Peppermint - Cultivation And Benefits. Care, Reproduction, Types. Photo

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Peppermint - Cultivation And Benefits. Care, Reproduction, Types. Photo
Peppermint - Cultivation And Benefits. Care, Reproduction, Types. Photo
Video: Peppermint - Cultivation And Benefits. Care, Reproduction, Types. Photo
Video: Mint Varieties A to Z 2023, February
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Mint is the most ancient spicy-aromatic plant, known and consumed by humans even before our era. An essential oil is obtained from the plant, which is used in perfumery and medicine. Mint is widely used in cooking and is used as a spice.

The genus Mint includes about 40 species, which settled mainly in the temperate zone of the Old and New Worlds, from where they were introduced to other regions - to South Africa and Australia. Species of mint live mainly in humid places. All species are highly aromatic, most of them contain menthol.

The generic name of Mint - "Mentha" is associated with the name of the nymph Minta. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, you can read that the goddess of the underworld, Persephoma, turned a beautiful nymph into a spicy fragrant plant and dedicated it to Aphrodite. From the ancient Greek word “minthe” the plant got its Latin name “mentha”. This name, with changes, spread to other countries. Having reached Russia, it was called "mint".

Peppermint and peppermint oil
Peppermint and peppermint oil

Written records testify to the ancient origin of the plant. In the parable of the Gospel of Matthew, it is mentioned that mint was included in the food collected as tribute. In ancient Greece and Rome, mint was respected. She improved the air of living quarters, so they rubbed the floors with it, washed their hands with mint water. She refreshed the mind, so noble people, scientists wore mint wreaths on their heads. She was known to the Arabs, Chinese, Japanese. From the earliest times it was bred in gardens, its varieties were improved.

In both ancient and medieval medical literature, mint was considered a medicinal plant. It was recommended for headaches, internal bleeding, as a sedative, for strengthening the stomach, improving digestion, stimulating appetite, relieving hiccups, etc.

In Russia, mint was traditionally brewed and drunk for heart disease, rickets, scrofula, for nervous disorders, and loss of strength.

Tea with mint
Tea with mint

Long-leaved mint (Mentha longifolia)

Long-leaved mint is a perennial herb. Creeping rhizomes, located in the soil horizontally at a depth of 10-15 cm. Stems 110-140 cm high, branched, well-leafy, tetrahedral, erect. Leaves sessile or with short petioles, ovate-lanceolate, up to 15 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, serrate-toothed along the edge, densely pubescent with soft hairs. The flowers are small, pinkish-lilac or lilac, collected in whorled racemose inflorescences. The fruit consists of four brown nuts. It is widely distributed in the wild. Occurs along damp and wet banks of rivers, lakes, along the edges of swamps and ditches in the European part of Russia, in Western Siberia, in the Caucasus, in Europe and Asia Minor. The plant has long been cultivated in gardens and orchards, especially often in the Caucasus.

Long-leaved mint (Mentha loolia)
Long-leaved mint (Mentha loolia)

Useful properties of long-leaved mint

Long-leaved mint leaves contain up to 2.8% essential oil, vitamin C, as well as organic acids, tannins, flavonoids and other biologically active substances. The essential oil is used in medicine and many branches of the food industry.

The plant has long been used as a spice. Young shoots during regrowth or leaves collected before budding of the plant are appreciated in home cooking, during this period they contain a lot of essential oil with a pleasant delicate aroma. They are added to salads, cottage cheese pastes, sauces, fish, meat dishes, and are also used to prepare various drinks: fruit drinks, fruit drinks, stewed fruit, kvass.

Long-leaved mint is a popular medicinal plant, in folk medicine it is used as a sedative, antiseptic, analgesic, diaphoretic, and improves digestion.

Cultivation of long-leaved mint

Long-leaved mint should be grown in light, sufficiently moist and nutrient-rich soils. Plants are placed in an open sunny area, since with a lack of light, the lower leaves of plants crumble early and the total content of essential oil decreases. Long-leaved mint is propagated by segments of rhizomes and seeds. Sowing of seeds is carried out before winter to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. Spring planting of rhizomes begins early, when the soil is still saturated with moisture - in early May, autumn - in late August - early September. Planting method - wide-row, with distances between rhizomes in a row of 10-20 cm and 50-70 cm between rows. Planting depth - 8-10 cm.

As a spice, the leaves are harvested from the beginning of regrowth to the appearance of buds.

Long-leaved mint (Mentha loolia)
Long-leaved mint (Mentha loolia)

Use of long-leaved mint in design

Tall, densely leafed, grayish from dense pubescence, long-leaved mint bushes retain their decorative effect throughout the season. It is also good during the flowering period, when large racemose inflorescences of lilac or lilac flowers bloom. Can be used for single and group plantings, as well as for creating green hedges.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Peppermint is a perennial herb. The rhizome is horizontal, branched, with thickened nodes from which the adventitious roots extend. The stem is tetrahedral, branched, reaching a height of 1 m or more. Leaves are short-petiolate, oblong-ovate, downy, sharply serrate along the edge. The flowers are small, on short pedicels, from lilac-blue to red-violet in color, collected in false whorls, forming apical spike-shaped inflorescences. The fruits are set very rarely, they consist of four nuts. Peppermint is cultivated in the countries of Western Europe, Southeast Asia, India, North and East Africa, in the USA, Canada, Latin America, Australia; she often runs wild. The first industrial plantations of mint in Russia were established in 1895 in the Poltava province, where the rhizomes of the English mint were brought.In Russia, the plantations of this plant are located in the Krasnodar Territory.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)
Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

The benefits of peppermint

All aerial parts of peppermint contain an essential oil with a refreshing, pleasant scent. Mint leaves also contain: carotene, flavonoids and other biologically active substances.

Menthol (the main component of peppermint essential oil) has local analgesic, antispasmodic and antiseptic properties. Doctors recommend it as a pain reliever for angina pectoris, pain in the stomach and intestines, as an antiseptic - for inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract, bronchitis. Peppermint oil in pure form or in mixtures with other oils is used for inhalation; it is a part of mint drops, tablets.

Leaves, essential oil and menthol are widely used in perfumery and cosmetic, confectionery, food industry, and alcoholic beverage production. Fresh or dried leaves and flowers are added as a seasoning to salads, cheeses, vinaigrette, soups, vegetable, meat and fish dishes.

Growing peppermint

Peppermint grows well in rich humus soils with sufficient moisture, as well as on peat soils. Unsuitable for it are swampy and flooding soils. The optimum acidity is in the range of pH 6.5-7. Plants are best placed in open, well-lit areas, although they tolerate partial shade well. Mint is propagated exclusively in a vegetative way - by rhizomes. Planting is done in autumn or spring, similar to other types of mint.

As a spice, peppermint leaves are harvested during the period from the beginning of regrowth to flowering, for medicinal purposes, the leaves are collected during the flowering period.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)
Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Peppermint decorativeness

Large specks of peppermint work well throughout the season, creating a dense, dark green background. During growth and flowering, mint gives off a very pleasant aroma. It must be remembered that mint is quite aggressive, grows quickly and can crowd out other crops from the flower garden. Therefore, it must be limited in growth, fencing areas with boards or stones. It is best to plant mint in containers.

Field mint, or meadow mint (Mentha arvensis)

Field mint is a perennial herb with a creeping rhizome. Stems branched or simple, tetrahedral, erect or outstretched, 70-80 cm high. Leaves are oblong-ovate, opposite, sharp at the apex, serrate-toothed along the edge. The flowers are small, mauve, collected in multi-flowered spherical false whorls in the axils of the upper leaves. The fruit consists of four round, smooth nuts.

Distributed in a wild state practically throughout Russia. It grows in shady forests, along the banks of water bodies, in meadows, fields, swampy areas.

In Russia, field mint is cultivated on small areas. It is cultivated on an industrial scale in China and Japan.

Field mint, or meadow mint (Mentha arvensis)
Field mint, or meadow mint (Mentha arvensis)

Useful properties of field mint

The aerial part of the field mint contains an essential oil, the main component of which is menthol, and in the leaves - vitamin C, carotene, flavonoids.

For the Russian people, field mint is the most famous type of mint. As a spice and medicinal plant, it was already known in the days of Kievan Rus. Young shoots and mint leaves are used as a seasoning for food and for flavoring tea mixtures, drinks, sauces, vinegar, and confectionery. Essential oil is also used in food, but in small quantities, as it has a very pungent odor and bitter taste.

As a remedy, field mint is well known in scientific and folk medicine. It is included in the pharmacopoeias of China, Japan and Brazil. Excellent antiseptic. It is prescribed for coughs, colds, as a diaphoretic, for headaches and neuralgia, as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory; with tachycardia, nausea, allergies, as a means of increasing appetite. Field mint is a part of appetizing, gastric, carminative, diaphoretic, choleretic and sedative collection and collection for baths.

Field mint, or meadow mint (Mentha arvensis)
Field mint, or meadow mint (Mentha arvensis)

Cultivation of field mint

In general, the technology of growing field mint does not differ from the agricultural technology of peppermint. Propagated by segments of rhizomes.

The use of wild mint in design

The field mint bush is relatively low with long, lodging shoots, densely covered with beautiful bright green toothed leaves. During flowering, it is decorated with numerous inflorescences of delicate lilac-pink flowers. Can be used for single and group landings.

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