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Video: Kalina. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Varieties And Types. A Photo
Kalina is an ancient Slavic word denoting, according to the assumption of some scientists, a shrub that grows in a swamp, and according to others, it indicates a bright red, as it were, a red-hot color of the fruit. For many Slavic peoples, red is considered a symbol of girlish beauty, love and happiness. Kalina - "wedding tree". Before the wedding, the bride gave the groom a towel embroidered with viburnum leaves and berries. Tables, wedding loaves, girls' wreaths were decorated with her flowers. A bunch of viburnum fruits with a scarlet ribbon was placed on the treats, which the bride and groom treated the guests to. For a long time, Kalinniki pies have been baked in central Russia: the grated viburnum fruits were placed between cabbage leaves and baked. This cake looked like a black cake and had a scent slightly reminiscent of valerian. There are many legends about this plant. One of them tells abouthow the girls took their enemies into the thicket to save loved ones from certain death. Viburnum bushes with red berries grew from the blood of the dead girls. In Russia, agricultural work was associated with viburnum. This is reflected in the sayings: "they sow barley while the viburnum is blooming," "rain on Akulina (April 7) - viburnum will be good if the spring is bad."
Viburnum, (Latin Viburnum) is a type of shrubs (less often trees) of the genus Kalina (Viburnum) of the Adoxaceae family.
The genus includes about 200 species, distributed in the temperate and subtropical zone of Eurasia, most of North America and North Africa.
They grow in the form of deciduous, sometimes small trees. Most types of viburnum are shade-tolerant and moisture-loving. All species have opposite, less often whorled, leaf arrangement. Leaves with stipules are whole, lobed or palmate-lobed. The flowers are white, sometimes pinkish, collected in shitkovidny inflorescences and are presented in two types: sterile - with a large perianth and fertile - very modest, small, narrow tubular. Red or bluish-black fruits are drupes, mostly edible. Propagated by cuttings, layering, seeds. Life expectancy is 50-60 years.
The inhabitant of central Russia is well acquainted with the viburnum due to the wide distribution of one of the species of this genus - the common viburnum (Viburnum opulus). In the wild, it can be found in almost every forest - at the edge, clearing, glade. Viburnum is grown both in the front gardens of village houses, in summer cottages, and even in urban plantings. The Russian has long appreciated the ordinary viburnum as an unpretentious shrub that responds with gratitude to the simplest care, giving in return bright flowering, lush autumn foliage decoration and an abundance of beautiful and healthy fruits. However, there are other species, the culture of which in open ground conditions is also possible in our country.
Viburnums are very decorative… Most of them bloom in late May and early June, completing the spring riot of colors with their white, pinkish or yellowish inflorescences. Flowering is long, sometimes stretching for two or three weeks. Some species (Viburnum vulgaris, forked, Sargent, three-lobed) have very large, up to 12-15 cm in diameter, umbellate inflorescences, consisting of two types of flowers. In the center of the "umbrella" are small tubular fruiting flowers, which later give berries. And along the edge there are large and brighter sterile ones, the main task of which is to attract pollinating insects. In other species (viburnum, Bureinskaya, toothed, Mongolian, Gordovina, Canadian Gordovina, Wright, Slate), inflorescences are formed only by fertile flowers, but their size, brightness and delicate aroma are also impressive. All viburnums are good honey plants.
Viburnums are also beautiful with their leaves. In common viburnum, three-lobed and Sargent, they are lobed, consisting of 3 or 5 lobes (in shape, they are somewhat reminiscent of the leaves of the Norway maple). In the viburnum of Bureya, forked, toothed, Mongolian, Wright, sycamore and in both gordovins, leaves of an unusual oval or elliptical shape for us. Summer color - from light green to deep dark green, but in autumn all viburnums are colored in the brightest tones of the warm part of the spectrum - from yellow to carmine red. The great poet was accurate, comparing a viburnum bush with a burning fire. Against the background of such a fire, it is sometimes difficult to see the berries. The most unusual leaves are forked viburnum: large, up to 25 cm long, rounded-ovoid leaf blades are cut with a whimsical net of relief wrinkles.In autumn, they are painted with several colors at once - on one sheet you can simultaneously see green, yellow, scarlet, crimson, red-brown and purple spots.
Viburnums are also famous for their fruits. Berries in most species acquire color in August. They look contrasting against the background of a dense crown, delight the eye throughout the autumn and decorate the bushes even in winter. In some species, the fruits are red or pinkish-orange, when ripe, juicy, like in viburnum. Other species produce black berries with a bluish or blue bloom. But there are also such viburnums that have fruits of two colors in the brush: some of them, mature, are black and shiny, others, immature, red. This contrast is especially beautiful and attractive. It is characteristic of the gordovina viburnum and the forked viburnum.
There is conflicting information about the edible properties of viburnum fruits: someone reports their exceptional value, and someone writes about toxic properties. This is true and not true. The fruits of almost all types of viburnum are edible (whether you like their taste or not is another question), but you should only eat fully ripe berries and know when to stop. Otherwise, vomiting and diarrhea are possible. The edibility of the fruits of the viburnum ordinary, Sargent, three-lobed is reliably known. Their juicy red berries lose their tart bitterness after freezing, as well as when processed in jelly, jam, mashed potatoes, when berries are dried. Their fruits are not only tasty, but also have healing properties: they normalize blood pressure and improve digestion.The people of the common viburnum are used as a vitamin, tonic, diaphoretic and diuretic, as well as a mild laxative. Among the viburnum with red fruits, the three-lobed viburnum is considered the most pleasant to the taste and therefore in its homeland, in North America, is called "cranberry" viburnum. The berries of black-fruited viburnum (Bureinskaya, lily, canadian gordovina) are also edible, have a sweetish and somewhat mealy pulp.
In some species of viburnum, very beautiful decorative forms are known, which differ from their wild ancestors in unusual features of their appearance.… The most famous garden cultivar of the common viburnum is Buldenezh (Boule de Neige, or Sterile, Roseum). The name of this variety is translated into Russian from French as the Snow Globe, or Snowball (although it would be easier and more understandable to call it "snow"), because its main feature is large, up to 10 cm in diameter, globular inflorescences of snow-white color consisting only of sterile flowers. Such bushes do not bear fruit, but the abundance of "snowballs" hanging all over the bush at the end of May is always surprising. The common viburnum also has the Compactum form. This plant is rather modest in size, up to 1.5 m in height and in diameter, but in flowering and fruiting this variety is not inferior to wild viburnum.There is also a real dwarf form - a dense spherical bush, rarely exceeding 1 m in diameter. Funny "balls" of dark green color look very interesting on the lawn along with the garden forms of conifers, but rarely bloom and bear fruit. In viburnum, gordovina are best known in the cultivar culture Variegatum and Aureum. The first form is remarkable for the marbled pattern of yellow and light green spots on wrinkled leaves, the second cultivar has greenish-yellow foliage.
There are also a number of species of viburnum, the cultivation of which in central Russia would be very interesting, if not for the weak winter hardiness. These are Carls' viburnum (V. carlesii), because evergreen (V. tinus), because wrinkled (V. rhytidophyllum), because David (V. davidii), because fragrant (V. odoratissimum), because fragrant (V. farreri), because Japanese (V. japonicum), as well as a number of hybrids (V. x. burkwoodii, V. x. bodnantense, V. x. caricephalum). They are beautiful and unusual, many are evergreens, have a strong and pleasant scent of flowers. Some of these species can withstand clipping in classic green hedges. In our harsh climate, sometimes, with very painstaking care and careful shelter of plants for the winter, it is possible to keep them alive. But in this case, you will have to forget about flowering and even more so a haircut.These types of viburnum are suitable for the south and extreme south of Russia.
Location: Most species of viburnum grow well and bear fruit in partial shade conditions. Thanks to their dense root system, they strengthen the soil well on slopes and slopes. Garden forms of viburnum should be planted in the most illuminated, sunny places of the summer cottage. Only under these conditions will they fully manifest their decorative potential. For viburnum in the garden, select a place with excessive moisture and optimal soil acidity, equal to 5.5-6.5. If there is a pond in the garden, then there is no better place for viburnum.
Landing: plant viburnum in spring or autumn. The size of the pit is 50 x 50 cm. In addition to peat, it is necessary to add 40-50 g of phosphorus, 25-30 g of potassium and nitrogen, 25-30 g of potassium and nitrogen. When planting, the seedling is deepened by 3 - 5 cm. The adventitious roots appearing at the same time improve survival. The distance between plants is 1.5 - 2.0 m.
Care:feeding is carried out twice: before the beginning of the growing season and before the beginning of leaf fall. In the spring, add: nitrogen - 50 g, phosphorus - 40 g and potassium - 30 g per square meter. In autumn, only phosphorus and potassium are given, half the spring dose. Fertilizers are scattered superficially, then the soil is hoed or dug up, watered and mulched. To form a tree, one powerful shoot is left, all others are removed. Within three years, one shoot is driven out, which will become the trunk of the tree. The height of the trunk is 1 - 1.2 m. The viburnum should be rejuvenated by cutting off all old branches at a height of 15 - 20 cm from the soil surface. Viburnums black, forked, Karlsa, laurel, or evergreen, wrinkled are suitable for growing only in southern Russia, but sometimes they can be preserved in the gardens of central Russia if they are reliably covered for the winter or hardened seedlings from nurseries.
Protection against pests and diseases: viburnum is often affected by the viburnum bark beetle (leaf beetle), which eats up all the leaves, leaving only veins from them. To combat it, plants are treated with 0.2% chlorophos. A comma-shaped scale may appear on trunks and branches. A 0.1% solution of karbofos is used against it. To prevent diseases such as spotting and powdery mildew, treatment with tobacco, garlic or onion infusions is recommended throughout the season.
© pizzodisevo (first of all, my health)
All viburnums propagate by cuttings, layering, seeds.
Seed propagation of viburnum has a number of features. Seeds sown after 6-7 months of stratification begin to germinate only in August: first, the root and hypocotyl knee start to grow, the embryonic bud remains dormant. The emergence of the cotyledons to the surface and the shedding of covers occurs in the spring of next year. Given this circumstance, beds with viburnum crops should be covered with leaf and peat in the first winter. To accelerate seed germination, stratification is used in two stages at variable temperature. To start the growth of the root, a temperature of + 18-20 ° C is required, and for the passage of the resting state -3 … -5 ° C. Therefore, after 2.5-3 months of warm stratification, the seeds are placed for 3-4 months in conditions of cold stratification and only then are sown in the ground. Seeding rate of seeds is 8-15 g, germination rate is 54-88%.When sowing freshly harvested seeds in autumn, shoots appear only after a year. The first two years, seedlings grow slowly, and from the third year their growth increases. Plants of seed origin bear fruit in 4-5 years. Fruit yield from a well-developed plant at the age of 10-15 years is 10-25 kg.
It is better to propagate decorative forms with green cuttings. Cuttings from 2-3-year-old wood take root better… Green cuttings can be rooted if they are cut while the shoots are actively growing. The rooting rate of cuttings is high. Under conditions of artificial fog at a temperature of 22-25 ° C, 100% rooting is obtained. With a lack of heat, rooting decreases sharply. Cuttings are harvested from the first decade of June to the end of July. August cuttings take root only 50%. The stalk is formed as follows: the shoot is cut into pieces 7-10 cm long with two or three internodes. Above the leaves, the upper cut is made straight, under the leaves the lower cut is oblique. The leaves can be cut in half, the two lower leaves are removed altogether. After treatment with heteroauxin, the cuttings are planted in a nursery under the film. The substrate consists of peat and sand, taken in equal volumes. Vegetatively propagated plants enter fruiting in 2-3 years.
Often they give layering from low-lying branches.
Kalina Bureinskaya, or Buryat, or black - Viburnum burejaeticum
Found in the south of Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, in Northeast China, North Korea. Grows in coniferous-deciduous forests on rich soils. Shade-tolerant hygrophyte.
Completely unlike the common viburnum, strongly branching, spreading shrub up to 3 m tall, sometimes a small tree with a spreading, openwork crown, a gray trunk and bare, light, yellowish-gray branches. In Moscow, 40-year-old plants have a height of 2.8 m, a crown diameter of 2.2-2.8 m Leaves are elliptical, sometimes ovoid (7.5 x 5 cm), sharp at the top, with a sharp-toothed edge, dark green above, with sparse hairs, paler below, densely hairy along the veins; yellowish-white, nondescript flowers (only fertile) are collected in complex, shitkovidny inflorescences up to 10 cm in diameter. Fruits with black, shiny skin and sweet, mealy pulp, edible, up to 0.8 cm in diameter.
Kalina forked - Viburnum furcatum
Distributed on Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Japan and Korea, where it grows on mountain slopes in stone birch forests, in the undergrowth of coniferous and mixed forests and on the edges. It forms shrubs in clearings and burnt-out areas. A very ornamental shrub with very beautiful large leaves, bright white flowers and red fruits. The plant is decorative from the moment of regrowth to leaf fall. In spring the leaves are reddish brown, in autumn they are bright purple with a beautiful pattern of depressed veins. The plant is decorated with white flowers and bright red fruits.
Kalina gordovina - Viburnum lantana
One of the most famous and beautiful viburnum with black fruits, also edible. Distributed in Central and Southern Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, in the North Caucasus. Available in the reserves of the Caucasus, the European part of Russia. Grows in the undergrowth of deciduous forests. Photophilous mesophyte.
Kalina David - Viburnum davidii
Homeland Western China.
Dwarf evergreen shrub about 1 m high, with horizontally growing, symmetrically spaced shoots. The crown is compact. It grows slowly. In culture, its height is 0.5-0.8 m. The diameter of the crown is twice as large. Leaves are very decorative - leathery, evergreen, opposite, elliptical, 7-15 cm long, up to 8 cm wide, dark green. Deep parallel veins are characteristic. The flowers are white-pink, collected in umbellate inflorescences up to 8 cm in diameter. Blossoms in June. Fruits are 6 mm long with unusual blue color, ripen in October.
Viburnum toothed - Viburnum dentatum
Homeland North America. Through swamps and damp thickets of bushes.
It is a tall (3.5-5 m) densely branched shrub with a smooth light gray bark. The crown is wide spreading, with a diameter of 5.5 meters. In Moscow, 30-year-old plants have a height of 3.3-3.5 m, a crown diameter of 2.5-2.8 m.The leaves are bright green, of an unusual shape, rounded, with deep straight veins, ending in large teeth along the entire edge of the leaf. 3-8 cm long. The flowers are white, small, collected in an inflorescence with a diameter of 6 cm. It blooms in June-July, in nature in May-June. Fruits are dark blue, small, 6-8 cm long, numerous, bitter in taste, readily eaten by birds.
Viburnum Canadian -Viburnum lentago
Grows naturally in eastern Canada, entering the United States. On rocky hillsides, along forest edges, river banks and swamps, up to 800 m above sea level. sea, along with other deciduous and coniferous trees.
Tall deciduous shrub or small tree up to 6 m tall, with an ovoid crown; broadly oval, pointed leaves, up to 10 cm long, smooth, shiny, finely toothed along the edge, bright green in summer and various red tones in autumn. Small, fertile, creamy white flowers are collected in corymbose inflorescences up to 12 cm in diameter. It blooms for 10-15 days. Fruits - blue-black, with a bluish bloom, up to 1.5 m, edible. In the process of ripening, they change their color from green to blue-black and practically all summer, until autumn they decorate the plant.
All types of viburnum are decorative, many have beautiful and varied decorative forms. Desirable in all types of landings. They are very effective against the background of maples, lindens, birches, spruces and mountain ash. The sterile form of the viburnum is well preserved in the cut. Viburnums in the garden are not only beautiful, but also useful, melliferous, medicinal and edible plants. In amateur gardens, viburnum gordovina, Canadian and ordinary are most often grown.