Chrysanthemum Is The Gold Of Your Garden! Chrysanthemums. Planting, Care, Reproduction. Photo

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Chrysanthemum Is The Gold Of Your Garden! Chrysanthemums. Planting, Care, Reproduction. Photo
Chrysanthemum Is The Gold Of Your Garden! Chrysanthemums. Planting, Care, Reproduction. Photo

Video: Chrysanthemum Is The Gold Of Your Garden! Chrysanthemums. Planting, Care, Reproduction. Photo

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Video: How To Grow Chrysanthemum/Mums - Chrysanthemum Plant Care, Propagation & Chrysanthemum Growing Tips 2023, January
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Chrysanthemums adorn our gardens with vibrant colors from July to late autumn, when most other plants have long since completed flowering. Despite the rain, wind and cold, the mass of bright flowers with a cold, bitter aroma is kept on the chrysanthemum bushes until late autumn.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

The Latin name for chrysanthemum is hrysanthemum, derived from the Greek. χρῡσανθής - "golden-colored"; due to the yellow color of the inflorescences.

Chrysanthemum is a genus of annual and perennial herbaceous plants of the Asteraceae family, or Asteraceae, close to the genera Yarrow and Tansy, where many species of chrysanthemums often move.

  • Shoots are bare or pubescent.
  • The leaves are arranged in a regular order, simple, whole, serrated, notched or dissected, different in size and shape, pubescent or not, mostly light green.
  • Flowers are small, collected in a basket, in some species large, consisting, as a rule, of median tubular yellow flowers and ligulate marginal flowers, variously colored and usually arranged in one row; in many hybrid varieties, they are arranged in multiple rows and form the so-called "double" inflorescence.
  • The fruit is achene.
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Garden chrysanthemums differ in height and shape of the bush, flowering time, color, doubleness, size and type of inflorescences. Some garden chrysanthemums grow up to 1.5 m, while others reach only 35-40 cm.The color range of garden chrysanthemums is very extensive: white, greenish, pink, raspberry, burgundy, yellow, red and copper colors are presented in chrysanthemums in the widest range.

Chrysanthemums originate from the Far East and have been known to man since ancient times. The Chinese were the first to cultivate these amazing potted plants almost 3 thousand years ago. It is believed that the very first were domesticated arachnid varieties of chrysanthemums, which were used in cooking and medicine, and later began to grow for beauty. To this day, chrysanthemums for the Chinese are not only a magical plant of ancient beliefs, but also a popular spice and a favorite decoration of premises.

Together with Buddhism, the tradition of growing large-flowered chrysanthemums in pots came from China to Japan in the 6th century, the Japanese call them kotengiku, or ancient chrysanthemums. However, like so much else, the cultivation of chrysanthemums in Japan has acquired its own unique culture and sophisticated methods. The Japanese attach particular importance to chrysanthemums of different colors and the rituals of their presentation. Ancient types of chrysanthemums are preserved in their original form, such plants are still grown in gardens at temples. Chrysanthemum is a favorite flower of the Japanese, a symbol of longevity, as well as an important part of their national culture and the emblem of the country.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Features:

Lighting: The plant is light-requiring, it needs shading from direct sunlight during the hottest hours.

Watering: Abundant - the soil should be moist all the time, but not too wet.

Reproduction: usually by cuttings, seeds and dividing the bush.

Air humidity: Prefers intermittent spraying. (More for hygiene reasons than for moisturizing.)

Transplant: Young plants are transplanted annually, old ones after a couple of years. Mostly the plant is transplanted in the spring. Chrysanthemums are not demanding on soils and will grow well in ordinary garden soil, to which a little humus and sand are added. The only condition is that chrysanthemums do not like acidic soils. To enhance branching, pinching and pruning are used.

Top dressing: spring-summer - once every 2 weeks with mineral and organic fertilizers, winter-autumn - without dressing.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Planting and breeding chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums are thermophilic, so it is important not to be mistaken with the planting site in the garden. To grow chrysanthemums, you need an elevated sunny place and well-permeable, slightly acidic or neutral drained soil.

Lack of lighting of chrysanthemums leads to elongation of shoots, to weakening of plants and a shift in flowering periods characteristic of a given variety.

Chrysanthemums need a sufficient amount of nutrients for good growth and beautiful flowering, so chrysanthemums grow very well on rich soils. If the soil in your garden is infertile and dense, then before planting cuttings, it is advisable to add rotted manure, compost, peat.

Before planting chrysanthemums, apply complex fertilizer or rotted manure to the soil.

It is better to plant plants not in holes, but in a trench. The distance between planted cuttings is from 30 to 50 cm, it depends on the characteristics of the variety.

After planting the cuttings of chrysanthemums, pour the earth into the trench with Kornevin solution (1 g per liter of water). This drug promotes the formation of a powerful root system in cuttings. This means that the feeding area of ​​the young chrysanthemum will increase, and as a result, a strong plant will develop.

Having planted the cuttings of chrysanthemums in the garden, it is necessary to cover the seedlings with covering material. It creates a favorable microclimate: it protects young chrysanthemums from hot rays, and warms them during a cold snap.

Chrysanthemums reproduce easily by dividing the bush. In the spring, when the return frosts end, dig up the bush and divide the young growth. We immediately plant shoots with roots in the garden and water them.

Can be propagated by chrysanthemums and cuttings. In the spring, cut off green shoots 10-15 cm long, process the lower part with Kornevin, plant and cover with newspapers (newspapers keep moisture well). Then you need to water the cuttings of chrysanthemums as the soil dries. Soon, the cuttings take root.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Watering and feeding chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemum is very moisture-loving, therefore, the plant must be watered abundantly before flowering. Watering chrysanthemums is better with soft water - rain or settled (you can add 2-3 drops of ammonia to the water). With a lack of water, the stalks of chrysanthemums become coarser, and the leaves and flowers look less attractive.

Chrysanthemum loves to "eat" organics and is responsive to mineral nutrition. For feeding chrysanthemums, you can purchase various ready-made mineral fertilizers. At the beginning of growing young chrysanthemums, it is better to use nitrogen fertilizers to build up the green mass, and then phosphorus-potassium fertilizers for better flowering.

Water chrysanthemums with top dressing only at the root, remember: mineral fertilizers on the leaves will cause a burn.

Nitrogen affects the height of plants, the number of shoots, the intensity of the color of leaves and inflorescences, and the size of the flower. Lack of nitrogen causes chlorosis (yellowing) of the leaves, while chrysanthemums form small nondescript inflorescences. To build up the green mass of chrysanthemums, you can use ammonia nitrogen, and in the stage of bud formation, nitrates.

When the chrysanthemum forms a strong bush and reaches the budding phase, we switch to phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Phosphorus contributes to the abundant and prolonged flowering of chrysanthemums, increases their immunity. You can add phosphorus to the soil at the rate of 50 g per 1 m2 of area, as well as bone meal.

Potassium also has a positive effect on the health of chrysanthemums and the beauty of their inflorescences. The best potash fertilizer for growing abundant flowering chrysanthemums is potassium sulfate.

With the development of young chrysanthemums, it is especially important to provide them with adequate nutrition in the first 6-8 weeks, when there is an active build-up of vegetative mass. At this time, feed chrysanthemums with fertilizers with the formula N: P: K - 2: 1: 1, using ready-made complex fertilizers with microelements.

It is very good to use a mullein for feeding chrysanthemums, only burned out, you can also use chicken droppings. But remember the rule: it is better not to feed the plant than to burn it.

Put 2 buckets of mullein or 1 bucket of chicken droppings in a large barrel, fill everything with water, stir and leave for three days - the valuable concentrated fertilizer is ready. To feed the plants, you can make a solution: take one liter of the resulting concentrated infusion and add ten liters of water to it. Fertilize chrysanthemums in the garden with this diluted infusion, adding one liter of solution to each plant. Do fertilizing watering of chrysanthemums only at the root and, which is also important, on wet soil.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Forcing chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums lend themselves well to distillation (distillation is a technique by which a plant comes out of dormancy, begins to grow and blooms at an unusual time).

Chrysanthemum is a short-day culture - that is, the formation of flowers in this plant depends on the length of the light period.

Experts have found that the laying of flower buds in a chrysanthemum inflorescence occurs in two stages. First, with a day length of no more than 14.5 hours, a receptacle is formed. The longer this period, the larger it becomes, and the larger the diameter of the inflorescence of the basket. Then flowers begin to form at the chrysanthemum. This process is most intense when the day length is less than 13.5 hours.

A fairly high-quality cut of chrysanthemums can be obtained if you immediately set a day length of 10 hours for plants. Different varieties of chrysanthemums have different reactions to the duration of illumination, therefore they bloom differently: after 6-15 weeks from the beginning of a short day.

Especially suitable for forcing chrysanthemum varieties from the Branched group.

Most chrysanthemums of cut varieties after planting require 2-4 weeks of growth with a long day (more than 14.5 hours) for the development of the required number of leaves and internodes. Then 6-12 weeks the growth of chrysanthemums takes place with a short day (less than 13 hours).

If you observe these conditions for keeping the plant, then the chrysanthemum will bloom by any desired date - for a birthday, for the New Year, by March 8, by September 1!

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Reproduction

For planting, chrysanthemum seedlings, chrysanthemum seeds and cuttings are used, depending on the variety. Sowing of chrysanthemums, which reproduce by seeds, is carried out in May directly into the ground in holes of 3-4 pieces at a distance of 25 cm. In this case, flowering will be in early August. For earlier flowering, the seeds must be sown in March in a heated room, when the seedlings grow up, they are dived into pots and planted in the ground at the end of May. In this case, flowering occurs at the end of June.

To obtain cuttings in the fall after the flowering of chrysanthemums, the best specimens can be left for the winter as mother plants. Faded shoots are cut off at the very ground in a pot, since they die off after flowering. Mother plants are used for cuttings. Cut chrysanthemums can be left in pots in cool rooms. It is necessary to water a little, so that the plants do not fade. Cuttings for planting are taken in March only from the apical offspring that emerge from the ground from the roots. You should not take cuttings from shoots on old stems.

Cuttings are made in bowls or boxes. Pour humus with peat from below, and on top a layer of sand 2-3 cm. Cut the cuttings with a sharp knife to get a smooth cut, which is better done under the leaf node. In this case, rooting is better.

Planting chrysanthemums is carried out shallow in the sand, the cuttings are sprayed and covered with a glass cover. The best temperature for rooting is 13-15 degrees. After rooting (after 18-20 days), the glass is removed, the young plants are planted in small pots and placed in a cool, well-ventilated room.

But most often, after flowering, the plants are thrown away, since now a wide variety of chrysanthemum seedlings are on sale almost all year round. When buying seedlings, you need to pay attention not only to the fact that the plant is healthy, but also to the number of buds in which the tips of the unopened flowers of the baskets should be visible. If the plant is purchased with green buds, the flowers from those buds may not open.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Diseases and pests

Diseases of chrysanthemums are mainly associated with errors in care: insufficient watering or too high temperature of the air in which the plant is contained. Of the pests, chrysanthemums are affected by aphids and spider mites. To destroy aphids, the plant is washed with soapy water. The treatment must be repeated every 7-10 days.

Good results are obtained by treating plants with pyrethrum. The solution is prepared as follows: 200 gr. pyrethrum powder is infused in 10 liters of water for 12 hours, then 50 ml is taken. infusion, diluted in 10 liters of water and add 50 gr. soap.

A water extract of garlic is very effective in the fight against aphids, spider mites and other pests. Take 50 gr. crush garlic in a mortar and pour a glass of cold water. After 15-20 minutes, strain the mass and dilute with water, bringing the volume to 1 liter. This solution should be taken 1.5 cups per bucket of water and wash the plants in the evening or in cloudy weather. You can treat the plant with an insecticide.

Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum
Garden chrysanthemum, or Chinese chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum is a symbol of longevity, happiness and prosperity. Shrub chrysanthemums are similar to daisies, so they remind us of summer and the sun. Looking forward to your advice!

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