Why Does The Top Of Garden Trees Dry? Causes Of Dry Tops, Preventive Measures And Control. Photo

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Why Does The Top Of Garden Trees Dry? Causes Of Dry Tops, Preventive Measures And Control. Photo
Why Does The Top Of Garden Trees Dry? Causes Of Dry Tops, Preventive Measures And Control. Photo

Video: Why Does The Top Of Garden Trees Dry? Causes Of Dry Tops, Preventive Measures And Control. Photo

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Young garden. Beauty and pride of every summer resident. The owner will not rejoice at the young trees in their spring greenery. The garden is growing … But in the outer part of the crown of apple, pear, apricot, and other garden crops, dry tips of young shoots have appeared. Drying of the tops of the shoots spreads from top to bottom. In some trees, the tops are completely bare. And there comes a moment when the owner realizes that the garden is sick with dry top. The disease affects the longevity of the garden and its fruiting. If a separate tree is sick, then the reason may be in violation of agricultural technology. If the disease progresses and manifests itself on several trees, the cause may be infection with diseases and damage by pests. It is necessary to understand the reasons and take the necessary preventive and therapeutic measures.

The dry top of the apple tree
The dry top of the apple tree

How to determine the causes of dry top trees?

The main manifestation of dry top is the drying out of young shoots and branches of the upper layer of the crown. Most often, dry top appears in spring, sometimes in the second half of summer. The reasons for the onset of dry top depend on many reasons. They can be caused by a violation of agrotechnical (planting and care) or agrochemical (nutrition) requirements of the culture, by disease (monilial, bacterial burns, bacterial cancer) or pests (beetle larvae, bark beetle, etc.).

With properly planted tree crops, the tops of the trees will dry out last. In this case, the drying out of young shoots and perennial branches usually begins with the death of the lower branches, wilting of the leaf mass, a change in its color, shedding of flowers, and only then does the drying of the shoot itself begin.

1. Violation of agrotechnical requirements

The garden requires air and permeable soils that have a uniform structure and are sufficiently supplied with nutrients throughout the profile. Trees will not live long and will form a very meager harvest on dense clay soils, with close occurrence of rubble, sand, and construction waste under a fertile layer.

A garden requires a high groundwater level, no closer than 1.6 m to the soil surface. Trees with a tap root system that penetrate deep into the soil up to 1.5-2.0 meters or more are especially sensitive to groundwater stagnant / stagnant waters. With a high standing groundwater, the air regime is violated. Oxygen is practically not supplied to the suction roots, the root system suffocates, and water does not enter the upper part of the crown and the tree dies.

The acidity and salinity of the soil has a negative impact on the growth and development of trees. They develop poorly and after 5-8 years or immediately die.

Incorrect planting of seedlings: violation of the location of the root collar, the location of the graft, lack of drainage (if necessary), a narrow planting pit in which the roots are intertwined, with bends, etc.

Improper watering. Sometimes novice gardeners overmoisten plantings, believing that dry branches and shoots are a signal of a lack of water.

How to prevent and fight?

The laying of the garden cannot be hasty. A quickly (hastily) planted garden quickly dies. In order for the garden to bear fruit and be healthy for the entire period allotted to it, it is necessary to carefully fulfill the requirements of agricultural technology.

The fruit garden is always laid on fertile, moisture- and air-permeable soils with a neutral reaction to acidity, the pH of which should be 6.5-7.2. The optimal occurrence of groundwater is 2.0-2.5 m from the soil surface. If the site does not meet these requirements, it is necessary:

To deoxidize the soil and bring its acidity to optimum by adding lime or dolomite flour.

With a close occurrence of groundwater, the top first, and then the whole tree, perishes. In such areas, trees can be planted on high ridges, and drainage ditches can be cut between rows. If the garden consists of several trees, then in the planting holes it is necessary to lay a drainage high up to 20-25 cm, 2/3 of the hole should be covered with prepared soil mixture. Lay a square or round barrier on the soil and cover with the rest of the prepared potting mix. Place the root system of the seedling in the upper part of the planting pit and fill mound so that the root collar is not exposed, and the graft site is above the ground. The exposed root collar is treated with garden varnish or clay-manure mixture and covered with soil. After watering, the soil must be mulched with a 5-6 cm layer of fine mulch.

For areas with a high groundwater table, it is better to use columnar varieties or seedlings on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks. This will save the root system of horticultural crops from getting wet during stagnant water on dense soils or high groundwater.

Peach dry top
Peach dry top

If the soil very quickly passes moisture (sandy, peaty), then the dry top may be associated with a lack of moisture in the winter. The root system of a fruit tree can dry out during temperature extremes associated with the transition from thaw to frost. Gardens located on such soils need abundant watering during the winter. In this case, the root system will be in an ice shell when the soil freezes, which will protect it from drying out.

If moles, mice and other large soil pests are bred in the garden, it is necessary to take all measures to expel them. Mole passages, mouse gnawing of the root system also cause the death of crops.

2. Eating disorders

If all agrotechnical requirements are met, then the cause of the development of dry tops may be a violation of the nutrition of fruit trees. Lack or violation of the ratio of basic nutrients and other macroelements and microelements is manifested not only by dry tops, but also by a decrease in the quality of the fruit. It is especially necessary to carefully monitor the nutritional regime when laying a garden on limed, gray forest, boggy, sandy, sod-podzolic, calcareous and reclaimed soils, developed peatlands, etc.

Macro and microelements enter plants through the root system. With a nutritional deficiency, some of the elements are redistributed between the organs of the plant. There is an outflow from old leaves to fruits and younger organs. But there are trace elements that are not capable of redistribution. These include boron, zinc, copper. Their deficiency or violation of the ratio with the main nutrients cause dry tops of fruit crops.

Boron deficiency

Boron deficiency manifests itself in the cessation of the development of the upper leaves. At the ends of the shoots, the leaves curl, shrink and fall off. With a large boron deficiency, the upper branches begin to dry out, and corky ulceration appears in the fruits, the taste of the fruit acquires a characteristic bitter aftertaste. With a sufficient supply of phosphorus and calcium to fruit crops, boron must be introduced in the form of root and foliar dressings, especially in dry years. However, high doses of boron cause general toxicosis in the tree. To remove "poisoning" with boron, it is necessary to feed the plants with phosphorus and calcium. It is best to apply boric fertilizers together with phosphorus nutrition when feeding with full fertilizer. Remember, in dry years and with a lack of moisture, boron deficiency in plant organs increases.

Lack of copper

Copper is especially needed for fruit crops during growth and flowering. If during this period the rapid growth of lateral shoots begins, chlorous clarification appears on the leaf blades between the veins, and desiccation spreads from the tips of the shoots downward, then the trees are sick with dry top as a result of a lack of copper. In order to prevent drying of the upper shoots, fertilizer containing copper must be added to the top dressing. In addition to active participation in all metabolic processes, copper preparations contribute to an increase in frost, heat and drought resistance. On calcareous soil, the availability of copper to plants decreases, as it is absorbed by soil particles. In this case, in early spring, before bud break, fruit trees must be treated with copper sulfate (1%),Bordeaux liquid (3%) or other copper-containing preparations and feed with copper fertilizers or a complex set of trace elements during the growing season. If there is no copper-containing fertilizers or a set of trace elements, you can repeat the treatment with Bordeaux liquid (1%) on a green cone and after flowering. During the growing season, you can feed with ash.

Zinc deficiency

The lack of zinc is clearly manifested at first by the formation of rosettes (rosette) from underdeveloped shoots and leaves, and later dry tops begin. Apple and pears react especially quickly to a zinc deficiency. The lack of zinc is aggravated by the introduction of increased doses of phosphorus fertilizers and soil acidity. You need to be especially careful about the main fertilizer and top dressing on chernozems, chestnut soils, brown and strongly podzolic, slightly acidic. During the growing season, fertilizing with microelements and ash is required. Good results are provided by podwinter sowing of green manure.

Dry branches in the crown of a fruit tree
Dry branches in the crown of a fruit tree

3. Dry tops caused by pests

The dry top of fruit crops, especially at a young age, can be caused by the appearance of dangerous pests, both soil and those that settle on young vegetative shoots of the crown (May beetle larvae, aphids, ants, bark beetle, woodworm caterpillars, and others). 4-5 year old young trees of mulberry, quince, apple, plum, pear are especially often damaged. Young trees are subject to careful inspection every spring and fall. Most often, the damaged bark is a breeding ground and overwintering places for various pests. If cracks appear in the bark, they need to be repaired, all damage should be disinfected, the trunk and skeletal branches should be whitened with a lime compound or special garden paint. May beetle larvae cause especially great harm to young trees. Literally 2-3 larvae are able to destroy a young tree, damaging its root system.Look closely at the tops of the young shoots. If dry leaves appear on them in the second half of summer, this may be a sign of the appearance of corrosive arboreal. The arboreal butterfly lays eggs on young shoots at the base of the leaf petioles. The hatched caterpillar easily penetrates into the young shoot (a small hole is visible at the place of introduction, sometimes on certain types of crops - a floating gum) and begins to feed intensively. Having damaged young wood, it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in spring it moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, the glass moth.If dry leaves appear on them in the second half of summer, this may be a sign of the appearance of corrosive arboreal. The arboreal butterfly lays eggs on young shoots at the base of leaf petioles. The hatched caterpillar easily penetrates into the young shoot (a small hole is visible at the place of introduction, sometimes on certain types of crops - a floating gum) and begins to feed intensively. Having damaged young wood, it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in spring it moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, glass moth.If dry leaves appear on them in the second half of summer, this may be a sign of the appearance of corrosive arboreal. The arboreal butterfly lays eggs on young shoots at the base of the leaf petioles. The hatched caterpillar easily penetrates into the young shoot (a small hole is visible at the place of introduction, sometimes on certain types of crops - a floating gum) and begins to feed intensively. Having damaged young wood, it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in spring it moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, glass moth.The arboreal butterfly lays eggs on young shoots at the base of leaf petioles. The hatched caterpillar easily penetrates into the young shoot (a small hole is visible at the place of introduction, sometimes on certain types of crops - a floating gum) and begins to feed intensively. Having damaged young wood, it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in the spring moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, the glass moth.The arboreal butterfly lays eggs on young shoots at the base of the leaf petioles. The hatched caterpillar easily penetrates into the young shoot (a small hole is visible at the place of introduction, sometimes on certain types of crops - a floating gum) and begins to feed intensively. Having damaged young wood, it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in the spring moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, the glass moth.it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in the spring moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, the glass moth.it crawls into deeper layers, and the damaged young twig dries up. The caterpillar hibernates in tree passages and in the spring moves to the surface along the passages made. The caterpillar throws out its excrement through the entrance holes. The same signs are left by the caterpillars of the eastern moth, the glass moth.

Protective measures

To destroy pests that cause dry tops of trees with their harmful activity, the affected branches are removed with the capture of 15-20 cm of healthy wood. BI-58, confidor, aktara, karbofos and other insecticides are first injected into the holes made in the bark of skeletal branches and the central trunk by the bark beetle, arboretum, then they are poured with garden varnish or liquid cement, and other measures of protection against pests are taken. During the growing season, all activities are carried out to treat horticultural crops from pests, using mainly bioinsecticidal preparations.

4. Dry top caused by disease

Sometimes dry top is associated with fungal-bacterial damage to fruit crops. The dried tips of the shoots of the upper part of the crown often indicate the onset of infectious diseases (monilious and bacterial burns, powdery mildew, bacterial cancer, and others). From fungal diseases, moniliosis, fire blight and powdery mildew dry out the tops of trees. Most often, moniliosis affects stone fruits: apricots, poles, peaches, cherries. External manifestation - blackened tops of shoots and branches, brown flowers. The affected branches are, as it were, burned by fire. Moreover, trees get sick literally in a matter of hours. After the affected flowers fall off, the diseased branches are covered with numerous small dots of the gum that has come out. Single, alive flowers form ugly, "scabby", insipid fruits.

Powdery mildew mycelium sprinkles young shoots and leaves. If the tree is left unattended, scattering spores will begin to infect neighboring trees, and their young shoots will begin to dry out.

A bacterial infection that causes drying of the branches manifests itself in the form of bacterial cancer or fire blight. By affecting the core of the wood, bacterial cancer prevents the flow of water and nutrients to the upper branches. The latter dry up. A bacterial burn is caused by a bacterial infection. Please note that a fire blight is a quarantine disease. In 1-3 years, the affected trees die.

Dried branch in the crown of a fruit tree
Dried branch in the crown of a fruit tree

Protective measures

When laying a garden, varieties of garden crops are used that are resistant to fungal and bacterial diseases.

In infected gardens, it is very difficult to eliminate sources of infection. Therefore, it is easier to prevent it by taking all preventive measures of protection in a timely manner than to fight the infection later, especially in early maturing crops. Prevention - annual early spring and late autumn garden processing with chemicals: Skor, Horus, Topaz, Ordan, Ridomil and others, approved for use on fruit crops. It is recommended to sprinkle before bud break with 3% Bordeaux liquid or 1% copper sulfate solution. On a green cone and after flowering - a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, which will simultaneously serve as a top dressing. During the growing season, the garden is systematically treated with biofungicides in accordance with the recommendations. Broken bark integrity (cracks),hollows and other damage must be cleaned and sealed with garden varnish, paint, cement, and any other material in order to exclude the ingress of wintering fungal spores and bacteria. The most successful treatment for a fire blight is with antibiotics.

If preventive measures do not help and the trees get sick, it is necessary to cut off the affected branches and burn them. Trees should be immediately treated with appropriate preparations and fed to increase resistance to further infection. Continue the entire growing season for treating trees from fungal and bacterial damage. In spring and autumn, treat the soil within the crown with a 4% urea solution.

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