Lupine, Or Multi-colored Turrets. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Diseases And Pests. Kinds. Flower. A Photo

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Lupine, Or Multi-colored Turrets. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Diseases And Pests. Kinds. Flower. A Photo
Lupine, Or Multi-colored Turrets. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Diseases And Pests. Kinds. Flower. A Photo
Video: Lupine, Or Multi-colored Turrets. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Diseases And Pests. Kinds. Flower. A Photo
Video: Lupine: The AMAZING Nitrogen Fixing Flower | Plus, How To Propagate More Plants By Basal Cutting 2023, February
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The legume family got their name from the Latin word 'Lupus', which means 'wolf', for the plant's ability to greedily absorb nutrients from the soil. Lupine is a good nitrogen storage. As an ornamental plant, lupine has been used since ancient times.

Lupine
Lupine

Content:

  • Description of lupine
  • Growing lupine
  • Reproduction of lupine
  • Lupine species
  • Difficulties in growing lupine
  • Use of lupine

Description of lupine

Lupine, Latin - Lupinus.

The genus has about 200 species native to North America and the Mediterranean. Annual, biennial and perennial rhizome herbaceous plants, less often - shrubs.

The leaves are palmate, on long petioles, collected in a basal rosette; stem - arranged in the next order. Flowers in racemose inflorescences, white, yellow, blue, purple, pink, cream, carmine, red, purple. The fruit is a bean. Depending on the species, the number of seeds per 1 g ranges from 8 to 180.

The variety of perennials is so great that it is difficult to opt for a particular culture. Most flower growers, especially beginners, want plants to bloom longer, delight the eye with bright colors and, preferably, do not require much worries.

Lupine refers precisely to such plants, but flower growers, as a rule, are rather indifferent to it. Apparently, this is due to the fact that most often they grow forms that are close to the wild, original species in color of inflorescences. We are used to the fact that lupine is blue, and at best, blue with white or pink. In fact, lupine has a lot of interesting garden forms.

Growing lupine

Location: the plant prefers sunny locations.

Soil: lupins are undemanding to the soil, grow well in any garden, but they reach the best development on loamy, slightly acidic or slightly alkaline soils. On alkaline (pH more than 7.5) leaves turn yellow (chlorosis). Very acidic soil must be limed (an indirect indicator of high soil acidity is the presence of horsetail and coltsfoot on the site). For this, finely ground dolomite or lime flour is suitable at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m 2.

This amount is enough for several years, so liming is carried out once every 3-4 years - in the fall after harvesting, in the summer by a couple, in the spring before digging or in the winter on snow. Peat (5 kg / m 2) must be added to alkaline soil. Lupine also grows on sand, as nodules develop on its roots, in which nitrogen-fixing bacteria accumulate nitrogen. Thus, the plant can do without nitrogen fertilization.

Care: in the first year, the soil is periodically loosened and weeds are removed. In the spring of next year, they are fed with mineral fertilizers: 10-20 g of superphosphate and 5 g of potassium chloride are added per 1 m 2. In older specimens, the root collar rises several centimeters above the soil surface, the middle part of the bush gradually dies off, and the side rosettes are isolated. To preserve decorativeness and prolong life, the plants are spud, which contributes to the development of lateral roots.

However, specimens older than four years old are usually replaced, as their flowering weakens. Lupine tolerates frosts down to minus 8 ° C, but a sharp change in temperature in spring and autumn is destructive for him. To prolong flowering until late, the dried inflorescences are cut off until seeds are formed. The plants grow new shoots and form inflorescences, which bloom in August. Cut off wilted inflorescences regularly. Old bushes should not be replanted.

In places where winds blow, lupins must be tied to a support so that they do not break. Plants also need support during the flowering period. You can tie the flower stalks with a cord or make a wire structure in the form of several loops. The tree form requires shelter for the winter.

Reproduction of lupine

Reproduction by seeds and vegetatively. For seedlings, it is best to sow seeds in early spring in boxes or milk bags in a mixture usual for flower crops: peat, turf, sand (1: 1: 0.5). The substrate must be loose enough so that water does not stagnate. Water in moderation. Before sowing, it is recommended to mix the seeds with powdered nodules from the roots of old plants in order to accelerate the development of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

After 8-17 days, seedlings appear, but, as a rule, not simultaneously (for friendly germination, before sowing, they are covered with wet gauze and kept in a warm place until they bite). After 20-30 days, when 5-6 true leaves appear, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place in flower beds at a distance of 30-50 cm, from each other. It is advisable not to be late with this, since young plants tolerate transplantation better.

You can sow directly into the ground in April, as soon as the snow melts, but the place for lupines should be ready in autumn. The plants will bloom the next year in early May. The best way to sow seeds is before winter in late October - early November, after the first frost. The planting depth is 2 cm. The crops are sprinkled on top with a small layer of peat. In the spring, after the snow melts, the seeds sprout together, and the plants bloom in August of the same year.

During seed propagation, they do not always inherit the color of flowers, in order to preserve it, they resort to vegetative propagation. The division of old bushes in perennial species is addressed in exceptional cases, since they have a taproot system that goes deep into the soil. Three- and four-year-old lupine bushes easily form side rosettes, so in the summer they are propagated by division. Only young plants are well tolerated.

In spring, root rosettes are taken on cuttings, which develop from the buds at the base of the stem; and in summer - lateral shoots formed in the leaf axils. Renewal buds, which form at the base of the stem, are cut out with a sharp knife along with a piece of the root collar and planted in sandy soil in a shaded place. This is best done after flowering. After 20-30 days, the cuttings have roots and the plants can be planted in a permanent place. Young plants can even bloom in the same year.

Lupine species

White lupine - Lupinus albus

Homeland - Mediterranean. Letnik up to 1 m in height and up to 75 cm in width. Straight pubescent stem. Five-leafed, divided, pubescent leaves. White flowers, collected in thin, straight inflorescences.

White lupine (Lupinus albus)
White lupine (Lupinus albus)

Lupine tree - Lupinus arboreus

Homeland - North America. Perennial up to 2 m high and up to 1 m wide. Straight branchy shoot. Grayish-green palm-shaped leaves with five oval-pointed leaves. Flowers: yellow, white or purple.

Arboreal lupine (Lupinus arboreus)
Arboreal lupine (Lupinus arboreus)

Arctic lupine - Lupinus arcticus

Occurs on dry slopes, fields, and roadsides throughout Alaska except in the southern coastal regions. It is 25-40 cm tall with many large peduncles and long-stemmed finger-like leaves. Flowers from bright blue to dark blue. The petals are cupped, fleecy. Bloom from June to July.

Arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus)
Arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus)

Lupine silver - Lupinus argenteus

It grows everywhere in the West on the low elevations of the prairies in the alpine belts and is extremely variable. It has several stems 15-60 cm tall with complex, palmate leaves, usually six to nine narrow leaves, the lower part of which is covered with silky fibers. The dark blue to white flowers have a white or reddish center on the main petals and are clustered in inflorescences.

Silver lupine (Lupinus argenteus)
Silver lupine (Lupinus argenteus)

Lupine brewer - Lupinus breweri

Found in the states of California, the Sierra Nevada and southern Oregon. This magnificent dwarf species forms creeping carpets of dense pubescent leaves with inflorescences 3-15 cm in height and purple-blue flowers with white or yellow markings from June to August.

Lupine Hartwig - Lupinus hartwegii

Homeland - North America. Letnik 1 m high and 50 cm wide. Straight pubescent stem. Bluish-green pubescent palm-shaped leaves with five oval leaves. Pink and blue flowers.

Lupine broad-leaved - Lupinus latifolius var. subalpinus

Grows on open subalpine slopes in Washington state. Very flowering, mountainous species, 22-30 cm tall with lavender-blue flowers with white markings.

Lupine broadleaf (Lupinus latifolius var.subalpinus)
Lupine broadleaf (Lupinus latifolius var.subalpinus)

Lupine crowded - Lupinus lepidus / aridus / caespitosum / confertus

Distributed throughout the West and probably among all the most famous soddy species. The stem grows up to 40 cm tall. The flowers are purple-blue.

Lupine crowded (Lupinus lepidus)
Lupine crowded (Lupinus lepidus)

Lupine yellow - Lupinus luteus

Annual. The stem is slightly leafy, furrowed, pubescent. Leaves with long petioles. There are 9 leaflets, they are elongated obovate with a narrow elongated base, with a sudden acuteness at the top, hairy on both sides. The hairs are whitish, dense, adpressed. Stipules are paired, narrow, sickle-shaped, scarious at the base.

Apical inflorescences, elongated. Whorled flowers on very short pedicels. The corolla is twice as long as the calyx and has a strong pleasant scent. Calyx with bracts obovate. The upper lip of the calyx is 2-separate, the lower one is obtuse-three-dentate. The beans are flattened.

Lupine yellow (Lupinus luteus)
Lupine yellow (Lupinus luteus)

Lupine small-leaved - Lupinus microcarpus

An annual plant up to 30 cm high. Bicolor whitish-purple flowers.

Small-leaved lupine (Lupinus microcarpus)
Small-leaved lupine (Lupinus microcarpus)

Lupine changeable - Lupinus mutabilis var. cruckshanksii / cruckshanksii

Peru. This undersized shrub covers the mountain slopes with dense thickets. In the northern latitudes of Europe, it is cultivated as a seasonal annual, as it does not tolerate frosty winters. A low bush, 70-100 cm, with green juicy openwork foliage. At the tops of the shoots, large clusters of inflorescences of pale yellow flowers are formed.

The upper petal has a blue or lilac color, which is replaced with red as the flower ripens. Seeds are sown permanently in April-May. In June, the flowering period begins, which lasts approximately two months.

Lupine dwarf - Lupinus nanus

Dense bushes 15-50 cm high. Leaves are grayish-green. Cobalt blue flowers with bright yellow spots. Pods in which round seeds ripen. They can be harvested and sown in April-May next year directly into open ground. In this case, the dwarf lupine will bloom from late June to late August and even longer.

Lupine dwarf (Lupinus nanus)
Lupine dwarf (Lupinus nanus)

Lupine nutkan - Lupinus nootkatensis

Homeland - North America. Perennial up to 1 m high and 75 cm wide. Straight pubescent stem. Dark green pubescent palm-like leaves with five oval-pointed leaves. Blue and yellow flowers.

Nootkan lupine (Lupinus nootkatensis)
Nootkan lupine (Lupinus nootkatensis)

Lupine is beautiful - Lupinus ornata

Homeland - USA. Perennial 50 cm high and 30 cm wide. Low, open stem. Silvery foliage with radially separated 7-9 leaves. Purple and pale purple flowers.

Lupine multifoliate - Lupinus polyphyllus

North America. Perennial plant 100-150 cm high with compound leaves of 13-15 leaflets, glabrous on the upper side, and silky pubescent on the lower. Stipules subulate. Bright blue moth-shaped flowers are collected in large dense brushes. The bracts are dying off, the boat is beak-shaped. Pod polyspermous, pubescent. Blooms in July and August.

Lupine multifoliate (Lupinus polyphyllus)
Lupine multifoliate (Lupinus polyphyllus)

Lupine furry - Lupinus villosus

Homeland - the southern states of the United States. Perennial 60 cm high and 30 cm wide. Low, pubescent stem, with straight shoots. Silvery obovate pubescent leaves. Flowers: pinkish-purple, pink, white and purple.

Lupine furry (Lupinus villosus)
Lupine furry (Lupinus villosus)

Difficulties in growing lupine

Lupine is affected by aphids, which appear during the budding period. Late crops are more severely damaged by sprout fly larvae, nodule weevils, and aphids. To combat pests, it is recommended to spray plants with insecticides during the growing season.

Timely soil cultivation, optimal sowing times, correct crop rotation limit the reproduction of pests, the spread of diseases, and increase the resistance of plants to damage by pests and diseases. Radical pruning after flowering of some highly overgrown perennial lupins, as well as removal of faded inflorescences in early autumn, causes them to re-bloom.

Use of lupine

In single and group plantings with other perennials in mixborders, they are planted in groups on the lawn. Spectacular in bouquets, but do not last long. Lupins are the second row soloists. Faded lupins do not look very attractive at the height of summer. Therefore, it is better to plant them in a flower bed in small groups, and not in the first row, but in the depths of the flower bed. Give them a place for perennials, which will cover the lupins with their lush foliage and bright flowers.

Partners: go well in mixed plantings with hosts, irises, nivyaniks, lilies, delphiniums, astilbe.

Looking forward to your advice!

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