About Urea In Detail. Application Features For Various Crops. Photo

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About Urea In Detail. Application Features For Various Crops. Photo
About Urea In Detail. Application Features For Various Crops. Photo

Video: About Urea In Detail. Application Features For Various Crops. Photo

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Video: МОЧЕВИНА (КАРБАМИД) МИНЕРАЛЬНОЕ УДОБРЕНИЕ, ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ, СВОЙСТВА И РАСХОД 2023, January
Anonim

Urea, or carbamide, belongs to the nitrogen fertilizer category. Urea is used as fertilizer and large farms and gardeners, as well as gardeners who own several hundred hectares of land. This demand for urea can be explained very simply, it is quite effective and is cheap.

Nitrogen fertilizer - urea, or carbamide
Nitrogen fertilizer - urea, or carbamide

Content:

  • Description of urea
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Urea
  • How to use urea as a fertilizer?
  • Urea application rates
  • Urea use for various crops
  • Using urea against pests
  • Storage rules for urea

Description of urea

Urea is a substance whose chemical formula is (NH 2) 2 CO. Urea dissolves well in sulphurous anhydride, liquid ammonia and water. Urea is obtained by synthesis from ammonia and carbon dioxide at a temperature of about 150 degrees above zero. In addition to being used as a fertilizer, urea is also used in the food industry - usually as a food additive under the number E-927, most often this additive is used in various chewing gums.

Urea contains almost half of nitrogen (about 44%). Plants need nitrogen primarily for their full growth and development. In the case of urea, it is important to know that plants will only be able to use half of the nitrogen in the fertilizer. However, despite this, it is better not to increase the urea dosage due to the nitration process.

If the soil is poor in nitrogen, then it is better to increase its content by combining urea and magnesium sulfate, then nitration in such a volume as when making large doses of urea is not observed.

Urea is usually produced under two brands - A and B. Typically, grade A urea is used in industry, but B is used as a fertilizer. Outwardly, these are whitish granules with a noticeable shade of yellowness. In the past few years, tablets containing urea have also begun to be produced, but it is still difficult to find them on the free market. The good thing about the tablets is that they have a special shell that prevents the evaporation of nitrogen before the fertilizer enters the soil during surface application. Considering this, tablets in weight ratio are needed significantly less than granules, however, the cost of urea in tablets is higher, so the economic effect is practically invisible.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Urea

The undoubted advantages of urea are the acceleration of the growth of the vegetative mass, the increase in the protein content in cereals, the strengthening of plant immunity, the prevention of pest reproduction, the undoubted ease of use, including due to the complete dissolution without residue.

Disadvantages of urea: an overdose of fertilizer in most cases causes severe burns in plants and can lead to their death; urea is not combined with a number of fertilizers (wood ash, calcium nitrate, simple superphosphate, lime, chalk, gypsum and dolomite flour).

You can combine urea with phosphate rock and ammonium sulfate - for quick addition (these compositions are not suitable for storage) or with sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate and manure - these compositions can be stored for a long time.

Why can't urea be combined with a number of fertilizers? The fact is that this fertilizer is highly acidic, therefore, if lime, wood ash, chalk or dolomite flour are added simultaneously with urea, a reaction will occur that simply neutralizes this composition, simultaneously releasing a lot of salts into the soil.

If you mix urea and monophosphate or calcium nitrate, then the soil will not become saline, but acidify, because all these fertilizers are based on acids.

How to use urea as a fertilizer?

In the overwhelming amount of nitrogen, and, consequently, nitrogen fertilizers are necessary for plants in spring, during the period when active sap flow and vegetation begin. The introduction of urea in the autumn can cause the activation of growth processes and the plants will simply freeze or freeze strongly in winter. However, if the site is empty and planting on it is planned in the autumn, then in the fall you can fertilize the soil with urea, you just need to keep in mind that about 40-45% of the nitrogen contained in urea, when introduced into the soil in autumn, can decompose rather quickly. and literally disappear.

When applying urea in the spring, it is better to use not a dry fertilizer, but dissolved in water, this will minimize the risk of burns in plants. It should be remembered that it is best to add even urea dissolved in water to pre-moistened soil or after heavy rain. It is better to apply dry urea to areas intended for planting, and do this not by simple scattering over the surface, but with the obligatory incorporation into the soil by digging or plowing. At the same time, a minimum amount of time should pass from scattering urea over the soil surface to digging or plowing the soil, otherwise most of the nitrogen can simply evaporate or turn into ammonia. The general decomposition time of urea is rather short - usually no more than five days.

A serious miscalculation is made by gardeners and gardeners who scatter urea granules in the spring in the garden and vegetable garden directly on the snow that has not yet melted or add urea during the rain (also by scattering it over the soil surface). With such an introduction, most of the nitrogen contained in urea will either evaporate or be washed into deeper soil layers inaccessible to the roots.

The most optimal option for feeding fruit plants and berry bushes with urea is to apply it in a form dissolved in water in pits or trenches previously dug in the bust zone or near-trunk strip, 3-4 cm deep (up to 10 cm can be used for powerful plants). Immediately after fertilization, both pits and trenches must be buried. This application prevents the evaporation of nitrogen contained in the urea and prevents it from being washed out into the deeper layers of the soil.

During the growing season, the use of urea as a top dressing is most justified if the plants show obvious signs of nitrogen starvation, that is, the plants develop extremely slowly, have a depressed appearance, their leaf blades are atypically small in size, and the ovaries largely crumble. The initial sign of a lack of nitrogen is yellowing or lightening of the leaf blades, however, in this case, you can make a mistake, since plants react to a lack of moisture and a lack of iron in the soil in the same way.

To distinguish a lack of iron and moisture from a lack of nitrogen, it is necessary to take a closer look at the leaf blades of plants in the daytime: if there is really little nitrogen, then in the daytime you will not notice wilting of the leaf blades, and if there is little moisture or iron in the soil, then wilting of leaves will be observed. In addition, with a lack of iron, the young leaves will turn yellow in the first place, and only after that yellowing will be noticeable on the old leaf blades, but with a lack of nitrogen in the soil, it is the old leaf blades that will turn yellow first and only then the young ones.

In the midst of the growing season, with a lack of nitrogen in the soil, urea can be applied both in dry and liquid form, or it is possible to process plants with it by foliar feeding.

How to prepare a liquid urea fertilizer?

It is quite simple to prepare a liquid fertilizer from urea due to its good solubility in water (even without sediment). Most often, solutions are made containing either 0.5% urea or 1%. This means that in a bucket of water you need to dissolve either 50 and 100 g of urea, respectively, or dissolve 5 and 10 g of urea in a liter of water.

Preparation of a urea solution for plant fertilization
Preparation of a urea solution for plant fertilization

Urea application rates

Urea is considered a universal nitrogen fertilizer, it is suitable for both vegetable crops and berry, fruit and flower crops, and can be used on any type of soil.

If you follow the instructions for applying urea, then the dosages will be as follows: in the form of granules, that is, in a dry form, about 5-10 g of fertilizer should be applied per square meter of soil, deepening it by 3-7 cm (up to 10 cm, depending on plant size) into pre-moistened soil; fertilizer dissolved in water must be applied in an amount of 20 g per square meter of soil for both vegetable and fruit or berry crops; treatment with urea dissolved in water, that is, foliar dressing - here the dosage for vegetables is as follows - 5 g per bucket of water per square meter, for shrubs and trees - 10 g per bucket of water and also per square meter; when planting plants in the soil, 4-5 g of fertilizer must be added to the planting hole, but be sure to mix it with the soil in order to exclude contact of the roots with urea.

Urea use for various crops

Garlic

Both winter and spring garlic can be fed with carbamide in early June. Further, you cannot use urea for garlic, this can lead to an increase in green mass to the detriment of the bulbs. You need to add urea under the garlic dissolved in water and add potassium chloride to the solution - 10 g of urea, 10 g of potassium chloride per bucket of water, this is the norm per square meter of garlic beds.

Cucumbers

It is appropriate to feed the cucumbers with urea only two weeks after planting the seedlings on the site. Urea is introduced dissolved in water at a rate of 15 g per bucket of water per square meter of area. It is permissible to add 45-50 g of superphosphate to the solution. Top dressing will be most effective if the soil is well moistened before applying it.

In the greenhouse, cucumbers can be processed with urea, that is, foliar feeding is carried out, especially when the color of the leaf blades changes (discoloration).

For full-fledged foliar feeding of cucumbers in a greenhouse, 15 g of urea, 20 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride must be dissolved in a bucket of water. It is advisable to process the plants in cloudy weather and always after preliminary watering.

Tomatoes

Tomatoes like the urea treatment. Usually, tomatoes are fertilized with urea when planting seedlings on the site, adding 12-14 g of a mixture of urea and superphosphate to each hole (6-7 g of each fertilizer).

Cabbage

Usually urea is used on cabbage at the first feeding. Before feeding, the cabbage is watered abundantly, then 30 g of urea is dissolved in a bucket of water and this solution is consumed per square meter of soil.

Potatoes

For potatoes, which are characterized by a weak assimilation of mineral fertilizers, the soil must be fertilized with urea even before the tubers are planted. Usually, the soil is fertilized a couple of weeks before planting potatoes, while it is advisable to apply urea along with potassium fertilizer. About 1.5 kg of urea and 0.5 kg of potash fertilizer are needed per hundred square meters.

In the event that, for some reason, you did not add urea before planting the potatoes, then it can be added to the soil five days after planting the tubers, but not dry, but dissolved in water. The norm is about 15-16 g per bucket of water, this solution is enough for 20 plants (about 0.5 liters each).

Garden strawberry (strawberry)

It is advisable to add urea under this culture only if necessary, because if garden strawberries feel nitrogen deficiency, then the size of the berries will be small, as well as their quantity, and the taste will be mediocre. And in the case of an excess of nitrogen, the berry will be watery and devoid of flavor. It is recommended to apply urea under the garden strawberries immediately after the snow melts, 15-20 g of fertilizer in dissolved form per square meter, no more. If you need higher doses of nitrogen fertilizers, then it is better to use nitrophoska or diammophos.

Urea for fertilizing garden plants
Urea for fertilizing garden plants

Fruit trees and large shrubs

Fruit trees and large shrubs respond quite well to urea feeding. Such plants can be fed with urea up to three times per season. Usually they are fed immediately after the snow melts, during flowering and during the ripening period. Before the introduction of urea, the soil in the bush or near-trunk strip is loosened, watered, and then urea is applied so that the fertilizer is buried in the loosened soil by 3-4 cm.After the application, it is advisable to cover the urea with soil.

Feeding rates differ depending on the age of the plants: for example, before the trees and large shrubs begin to bear fruit, they are almost a third less. For example, under an apple tree that has not yet entered into fruiting, you need about 75-80 g of fertilizer, under a cherry 85-90 g, under a plum 110-115 g and under shrubs (irga, chokeberry, and so on) 100-110 g. After entry for fruiting, an apple tree already requires 150-160 g per tree, a cherry 110-120 g, a plum 125-140 g and shrubs (irga, chokeberry and the like) 135-145 g per bush.

Flowers

Flowers with urea must be fertilized at the very beginning of their active growth to build up the vegetative mass. Further, such dressings will become inappropriate, since the vegetative mass will continue to form to the detriment of flowering, as flower growers say, "the flower will go into the foliage." It is noteworthy that with an excess of nitrogen, the flowers may not form buds at all, and if there is a lot of nitrogen, then there will be a massive fall of laid buds and inflorescences, both with blossoming flowers and with unopened ones.

Urea should be applied under flower crops only in a form dissolved in water, for which you need to dissolve about four grams of this fertilizer in a liter of water and use this rate under a large flower such as a peony or divide it into two parts if the flower is small, such as a tulip or lily of the valley.

Using urea against pests

Usually, urea is used against pests if there is no possibility or desire to use chemistry. Plants are treated with it, watering abundantly, usually before bud break, when the air temperature rises above five degrees Celsius. With the help of urea treatments, you can get rid of weevils, aphids, apple blossom beetle and copperhead. To do this, it is appropriate to use fertilizer dissolved in water in an amount of 30 g per bucket of water. If last season there was a strong pest infestation, then the dose can be increased to 100 g per bucket of water, but this dosage cannot be exceeded, this can harm the plants.

Storage rules for urea

To store urea, given its increased hygroscopicity, it is necessary to store in a dry and ventilated room, with an air humidity of 50% and below. It is permissible to store urea in more humid rooms, but at the same time in a hermetically sealed container.

Usually the guaranteed shelf life is only six months, but the urea can be used indefinitely. The fact is that the manufacturer guarantees the absence of caking of urea for six months, and then before use, in case of caking, it will need to be crushed and can be used for an unlimited amount of time. However, it is necessary to take into account the fact that over the years the amount of nitrogen in urea may be insignificant, but it is necessary to decrease and use fertilizers with very long storage periods taking into account this fact.

Here is everything that we wanted to tell you about urea, the information seems to us quite sufficient, but if you have any questions, we will be happy to answer them in the comments.

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