - methods of struggle

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