Table of contents:
- Flower garden in the shade
- Flower garden in a dry area
- Flower garden in a waterlogged area
- A flower garden on acidic soil
- Zykova V.K., Klimenko Z.K. - Flower beds
Video: Flower Garden. Features Of The Site. Selection Of Plants. Landscaping. Care. Garden Work. Improvement. The Soil. A Photo
Each garden or its individual corner has its own characteristics: it can be open and well-lit, partially or completely shaded, dry or moist, have soils of different composition and acidity. But whatever the conditions on the site, a modern garden is unthinkable without flower beds and flower arrangements.
What flowers will fill the shady garden with light? What to plant in an area with dry and poor soil? What flower garden will decorate the moist shore of the reservoir? What will grow on a barren rocky slope? How to place plants in a flower garden correctly? Such questions may arise from florists, especially beginners.
Flower garden in the shade
No matter how large the garden area, there are always shaded corners on it. The shadow is created by the house, outbuildings, the fence of the site. Sometimes only a narrow strip of land remains between the buildings, on which the sun's rays hardly fall. Large trees give the site solidity, but also shade it. Over time, the garden you planted will grow, and there will be less and less sunny, which means that the most convenient places for creating a flower garden will become less and less.This problem is especially acute for the owners of modern small land plots, on which they so want to place both a garden and a vegetable garden, and always a lush flower garden …
Shading the land means more than just losing usable area. In a shaded, untreated area, weeds find shelter, and pests and diseases develop on them, and soon the shady area becomes a threat to the entire garden. That is why it is especially important to choose plants for decorating such a site.
Features of the site and selection of plants
In order to choose the right assortment of decorative deciduous and beautifully flowering annuals and perennials for your shaded area, you need to assess the degree of shading and moisture. The degree of shading is assessed considering that it varies with the season and time of day. For example, in early spring, there is a lot of light under the crowns of deciduous trees, and this makes it possible to grow many spring flowers here, which have time to bloom even before the blossoming leaves block the sun.
In areas with a dense, inactive shade, the sun looks in less than two hours a day. As a rule, such shading is created by buildings, dense plantings of spruce and other conifers, oak, broad-leaved species, under the crowns of old, densely planted overgrown apple trees and on the north side of tall shrubs (irgi, hawthorn). In such areas, their own specific microclimate is created. In summer, there are less daily temperature drops, higher air humidity, no wind, and in spring snow melts more slowly.
Deciduous trees give a light shade or partial shade: birch, cherry, mountain ash, bird cherry, sea buckthorn, ash, small-leaved maples. A similar type of shading can be seen in areas with broadleaf trees, when the plantings are still young and the crowns have not closed. As a rule, the greatest shading is observed here at noon hours, and in general, quite favorable conditions are created for many plants. Penumbra also reigns near large groups of trees and bushes, on the east and west sides of buildings.
Tree crowns not only shade the area, but also reduce the amount of water that enters the soil during rain. At the same time, the roots of trees intensively absorb water, and along with a lack of light, plants shaded by trees experience a lack of moisture. The moisture content of the site is especially important for the selection of an assortment of plants, since most shade-tolerant and shade-loving species and varieties are very demanding on the amount of moisture. The problem of lack of water is very acute in areas with sandy soil.
Most shade-tolerant and shade-loving plant species are demanding on soil moisture
You also need to pay attention to what kind of trees create shade, especially if your site is located in a forest or on its edge.
As already noted, spruce trees form the thickest and most immobile shadow. Ferns and astilbe can be planted under the canopy of these trees, subject to additional watering. The noble liverwort grows well and blooms here, oxalis grows easily, retaining beautiful triple leaves throughout the season and blooming in June with numerous yellow, white or pink flowers. At the same time, oxalis interferes with the growth of other perennials, with the exception of lily of the valley, which develops well under spruce trees, even together with acidwood. If the spruce trees close the area from the north, then under their sewn up, for example, curly and one-brother lilies can grow.
Oak trees also create a fairly dense shade. Oak trees are areas with fertile, moist soil. Leaves here bloom late enough, which creates excellent conditions for woodlands, muscari, crested crested, spring anemone, as well as umbilical, pachisandra. Lily of the valley blooms very profusely under the oak trees. The dark green foliage of the oak is in harmony with the light leaves of the canadian goldenrod, the groups of which are complemented by the bright red monarda, which blooms from August to September. Under the oak trees, you can also plant a sharp-toothed spirea, and against its background - daisies, toothed primroses, spring primroses, Japanese primroses and onions. Plants of this composition bloom from mid-April to late July. Astilbe, hosta, rogeria, badan, buzulnik, dicentra, black cohosh grow well under oak trees. Similar conditions develop under the canopy of maples.
Birches provide a light shade and improve the soil, although under them it is usually quite dry. Here you can plant kupens, lilies of the valley, bells, forget-me-nots, violets, lungwort, periwinkle, creeping tenacious, as well as woodworms and muscari. It is in the shade of a birch grove that plants with blue and lilac-pink flowers look advantageous. Tiarella carpets are magnificent under the birches, which are especially decorative during the flowering period.
Pines form a loose shade. Here, bracken fern, bulbous plants, lungwort, lumbago, bells, sedum plant feel good. Against the background of pine bark, yellow and orange flowers of mountain goats look advantageous.
Flower garden in a dry area
It would seem that a sunny site is good luck for a gardener. This is true if the soil on your site is well-drained and moisture-consuming and, in addition, during the summer season it is possible to regularly water the flower garden.Otherwise, you will have to watch with chagrin how many plants will wither leaves and flowers at noon, the period will be significantly reduced. flowering, or even dropping of buds and flowers will occur. In dry areas, the soil is usually sandy, infertile, moisture easily permeable. Such soils set aside for a flower garden can be improved by removing the top layer to a depth of 40 to 50 cm and filling the bottom with a heavier, clayey soil with a layer of 10-15 cm. Nutritious loamy soil of peat, compost and mineral fertilizers should be added to the removed soil. However, if for some reason it is not possible to do this,then for such a site, you can pick up an assortment of plants that can retain beauty and bloom profusely.
© Chris Wood
Features of the site and selection of plants
Most plants do not tolerate high temperatures and low humidity. Similar conditions are typical for sunny areas with poor soil, as well as for flower beds on the southern side of the walls, especially made of dark colored stones that are very hot in the sun or for southern slopes. The same group includes territories on which construction has just been completed. If the soil is stony, sandy or sandy loam, plants suffer not only from a lack of moisture, but also from a lack of nutrients, which quickly seep with water into the lower layers of the soil. One of the advantages of a dry, sunny site is that the ground here warms up quickly and in spring the growth and flowering of plants begins earlier than in other places.
To increase the moisture capacity of the soil, its structure should be improved to a depth of at least 40 cm, and this is associated with significant material and physical costs. However, they can be minimized by choosing plants that are suitable for such growing conditions. These are, first of all, species of Mediterranean origin, as well as natives of the stony and dry prairies of North America. These "sun worshipers" are given by the appearance, for example, medium-sized pubescent, often hard leaves.
© Dylan Duvergé
Flower garden in a waterlogged area
A river or lake near your garden gives it a romantic charm and makes it more enjoyable outside the city, especially in summer. However, in such a site, as a rule, the level of groundwater is located close to the soil surface, and in spring water can stagnate in depressions. Most common garden plants do not want to bloom and grow in moist soil, their roots lack access to air, and they can rot. Therefore, for the successful cultivation of flowers in this case, it is necessary to carefully select their assortment. A significant share in a flower garden in a waterlogged area should be marsh plants that feel good with excessive moisture and are even capable of being semi-submerged in water for some time. It is vital for them that the soil never dries out. But,such a flower garden also requires specific care features.
Features of the site and selection of plants
To decide whether the site can be considered waterlogged, it is necessary to dig a hole 50-60 cm deep. If water accumulates on its bottom over time, this is a sure sign of strong moisture. Another indicator is the presence of indicator plants of increased importance, which include meadow geranium, black sedge, finger and swollen, cotton grass, fireweed, marsh horsetail, marsh marigold, meadow meadowsweet, meadow foxtail.
In this case, an effective measure to improve the site is the creation of a drainage system - the work is expensive and time-consuming. Having picked up the appropriate range of perennial moisture-loving plants, you can decorate the site without significant costs.
Most plants suitable for high humidity conditions tend to grow normally both in open, sunny areas and in light shade. There are also plant species that are more suited to certain lighting conditions.
A flower garden on acidic soil
Acidic soil is a significant problem in flower gardening. Meanwhile, soils of this type are widespread in our country. This is facilitated by the introduction of large doses of mineral fertilizers, as well as removal with the harvest and leaching of calcium and magnesium from the soil. Peaty, soddy-podzolic soils, as well as soils on the border of coniferous forests, are acidic. Many plants do not tolerate these conditions because the aluminum they contain interferes with access to the roots of calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. With a high acidity of the soil in it, the vital activity of soil bacteria participating in the decomposition of organic matter is suppressed. Root growth also slows down and their ability to absorb water is reduced. However, there are plants that are ideally adapted to life precisely in such difficult conditions.The most famous of them are representatives of the heather family. However, it is not at all necessary to limit yourself to a heather garden, since there are plants that can develop well under conditions of not too strong acidification.
Features of the site and selection of plants
Acidity is measured by the pH value; to determine it, you need a set of indicator paper or a field pH meter, which can be purchased at the garden center. For soil analysis, using indicator paper, several samples are taken in different places of the site and at different depths, wrapped in clean gauze and lowered into a vessel with distilled water (the ratio of soil and water volumes is 1: 5). After 5 minutes, a dry strip of indicator paper is immersed in water for a few seconds and the color in which it will turn is compared with the attached scale, where the pH values are indicated. At the same time, soil with a pH of 3-4.5 is considered to be strongly acidic, pH 4.5-5 is acidic and pH 5.1-5.5 is weakly acidic. Sod-podzolic soils widespread in central Russia, as a rule, have a pH of 4-5.5, that is, they can belong to all three groups of soil acidity.
Roughly determining the acidic soil will help the plants found on the site, such as sphagnum, ploons, hairy peel, turf pike, marsh creeper, dog violet, marsh whitehead, marsh wild rosemary, caustic buttercup.
The method of improving acidic soil is liming, the key to the success of which is the introduction of lime materials (chalk, dolomite, marl) in the fall and in the right concentration: from 1.5 (sandy soil) to 4 (clay soil) kilograms per 10 m2 to increase the pH per unit. In peat soils with high acidity, the most problematic for growing plants, in addition to lime, loamy soil, organic and mineral fertilizers are added. The particle size of the lime material should not be more than 1 mm, and after its introduction, the site is dug to a depth of at least 20 cm.In the future, the achieved acidity level must be maintained, this is facilitated, among other things, by the introduction of organic fertilizers, as well as the cultivation of plants belonging to the legume family,on the roots of which there are special nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unfortunately, liming changes the properties of the soil for a period of about 10 years. Repeat this procedure the more often, the more precipitation falls in your area.
Liming is used to reduce the acidity of the soil
When choosing an assortment of ornamental plants for a flower garden in an area with acidic soil, it is necessary to focus primarily on the pH value. Most cultivated plants prefer soil, the reaction of the environment is close to neutral (pH 5.5-7), and, for example, many natives of the Mediterranean do not tolerate acidic soils, which are more suitable for growing plants originating from regions of Japan and Tibet.
So: when choosing an assortment of ornamental plants for a flower garden in an area with acidic soil, it is necessary to focus primarily on the pH value
On acidic soil, you can arrange a flower garden using plants such as goldenrod, rhubarb, hydrangea, lupine, bathers, marsh marigold.
A safe option for a flower garden on strongly acidic soil is a heather composition
Slightly acidic soil is suitable for many ornamental plants, including roses, peonies, chamomile, astilbe, asters, ageratum, levkoi, chrysanthemums, lilies of the valley, spring minuartia, Japanese and buttercup anemones, mossy and shady saxifrages, phloxes, mountaineers, green chrysanthemums, bells nettle-leaved and broadleaf, as well as many species of ferns, first of all male wild rose and bracken.
Of course, in addition to the acidity of the soil, it is necessary to take into account such important factors for plants as the light and moisture of your site. Plants that tolerate high soil acidity are suitable for creating flower beds in sunny or semi-shady areas.
© Per Ola Wiberg