Table of contents:
- Feature of EM technology
- Composition of EM preparations
- Useful properties of EM drugs
- EM drugs produced by industry
- Biologicals to protect against diseases
- Biological products for pest control
- Self-preparation of biological products
Video: EM Preparations In Organic Vegetable Growing. Effective Microorganisms
It is known that the long-term cultivation of berry, garden and vegetable crops with the annual removal of nutrients from the soil by the harvest gradually impoverishes it. The development of intensive technologies in industrial agriculture led to the widespread use of various chemicals, which, at one time, were considered a panacea for all agricultural troubles. The short-term solution to the problems with the rapid regeneration of the soil led, ultimately, to large negative phenomena in the environment, including a sharp increase in diseases of the population, especially children, whose system turned out to be the most vulnerable to diseases of various etiologies.
The return of soil fertility can be achieved by different methods, both chemical (the introduction of finished mineral preparations in the form of basic fertilizers, micro- and macroelements), and organic (manure, chicken droppings, humus, green manure, etc.). In connection with the collapse of huge agricultural associations, there was no need to use chemicals in the production of agricultural products. Small and medium-sized farms are gradually switching to alternative technologies that ensure high yields without the use of chemicals to increase soil fertility, protect plants from diseases and pests.
Research in the field of biological reproduction of soil fertility, the use of natural complexes to create comfortable conditions for the development of agricultural crops, was expressed in the development of methods of alternative agriculture, including the use of EM technologies (technologies using effective microorganisms).
Feature of EM technology
EM technology differs from the classical one (with the use of chemical means of fertility revival) in that the depleted soil is restored by the cultures of microorganisms present in the soil in a natural state. Beneficial microorganisms, multiplying in the soil, inhibit and destroy the painful microflora, form nutrients available to plants from organic substances.
The idea behind EM technology is to multiply beneficial microorganisms and bring them into their natural habitat. Japanese microbiologist Teruo-Higa (1988), and 10 years later the Russian scientist P. A. have developed a complex complex of beneficial bacteria, fungi and other effective microorganisms. The concentrate of effective microorganisms was named EM-preparation, which served as the basis for the name of the new technology for the cultivation of crops - EM-technology.
Composition of EM preparations
EM preparations, which are of natural origin, do not contain genetically modified aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. They mainly include microflora of 5 families, which are always present in the soil.
- Lactic acid bacteria. Great natural sterilizer. Suppresses harmful microorganisms present in the soil, decomposes and ferments lignin and cellulose, converting them into forms accessible to plants.
- Photosynthetic bacteria. They contribute to the formation of biologically active substances from organic matter and gases, and also have a positive effect on the increase in the soil of saprophytic and mycorrhizal fungi, whose excretions convert soil minerals into accessible forms.
- Yeast is a natural antibiotic. As a result of their activity, active substances such as hormones and enzymes are formed that stimulate the growth point of plants, including the root. They increase their activity when combined with actinomycetes and lactic acid bacteria.
- Actinomycetes occupy an intermediate position between fungi and bacteria. They belong to natural antibiotics and actively suppress groups of pathogenic fungi and bacteria in places of residence.
- Fermenting fungi, together with the rest of the useful microflora, promote the rapid decomposition of organic substances to alcohols, ethers, antibiotics, activate the local saprophytic microflora, which produces enzymes, vitamins, amino acids and other physiologically active substances. By the way, the community of beneficial microorganisms cleans the soil of pests and their larvae.
The symbiosis of beneficial effective microorganisms multiplies the beneficial effect on the processes taking place in the soil without causing harm. There is a gradual natural "healing" and "recovery" of the soil.
Useful properties of EM drugs
- Accelerate the processes of humus formation by increasing the amount of humic acids needed by plants.
- They increase the water and air permeability of the soil, which is especially important when growing plants on heavy clay soils.
- By decomposing organic matter, they increase the soil temperature by +3.. + 5ºС, creating conditions for earlier sowing and planting of crops.
- They neutralize heavy metal salts to a minimum content in the soil.
- They convert nitrogen and other mineral salts into chelated forms available to plants, without the formation of substances harmful to the body such as nitrates, nitrites and others.
- They saturate the soil with beneficial microflora, which inhibits the growth of phytopathogens (“heals” the soil).
- By improving the structure of the soil and the mineral nutrition of plants, providing a sufficient amount of biologically active substances, effective microorganisms help to increase the resistance of plants to diseases and pests.
- The complex positive effect on the soil improves the growth and development of plants, increases their productivity and the quality of grown products.
EM drugs produced by industry
Today, in various regions of Russia, agricultural enterprises are engaged in the production and supply of microbial preparations based on natural beneficial microorganisms. In scientific laboratories, agronomically active crops with targeted or polyfunctional properties are distinguished:
- for soil and plant cultivation,
- pre-sowing treatment of seeds, seedlings, adult vegetable and horticultural crops.
The first multifunctional biological product released in Russia was the Baikal EM-1 concentrate, containing a set of effective microorganisms in a steady sleep state. The biological product BakSib (bacteria of Siberia) has the same properties. These biological products restore soil fertility, improve the taste of fruits and vegetables. The working solution of biological products introduced into organic waste (tops, weeds, manure, leaves, sawdust, straw, bone meal, food waste, etc.), within 3-4 weeks, instead of several years, processes them into vermicompost, ready for use …
Currently, a significant list of approved biological products is presented for the sphere of biological agriculture: Stimulin, Zorka, Baikal EM-1-U, Extrasol, Batsilon, Bizar, Rizoplan. Biological products EM-2 (Shining-2), EM-3 (Shining-3) for accelerated decomposition of organic matter were released.
Biologicals to protect against diseases
Biologics to protect against disease are called biofungicides. Biologicals are developed on the basis of fungi and bacteria.
Biofungicides for disease protection based on effective fungi
Biofungicides of the fungal direction, act as antagonists and, when meeting with the enemy, penetrate the mycelium, destroy it, which leads to the death of the pathogenic fungus and stops the development of the disease. These include biologics: Trichodermin, Ampelomycin, Konyotirin. They effectively protect crops from root rot, white and gray rot, powdery mildew.
Biofungicides for disease protection based on effective bacteria
Bacterial preparations are used for both soil disinfection and plant protection from a number of diseases. Effective bacteria introduced into the soil inhibit the action of pathogenic fungi, causing their death. When spraying with a solution of the drug, the biological product destroys pathogenic fungi on a green plant, secreted by antibiotics.
Biopreparations Fitosporin-M, Alirin-B, Gamair, Gaupsin, Planriz, Pseudobacterin, Binoram, Baktofit, Glyokladin are intended for pre-sowing seed soaking, treatment of tubers against fungal diseases (black leg, fusarium wilting, phytophthora, bacterial and vascular rot, ascochitis). The same drugs are effective against diseases when processing plants during the growing season. They are absolutely harmless to people, animals, beneficial insects. Some (Planriz) can be used the day before harvest. Glyocladin and Binoram, in addition to protecting against diseases, have a growth-stimulating effect on vegetables and potatoes. In addition, in protected ground, Glyokladin and Binoram with Bactofit are distinguished by very high efficiency against root and root rot of cucumbers. Gamair is also effective against cancer and necrosis in fruit crops.
Be careful when applying biofungicides. They must be used against diseases that are clearly defined in plants and only as recommended. If the disease is incorrectly identified, the drug may not work.
Biologics against diseases are recommended to be used from the first days of the growing season for prophylactic purposes. They are compatible with bioinsecticides in tank mixes, which reduces the load on the number of plant treatments and the time spent on work. Biofungicides do not have a noticeable effect on diseases when used once. Their use is designed for the systematic processing of plants and soil in accordance with the directions and recommendations for use.
Biological products for pest control
Biological products for pest control are called bioinsecticides. They are divided into groups:
- insecticidal biological products based on bacteria,
- mushroom-based avermectins,
- bioinsection based on entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN).
Bioinsecticides for pest control based on bacteria
The most common in use are Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocid, Basamil, Fitoverm. They are used in the fight against leaf-gnawing caterpillars on all vegetable and berry-fruit crops, flower, decorative deciduous and coniferous species. It should be noted that Bitoxibacillin is effective in the fight against Colorado potato beetle larvae, aphids and spider mites even in protected ground. Their analogue is the biological product Bicol
A relatively new biological product Bactoculicide (Bacticide) is used against sucking pests. It is recommended to use it against blood-sucking mosquitoes and flea beetles, treating the surface and adjacent plants of reservoirs, basements and rooms for growing mushrooms (oyster mushrooms and champignons) from mushroom mosquitoes.
Bioinsecticides for pest control based on fungi
In preparations developed on the basis of fungi (avermectins), the products of its vital activity play a protective role, which lead to paralysis and death of many sucking pests, ticks, larvae and nematodes. This group contains a wide variety of targeted drugs. The most famous are Aktofit, Aversectin-S, Avertin-N, which effectively act on pests in the early stages of development. Mycoafidin and Verticillin are recommended against aphids and whiteflies. Effective against nematodes Metarizin and Pecilomycin. Aktofit can be used even during extended harvesting (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, apples, etc.).
A very promising group of bioinsecticides. Their development based on entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is very promising. Russian preparations Nemabakt, Antonem-F are successfully used in the fight against larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, click beetle, May beetle, locusts, cabbage and sea buckthorn flies, mining flies, thrips, weevils, mushroom mosquitoes. Effective against wireworm and bear. On potatoes, it can be used both for introduction into the soil when planting tubers and seedlings of potatoes, and for processing the tops during the budding period.
When using them, preliminary sprinkling is necessary, work in the evening. For effective operation of the nematodes in suspended animation, the working solution must be kept for 3-4 days in a dark room at a temperature not lower than + 25 ° C. The concentrate is stored in a cool dark room at a temperature of +2.. + 8 ° C.
Self-preparation of biological products
Today, many gardeners and gardeners are increasingly resorting to folk methods of protection in the fight against diseases and pests of vegetable and berry-garden crops. At home, they independently prepare homemade biological products in the form of starter cultures, infusions, decoctions from wild and some garden plants and successfully use them to combat diseases and pests.
Many weeds and crops have fungicidal and insecticidal activity. They can stimulate the immunity of plants and they successfully resist damage from diseases and pests. But there are herbal preparations that have a detrimental effect on negative microflora and pests. There are a huge number of such recipes. Not all of them are effective and at the same time, when used, they are not as harmless to health as it seems at first glance. If the solution is prepared from poisonous plants, it will be poisonous to humans. Therefore, when working with such solutions, it is necessary to observe all personal safety measures, thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables, and withstand the termination of processing before harvesting.
To treat plants from pests, decoctions of the following plants can be used: walnut leaves, potato tops (healthy), nettle, large burdock, onion and onion husks, garlic, marigolds, red elderberry, birch tar, peppercorn, high larkspur, calendula and others. Decoctions successfully destroy aphids, scoops, various types of moths, Colorado potato beetle larvae, leaf-gnawing caterpillars, white beetles, sawflies, ticks, goldmails. Poisonous plants are excluded from the list, although some gardeners use them. But, if the family has children, it is better not to use decoctions of poisonous plants.
For the preparation of broths, a fresh aerial part of plants or dried for future use is used. 2-4 kg of green or 1.5-2.0 dry grass of herbaceous plants are poured with 5 liters of boiling water and insisted for 1-2 days, closing the lid. Coarser parts of plants (stems, branches, bulbs, etc.) are poured with boiling water and boiled for 1-2 hours. Insist before cooling. Then they are diluted with cold water, bringing the volume to 8-10 liters, filtered and sprayed on plants when pests appear. Spraying is repeated after 3-7 days. After rains, spraying must be repeated. Decoctions of calendula and marigolds also protect well against root rot and fungal diseases.
Homemade EM-preparations from infusions and starter cultures
These types of EM preparations are designed primarily for treating the soil, filling the upper root layer with effective microorganisms.
Making hay infusion
First, we prepare an infusion of hay sticks (subtilin). For cooking, you need rotten hay, but not moldy. We boil for 15-20 minutes in 1 liter of chlorine-free water, a mixture of 150 g of fresh chopped hay with 1 teaspoon of chalk (to reduce acidity). During boiling, most of the pathogenic bacteria and fungi die. Hay stick spores remain alive. Place the cooled solution in a dark, warm place. After 3 days, a whitish film will appear on the surface of the solution, consisting of live hay sticks. This is the mother liquor from which the worker is prepared. To prepare a working solution, 1 kg of dead hay is placed on the bottom of a tank with a capacity of 10-12 liters, 10 tablespoons of chalk or slaked lime are added and 10 liters of hot water are poured. The container is closed from sunlight and placed in a dark place for 3 days. Thoroughly filter and use for spraying or applying to the soil.
Making herbal starter
First, prepare the starter culture from yeast, sugar and warm water. In a 3 liter bottle, pour a pinch of yeast, 5 tablespoons with top sugar, pour warm water and mix everything. The solution will ferment within 3 days. The leaven is ready. To prepare top dressing, we take a 200 liter container (you can use a plastic or galvanized barrel). We put 1-1.5 kg of wood or grass ash, 0.5 buckets of manure, 6-8 kg of rotten leaves or straw, hay into a container, add 2-3 kg of compost or the top layer of garden soil (without the use of herbicides), sand … Fill in the leaven. If there is, add 1-2 liters of whey. Mix everything thoroughly and leave to infuse for a week. Stir the mixture daily. During this period, beneficial bacteria and fungi will multiply. On depleted soils, the solution is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2, and on more affluent (chernozems) 1: 8-10. We apply top dressing in the aisles under sprinkling irrigation. We mulch with peat, leaf mulch or other, preferably semi-rotten.
You can prepare infusions for fertilizing and spraying plants of other compositions. But always in the manufacture of concentrate, the base is sourdough, herbs, including medicinal ones (calendula, St. John's wort, chamomile, plantain and others), compost or manure, ash. The mixture should "come to life", infuse. Before use, dilute the prepared volume 4-10 times and add to the top dressing. Such solutions are several times more effective in fertilizing than solutions of mineral fertilizers or chemical preparations.