Marigolds, Or A Terry Miracle In Your Garden. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. Photo

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Marigolds, Or A Terry Miracle In Your Garden. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. Photo
Marigolds, Or A Terry Miracle In Your Garden. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. Photo

Video: Marigolds, Or A Terry Miracle In Your Garden. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. Photo

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Video: 5 most important things to know about marigold | Organic garden | e URBAN ORGANIC GARDEN 2023, February
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Representatives of the genus are found in the wild in the countries of Central and South America. Marigolds are cultivated in Mexico, Chile, Brazil, France, Morocco, Belgium, Congo, etc. In our country, small marigolds are found as an invasive plant in the west of Transcaucasia. Marigolds are widely cultivated as ornamental plants, especially varieties with large flowers.

Marigolds (Tagetes)
Marigolds (Tagetes)

Content:

  • Description of marigolds
  • Growing marigolds
  • Reproduction of marigolds
  • Harvesting of marigolds and storage
  • Types and varieties of marigolds
  • Diseases and pests of marigolds
  • The use of marigolds

Description of marigolds

Marigolds (lat.Tagetes) are a genus of annuals and perennials from the Asteraceae family, or Compositae. They come from America, where they grow wild from New Mexico and Arizona to Argentina. Stems - erect, branched, form a compact or spreading bush with a height of 20 to 120 cm. The root system is fibrous.

Leaves - pinnately dissected or pinnatipartite, rarely whole, serrated, light to dark green, opposite or in regular order, with translucent glands.

Inflorescences are baskets, simple or double, yellow, orange or brown. The heads of representatives of this genus are of medium size, with a cylindrical veil consisting of one row of leaflets fused together; marginal female flowers - ligulate; achenes are linear, narrowed towards the base. Bloom profusely from June to frost.

The fruit is a black or black-brown strongly flattened achene. Seeds remain viable for 3-4 years. 1 g from 280 to 700 seeds.

The smell of plants, reminiscent of aster, specific, may be unpleasant for someone. Tagetes patula L. is commonly bred, with yellow tongues and upright branches.

Growing marigolds

Many flower growers know that marigolds are rather unpretentious and not demanding on growing conditions. This statement is especially true for rejected marigolds, which grow well even along busy highways, perfectly tolerating the negative effects of exhaust gases, poor soil condition and city smog.

Almost all plants prefer an open area, although if planted in a shaded area of ​​the garden, they will still delight you with their unforgettable bloom. Soils for planting and growing marigolds should be selected fertile, neutral, loamy, with an optimal level of regular watering. It is worth noting that erect marigolds prefer sunny areas and are very reluctant to bloom in the shade.

Marigolds love a caring attitude and care, thanks to their abundant growth and giving abundant and long-lasting flowering. In order for your plant to thrive on poor soils, it is necessary to regularly feed the marigolds, at least 2-3 times during the entire growing season.

These plants can be grown in pots, shallow bowls, boxes and flower girls on balconies or in the garden, alone or together with other annuals, as well as decorate flower beds and borders with them, which makes marigolds an indispensable plant for decoration.

An essential advantage of these wonderful flowers is their increased resistance to various pests and diseases. The phytoncides contained in the leaves of marigolds perfectly repel harmful insects. However, sometimes plants are affected by a black leg, gray rot, root rot, bacterial and nematode diseases - in this case, it is necessary to take prompt measures to control pests.

Marigold
Marigold

Reproduction of marigolds

Seeds. In open ground, marigolds can be sown in late May - early June. Seedlings appear 5-10 days after sowing. It is advisable to cover the soil with non-woven material (acrylic, lutrasil). In this case, you can sow a week and a half earlier than usual, and thereby accelerate flowering.

When growing seedlings earlier than others, in mid-March, erect marigolds are sown. Rejected and thin-leaved marigolds are sown in early April. If these deadlines are met, flowering of all three species will begin in June. It is not difficult to grow marigold seedlings in indoor conditions on a light window, and even better - in film greenhouses, where the plants will be the strongest.

To make the seedlings healthy, you need loose, nutritious soil (1 part of humus + 1 part of peat + 1 part of turf + 0.5 part of sand), an even temperature of 18-22 ° C and moderate watering. Rejected marigolds are less demanding on soil and temperature. Although the seedlings of marigolds are considered unpretentious, it is better to take fresh soil for sowing, especially for narrow-leaved marigolds, which are more affected by the black leg than other species.

Seedlings can be grown in a box, bowl or pot. Drainage (crushed stone, expanded clay, coarse sand) should be poured onto the bottom with a layer of 3 cm or holes should be made. Otherwise, the plants may die from fungal diseases. First, 2/3 of the soil is poured onto the drainage, and this layer is compacted by hand or tamping. The next layer should be loose so that the germinating roots have enough air. The soil should not reach the edge of the container by 1-2 cm. The prepared soil is well spilled and left for one or two days in a warm place to “breathe”.

The seeds of marigolds are large, therefore they can be carefully laid out in the grooves at a distance of 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the grooves themselves is 1.5-2 cm. The thickened seedlings suffer more from a lack of light and stretch out. They may even develop black leg disease.

The easiest way to get the optimum density is by sowing germinated seeds. For germination, they need to be laid out on a damp cloth on a saucer and put in a plastic bag, put in a warm place. After 2-3 days, the seeds will hatch. The decomposed seeds are covered with a layer of earth of 0.5-1 cm. Poorly covered seeds can die from drying out. If seeds are buried too deep in the soil, they may not grow at all, especially in narrow-leaved marigolds. After sowing, the top layer of the earth is carefully watered, then covered with paper. The containers are placed in a warm place (22-25 ° C) and carefully monitor the soil moisture. After 3-7 days, seedlings will appear and the containers should be transferred to a bright place at a lower temperature (18-20 ° C).

If the seedlings are still thickened, they must be dived. Seedlings are carefully removed from well-watered soil and planted in a hole, deepening to the cotyledons. This will facilitate the formation of new roots. A good seedling by the time of planting has 2-3 pairs of leaves and a strong root system. Seedlings are planted in the ground in late May - early June. Plants are planted in the soil 1-2 cm deeper than they grew before. The distance between plants depends on the species and variety. Tall hybrids and varieties of erect marigolds are planted according to the scheme 40 x 40 cm, medium varieties and F1 hybrids 30 x 30 cm and low varieties and hybrids of all types 20 x 20 cm.

The transplant is easily tolerated at any age, even in a flowering state.

Harvesting of marigolds and storage

It is customary to harvest marigolds during mass flowering (as a rule, this is the second decade of July). The flowers are cut at a height of 15 cm from the soil surface and the raw material (essential oil) is immediately sent to the plant for processing or dried in the shade.

The testes of the marigolds noted are harvested during the period when the seeds ripen on the central shoots and shoots of the first order of the plant. If you wait a little while harvesting the plant, this can lead to shedding of seeds. After carrying out work on cutting plants, the aisles must be carefully loosened.

Small marigolds are usually harvested during the mass flowering of this variety (in the second half of September). Flowers are cut (if possible) at the level of strong foliage (as a rule, this is 30-35 cm from the soil surface).

Testes are harvested when seeds are ripe on the central shoots and first-order shoots of the plant. After a short drying of the cut marigolds in a dark and dry room, the seeds of the plant are quite easily removed.

The raw material for the production of essential oil is the entire aerial half of freshly harvested flowering plants. The essential oil in marigolds is in a free state and is released without any particular difficulty by stripping with steam or extraction with volatile solvents. If the raw material is used as a spice, marigolds must be dried in the shade, since the amount and quality of essential oil is significantly reduced during sun drying.

Types and varieties of marigolds

A strong specific aroma is characteristic of all types of marigolds. Moreover, their flowers smell weaker, the leaves - stronger. Marigolds of three main types are grown: erect (Tagetes erecta), rejected (Tagetes patula) and thin-leaved (Tagetes tenuifolia).

Marigolds erect

They are also called African, although they come from America - powerful, from 40 to 100 cm in height, the inflorescences of all varieties are double, very large, with a diameter of about 7-15 cm.The color of the flowers is presented from pale yellow to dark orange.

Marigolds erect
Marigolds erect

Varieties

Varieties are distinguished by height: giant - above 90 cm; high - 60-90 cm; medium - 45-60 cm; low - up to 45 cm in height.

Antigua ('Antigua') - only 20 cm tall, but at the same time forms many inflorescences up to 10 cm in diameter, bright yellow or orange in color.

Yellow stone ('Gelber Stein') - Bushes up to 70 cm tall. Inflorescences are chrysanthemum, light golden yellow, 7-8 cm in diameter.

Golden Dollar ('Gold Dollar') - Bushes are compact, 90-120 cm tall. Shoots are strong, ribbed, thick, light green. The leaves are large, dark green. The inflorescences are clove-colored, almost spherical, densely doubled, 7-8 cm in diameter, red-orange, odorless. Early variety, blooms from early June until frost. Recommended for tall groups and cutoffs.

Golden light ('Goldlicht') - Compact bushes, 60-75 cm tall. Shoots are strong, ribbed, light green with a reddish bloom. The leaves are large, dark green. Carnation inflorescences, hemispherical, terry, 8-10 cm in diameter. Reed flowers are bright orange. Tubular flowers are narrow-crowned, few in number. Late variety. Blooms from late June until frost.

Solar ('Sonnenschein') - Standard-shaped bushes, 40-50 cm tall, compact. Shoots are strong, ribbed, green. The leaves are large, green. Inflorescences are chrysanthemum-shaped, 5-6 cm in diameter, golden yellow, consisting of numerous large tubular flowers with sharp corolla lobes twisted downwards and one row of reed flowers bent downwards. Recommended for group boarding.

Lemon prize ('Zitronen preis') - Standard-shaped bushes, 65-80 cm tall, compact. Shoots are strong, dark green with a pink bloom. The leaves are large, dark green. Carnation inflorescences, 8-10 cm in diameter, globular, densely double, lemon-yellow. It blooms from mid-June until frost. Recommended for tall groups and cutoffs.

Marigolds rejected

They are sometimes called French - much lower, 20-40 cm high.Their inflorescences can be both double and non-double, but from this no less beautiful, with a diameter of 4-7 cm, yellow and orange, as well as red-brown, sometimes bicolor.

Marigolds rejected
Marigolds rejected

Varieties

Golden ball ('Gold Ball') - Sprawling bushes, 50-60 cm tall, strongly branched. Shoots are strong, green, with a reddish-brown bloom, ribbed. Leaves are medium-sized, green. The inflorescences are simple and semi-double, 4-5 cm in diameter. Ligulate flowers are arranged in 1-2 rows, reddish-brown, velvety. The tubular flowers are golden yellow. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost. Good for cutting.

Gold head ('Gold Kopchen') -Compact bushes, 20-25 cm tall, densely leafy. Shoots are strong, green, with a reddish bloom. Leaves are medium in size, dark green. Inflorescences are chrysanthemum-shaped, double, 3.5-4 cm in diameter, composed of golden-yellow, broad-coronal tubular flowers and one row of dark red ligulate flowers, bent downwards, with a slightly wavy edge. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost. Recommended for flower beds, flower beds, pot plants and balcony decoration.

Queen Sophia ('Queen Sophia') - Inflorescences are not very markhra two-colored: red with a bronze-orange border, slightly fade in the sun, acquiring a brown tint, 7 cm in diameter.

Lemon jewel ('Lemon Gem') - Bushes are compact, 20-30 cm tall, almost spherical, strongly branched, densely leafy. Shoots are strong, thick, with dark red ribs. Leaves are medium in size, dark green. The inflorescences are carnation, double, 3.5-4 cm in diameter, consisting only of bright yellow reed flowers. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost. Recommended for flower beds, flower beds, decoration of balconies and vases.

Orange flame ('Orange flamme') - Bushes up to 20-30 cm tall, compact, densely leafy. Shoots are strong, green with reddish stripes. Leaves are dark green with small narrow-lanceolate lobes. Inflorescences are chrysanthemum-shaped, double, 3.5-4.5 cm in diameter, consist of wide-coronal bright orange tubular flowers with red strokes and one row of ligulate, red-brown velvety flowers bent downward, with a yellow spot at the base and a yellow border. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost.

Fireball ('Feuer ball') - Sprawling bushes, 55-70 cm high, strongly branched. Shoots are strong, ribbed, green with reddish stripes. The leaves are green. The inflorescences are simple, 4-5 cm in diameter. Ligulate flowers are arranged in one row, brown-red, velvety on the upper side, matte yellow on the lower side. The tubular flowers are orange with brown tips, forming a convex crest. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost. Recommended for cutting.

Fine marigolds

In marigolds, thin-leaved, 20-30 cm in height, openwork, thinly cut leaves and very small, 1-2 cm in diameter, non-double inflorescences. The flowers are yellow, orange and red.

All of the above marigolds are thermophilic, photophilous and very drought tolerant. Large rod-shaped seeds are sown for seedlings in early April. Seedlings appear in 5-8 days.

Seedlings, sometimes already blooming, are planted in a flower garden after the end of the frost. Plants easily take root after transplanting, even in a flowering state. And bloom until frost, which all marigolds are very afraid of.

Fine marigolds
Fine marigolds

Varieties

Golden ring ('Golden Ring') - Bush 40-50 cm tall, compact, spherical, densely branched. Shoots are thin, fragile, light green. The leaves are small, dissected into narrow lobes. Inflorescences are small, 2.5-3 cm in diameter, simple, reed flowers are bent, bright yellow, tubular flowers are small, orange with brown dots on the edges of the corolla lobes. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost. Recommended for ridges and high curbs.

Dwarf ('Gnom') - Bushes 20-25 cm tall, spherical, densely branched, densely leafy. Shoots are strong, thin, light green. Leaves are small with narrow linear lobes. Inflorescences are small, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, consist of 5 bright yellow reed flowers and a small number of small, tubular, orange flowers. Early variety. Blooms from early June until frost. It is used very widely in borders, flower beds, ridges, arrays, vases, pot culture.

Lemon Gem ('Lemon Gem') - Bushes 28-34 cm tall, spherical shape. Plants are very branchy, bloom profusely. Inflorescences are light yellow with a lemon tint.

Diseases and pests of marigolds

The great advantage of marigolds is resistance to pests and diseases. Phytoncides secreted by leaves scare away insects, including soil-dwelling ones. However, black stalk, gray rot, root and stem rot caused by fungi, bacterial and nematode diseases are sometimes observed.

Marigold
Marigold

The use of marigolds

The essential oil of the plant is yellow or amber in color, mobile, with a floral-spicy scent with fruity tones. The main component is ocimene (50%); there are also a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limononene, p-cymene, citral, linalool, p-terpinene, etc. Marigold essential oil is used in the perfumery and cosmetic and liqueur and vodka industries.

In cooking, marigolds are used in some countries of Latin America and Europe. This is one of the favorite spices of Georgian cuisine, where it is called Imeretian saffron. Dried and powdered flower baskets are used for food.

Marigolds are added to appetizers made from beans and vegetables, to dishes that include walnuts. Spice is an essential ingredient in soup mixes.

The second dishes of Georgian cuisine go well with marigolds: beef fillet in walnut-tomato sauce, boiled piglet, fried tripe with tomatoes. Some hot fish dishes are also flavored with them. But a special aroma and taste gives spice to hot poultry dishes: chicken with nuts, chicken on a skewer, fried chicken. Marigold sauces give a special piquancy.

Ever since childhood I remember marigolds in our country house! So sunny, beautiful. Grandma used them in such a special way, the path leading to the house was seated with marigolds on the sides, you walk along it as if the sun's rays surround you, the mood immediately rises!

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