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Video: Violet. Care, Cultivation. Reproduction. Flowers. Room, Home. A Photo
One of the ancient Greek legends is dedicated to the mysterious origin of violet flowers. The beautiful Apollo, the sun god, amused himself by chasing a lovely young nymph, the daughter of Atlas, with the hot rays of the sun.
The poor thing, exhausted from the mercilessly scorching sun, prayed for help to the most formidable and powerful of the gods, Zeus. Feeling emotional, Zeus turned her into a violet and sheltered her from the sun in his domain - in the shade of bushes in the middle of the forest. Hid it from prying eyes, left it only to admire it. Until one day the daughter of Zeus, Proserpina, went for a walk in the forest. Finding lovely flowers, Proserpina picked up a bouquet, and on the way back she was kidnapped by the insidious Pluto. With fright, Proserpine dropped her bouquet, and violets scattered from the divine heaven to the sinful human earth.
Violet, Latin - Saintpaulia, folk - brother-and-sister, moths, field brothers, semi-flowers, axes.
The genus has more than 450 species distributed throughout the globe. Many of them are used in culture. The geography of the genus is very wide. Violets grow in areas with a temperate climate, and in the subtropics, and in the tropics of Europe, Asia, America, Africa, Australia, New Zealand.
Over 500 species are found mainly in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
With such a wide range, violets are quite similar in their choice of habitat: almost all of them prefer open or slightly shaded, moderately humid places.
Annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants. The leaves are arranged in sequential order or collected in a basal rosette. The flowers are solitary, the lower petals are larger than the rest, with a spur or saccular outgrowth at the base, the rest with marigolds, white, blue, yellow, red. The fruit is a capsule. In 1 g up to 800 seeds that remain viable for up to 2 years.
© Elena Chochkova
Location: they prefer sunny places, loose, fertile soils. Fragrant violet withstands light shading, but abundant flowering is observed in illuminated areas. In shady and humid places, these plants often suffer from slugs.
Soil: grows and blooms best in rich, moist, well-drained soil. In dry weather, watering is necessary, otherwise the flowers become smaller and flowering stops.
Care: They react negatively to fresh organic fertilizers. Plucking withered flowers prolongs flowering. It is also necessary to carry out periodic fertilizing with mineral fertilizers in the ratio of 30-40 g per 10 liters of water. In harsh winters, plants need light shelter with spruce branches or tree foliage.
Diseases and pests
Spotting. Spots appear on the leaves of various types. On the lower leaves, they appear in the second half of summer, then on the whole plant. With severe damage, the leaves dry out, the plant weakens. The infection persists on plant debris, partly on seeds.
Control measures: it is required to destroy plant residues, deep digging of the soil, spraying with foundation, copper-soap and Bordeaux liquids with a break of 12-14 days.
Blackleg. It affects the base of the stem at seedlings and seedlings. In the place of defeat, the stem darkens and becomes thinner. Diseased plants droop and die. The disease occurs when the temperature, lighting humidity, and thickened crops are violated.
Control measures: thickening of crops and high temperature and humidity should be avoided. Disinfection or replacement of the soil is required, watering the soil after sowing and on the shoots with a suspension of foundationol and chemicals similar in action, followed by loosening.
Clover scoop. The scoop caterpillars eat the leaves of the plants. The color of caterpillars is from light green to brown, there is a dark line on the back, cream on the sides.
Control measures: against young caterpillars effectively spraying plants with chlorophos, tobacco infusion.
Violet mother-of-pearl. Mother-of-pearl caterpillars eat the leaves of violets. Caterpillars are black with a bluish-white lateral stripe. Flight of butterflies - May-June.
Control measures: spraying plants with chlorophos, tobacco infusion helps against young caterpillars.
Growing from a leaf
As pots, you can use plastic containers for dairy products. Disposable cups or cut plastic bottles will also work.
If you bought several leaves, then they can be planted together in a cuvette with a step of 5 cm.The thickness of the soil layer should be 4-5 cm.
Water with settled, slightly lukewarm water. Keep the ground slightly damp. Try to keep the plant out of drafts and direct sunlight.
Rinse the sheet under a cold tap. Cut the stalk with a clean blade at a 45-degree angle to a length of 2-4 cm.
Planting a leaf
It is better to use the land loose and poor in composition. Possible soil compositions:
- 1 part of Saintpaulia land, 0.3 parts of washed coarse sand.
- 2 parts of a peat-earth mixture, 1 part of sand, you can also add 2 parts of chopped moss.
Wrap the pot with a plastic bag. Ventilate periodically. After a month, it is advisable to treat the leaf with any chemical insect control agent.
The air temperature is 18-27 degrees. At 18 degrees, polyethylene can be removed after 2 months, at 27 degrees - after a month.
"Children" appear at the leaf. During this period, temperatures from 18 to 26 degrees are possible. After a few months, young leaves will grow to 1/3 the size of children. At this time, they are separated.
Separation of kids
Take the mother sheet with the babies out of the ground and carefully separate the babies. Each child can have 4-6 leaves. It is advisable to sprinkle the break-off point with crushed coal. Now you need to plant each child in their own little pot.
Independent baby life
The earth should not be very different from the one in which the mother leaf grew. For the first two weeks, an air temperature of 22-26 degrees is desirable. In the future, a low temperature of up to 20 degrees is also permissible.
Transferring to another pot
The rosette diameter is 3 times the diameter of the pot. Transplant the violet, along with a lump of earth, into a pot 1-1.5 cm larger in diameter. Add Saintpaulia soil down and around the edges. You can make this land yourself:
- 2 parts of sheet land
- 1 part of meadow land
- 1.5 parts of coniferous land
- 1 part of sand
- 1 teaspoon of crushed coal per 300 grams of land.
Transplanting into a larger pot is repeated as the outlet grows.
Growing up from the "baby"
Wash your baby under a cold tap. Treat with some insect repellent.
Water with standing water at room temperature under the leaves. Keep the ground slightly damp. Try to keep the plant out of drafts and direct sunlight. The temperature is not lower than 18 degrees.
Transferring to another pot
The rosette diameter has become 3 times the diameter of the pot. Transplant the violet, along with a lump of earth, into a pot 2 cm larger in diameter. Add Saintpaulia soil down and around the edges. Transplanting into a larger pot is repeated as the outlet grows.
© Dawn Endico
Reproduction of Saintpaulias by a peduncle is used if it is necessary to preserve and transfer to the offspring a complex (fantasy) flower color. These are, first of all, chimera varieties, which do not transfer varietal color when propagated by a leaf cuttings. This is possible only by rooting a stepson or peduncle. You can also propagate your favorite fantasy variety with a peduncle, especially if it gives a lot of sports or has a multi-color color with dashes, strokes, specks. Reproduction by a peduncle almost 100% conveys a fantasy color.
We break out a healthy, strong peduncle with the most beautiful flowers. We put it on a hard surface, cut off the lower part with a sharp blade, leaving 1 cm to the stipules (small leaves on the peduncle). We also remove all flowers and buds, leaving hemp up to 3-5mm in height. The remaining small "tree" is exactly what we need. It is good to powder the slices with crushed charcoal, which has the same effect on plant slices as iodine does to humans.
Take a small pot or a clear plastic cup. Lay a layer of moss 1.5 cm on the bottom. We pour a layer of soil mixture of the same composition as for rooting leaf cuttings with a layer of 2-2.5 cm. With a stick in the center of the pot we make a depression and carefully insert the peduncle up to the stipules. Water a little and put in a greenhouse or bag. The moss on the bottom of the pot should remain dry after watering. We paste the name of the variety and the date of planting. For some time the peduncle will "freeze" while the roots are being formed. It is rarely necessary to air the plant, there will not be a lot of condensation with poor watering. And greenhouse conditions will help to start the rooting process more successfully. We put the pot in a bright, but not sunny and warm (+ 20-24 degrees) place.
Water very little to keep the moss at the bottom of the pot dry. Therefore, it is better to plant it in a transparent container so that it is convenient to observe the process. If everything is done correctly, then after a while small leaves will appear in the axils of the stipules - our future sockets. The timing of the appearance of small rosettes is very different. They can appear even 1.5 months after planting the peduncle, and maybe much later.
The active growth of small leaves in the axils of the stipules indicates successful rooting. The bracts themselves can grow a little too. Through the transparent walls of the pot, a net of white roots is visible, braiding an earthen ball. Now you can gradually open the greenhouse or package, accustoming the plant to indoor conditions. Watering is the same, in small portions and only when the top layer of the earth dries up.
When young rosettes grow 2-3 cm high, remove the pot from the greenhouse or bag. If the rosette has a “leg” without roots, you can wrap it with sphagnum moss for their formation. We grow until 2-3 pairs of leaves are formed and we plant, as in the usual separation of children, when we propagate the violet with a leaf cuttings.
© Kor! An (Korzun Andrey)
With the help of seed reproduction, Saintpaulias can quickly replenish the collection with new interesting hybrids with previously unknown decorative qualities. The seeds of violets are often set during self-pollination, then the pollen falls on the pistil of the same or a neighboring flower. Seedlings obtained from such seeds, as a rule, do not differ in interesting characteristics.
Take a closer look at the structure of the violet flower. It contains both female generative organs (the pistil, consisting of a stigma, a column and an ovary), and male (stamens, divided into anthers and filaments). Petals are intended by nature only to attract pollinating insects and do not play a direct role in fertilization.
For the "process to start", the pollen from the anthers must get on the stigma of the pistil. At home, pollination of saintpaulias is carried out in different ways: they remove the pollen with a blunt end of a sewing needle, tweezers or, after pinching off the stamen, pour the contents of the anther onto a sheet of paper, and then transfer it to the stigma of the pistil. It is safer to do this when a tiny droplet of liquid appears on the stigma. The pollen should be light yellow and easily spill out of the anthers.
The result of successful pollination - a rapidly growing ovary - will appear in about 10 days. However, the seeds will take about 6 to 9 months to mature. Unfortunately, during this rather long period of time, various negative factors can affect their development: seasonal changes in microclimatic conditions in the apartment, improper care.
In March-April, the seed pods gradually begin to ripen. Green, thick, rounded-oblong, they noticeably dry out and turn into dirty-gray “pods”. Each contains from 100 to 300 tiny seeds, after sowing almost the same number of seedlings appear.
Of course, with seed reproduction of violets, one would like to get offspring with the desired properties, although it is difficult to count on this due to the unpredictability of combinations of hereditary traits.
© EraPhernalia Vintage
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