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Video: Pion. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Decorative Blooming. Top Dressing. Planting Method And Technique. Agrotechnics Of Peonies. Tsvetf. A Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
- Agrotechnics of peonies Part 1: Selection and preparation of a site for planting
- Agrotechnics of peonies. Part 2: Landing
- Agrotechnics of peonies. Part 3: Care
With proper soil preparation in planting pits or trench ridges, young bushes in the first two years develop normally without root fertilization with mineral fertilizers. They only need frequent weeding, loosening and watering. Carefully loosen the soil around the bushes: near the bush to a depth of 5 - 7 cm, at a distance of 20 - 25 cm from it - by 10-15 cm. With regular loosening, a well-aerated mulching layer forms on almost all soils, which prevents moisture evaporation from the lower soil layers … It eliminates the need for frequent watering in dry weather. In addition, frequent loosening makes it easier to control weeds. It is advisable to loosen the soil after rains and heavy watering to prevent crust formation.
In the first year after planting, the aboveground part of the plant is small and consists of one or two stems 15 -25 cm high. During this period, the root system develops intensively, but still poorly assimilates nutrients (nitrogen - N, phosphorus - P, potassium - K) at root top dressing with mineral fertilizers. At this stage of plant formation, foliar feeding is more effective, in which nutrients are absorbed through the leaves. Experience shows that it is rational to carry out three foliar dressings of the following composition with an interval of 10-15 days:
- the first feeding-40 -50 g of carbamide (urea) per 10 liters of water immediately after the beginning of the growth of the aboveground part of the plants;
- the second feeding -40 - 50 g of carbamide with the addition of a tablet of microelements per 10 liters of water;
- the third feeding - 2 tablets of microelements per 10 liters of water.
Foliar top dressing is performed using a garden sprayer. Better to spray in the evening. For better wetting of the surface of the leaves, add one tablespoon of washing powder to 10 liters of solution. During the second and third feeding to activate the development of the root system, it is useful to water the young plantings with a solution of sodium humate. (5 g per 10 l of water) or heteroauxin (2 tablets per 10 l of water). If in the first two years after planting buds are formed on the bushes, they are removed so that the plants do not consume a large amount of nutrients on flowers, but continue to develop the root system.
By the third year after planting, the bushes grow, have 10-15 stems, and begin to bloom profusely. At this time, regular root fertilization with mineral fertilizers is required. In the spring-summer period, they are held at least three. In all cases, overfeeding the bushes with nutrients is undesirable, therefore it is important to observe the doses of dressings and the timing of their implementation.
The domestic industry produces more than 30 types of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and complex fertilizers. It is usually recommended to apply the optimal amount of fertilizer based on grams of active ingredient per bush three to seven years old. For plants older than seven years, the dose of top dressing is increased. The active ingredient is understood as the percentage of the main elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in this fertilizer. Fertilizer packages sold in stores always give this data. The percentage of active ingredient for the most common fertilizers is given in Appendix 1.
The calculation of the required amount of a particular fertilizer, if the recommendations are given in grams of active ingredient, can be carried out using the following formula:
H = 100D / E,
- where H is the required amount of fertilizers, in grams;
- D - the recommended amount of an element when feeding, in grams of active ingredient;
- E - the content of this element in the fertilizer (indicated on the package), in percentage.
For example, it is necessary to add 15 g of potassium per active substance to one bush. The farm has potassium sulfate with a potassium content of 45%. Calculation is performed:
H = 100 X 15/45 = 33g.
Thus, 33 g of potassium sulfate must be added to one bush.
For the good development of peony bushes and obtaining high quality flowers, early-spring nitrogen-potassium feeding is very important: nitrogen 10-15g, potassium 10-20g per active ingredient per bush. Fertilizers are applied over the melted snow or immediately after it disappears, sprinkling around the bush or embedding in a groove. Dissolved fertilizer with melt water gets to the roots. Spreading fertilizers, try not to get on the rhizome of the bush.
The second feeding is carried out during the budding period: nitrogen 8-10g, phosphorus 15-20g and potassium-10-15g according to the active ingredient per bush. The main purpose of the second feeding is to obtain good quality flowers.
The third top dressing is performed two weeks after flowering. It includes: phosphorus -15 -20 g, potassium - 10-15 g for the active ingredient. Top dressing stimulates the formation of large buds of renewal, the accumulation of nutrients in the roots, thereby ensuring abundant flowering next year. It is advisable to apply fertilizers in the form of a solution - in total, no more than 60 -70 g of fertilizers per 10 liters of water. Usually, top dressing is combined with watering. You can apply dry fertilizer to the groove before watering. Additionally, foliar dressing with micronutrient fertilizers is effective in these terms - one or two tablets per 10 liters of water.
Peony bushes have a large mass of leaves, so they evaporate a lot of moisture. Once every eight to ten days, they need abundant watering - three to four buckets of water per bush. Watering is especially important in early summer, during the period of active growth and budding, in the second half of summer (July - early August), it is necessary during the formation of renewal buds. After watering, it is advisable to loosen the soil around the bushes to keep moisture in it.
If the plantings are not thickened, it is better to water them in grooves 10-15 cm deep, arranged at a distance of 20-25 cm from the bush. For old, heavily overgrown plants, this distance is increased so that water flows into the zone of young active roots. Irrigation in the grooves can be carried out at any time of the day, but it is better in the evening and at night when evaporation is low and most of the water is absorbed into the soil. You can, having prepared a system of grooves between the bushes, leave a hose between the plants overnight and open the water so that the water jet is weak and does not wash out the roots.
Surface watering from watering cans is carried out much more often, and in hot weather - every day. It is better not to use watering from sprinklers, since fungal diseases can develop as a result of its use. During flowering, this method of watering is generally unacceptable, since the flowers get wet, droop to the ground, spots appear on them, especially noticeable in light varieties.
To obtain large flowers when grown for cut or show specimens, it is necessary to pinch the side buds when they reach the size of a pea. If you leave the side buds, then the flowering period is significantly lengthened and the decorative effect of the bushes increases.
When feeding peony bushes at the age of 8-15 years, the amount of mineral fertilizers is increased by about one and a half times compared to young bushes. Very good results during this period are given by organic feeding with slurry, which is prepared as follows: a fresh mullein is bred in a barrel at the rate of one bucket for 10 buckets of water or bird droppings - one bucket for 20 buckets of water. 400-500 g of superphosphate is added to the mixture and left in a barrel for 10-12 days to ferment, after which it is used, diluted twice before use (0.5 buckets of slurry for 0.5 buckets of water). Manure slurry is fed once - during the budding period - into grooves 10-15 cm deep, made around the bush at a distance of 20-25 cm, the consumption is one bucket of mixture per bush. Contact with liquid top dressing on the rhizome is unacceptable.
In the absence of organic fertilizers, it is easy to prepare them from weeded out weeds, tops, kitchen waste. Any container is filled up to half with this mass, filled with water and covered with a lid (in order to avoid the spread of an unpleasant odor). For feeding, the resulting liquid is left to stand for five to seven days, diluted with water at the rate of 2 liters of liquid per 10 liters of water, the consumption is the same.
For most varieties of interspecific hybrids and medicinal peony, the maximum period for effective cultivation in one place does not exceed 10-12 years. Varieties of milky-flowered peony, according to our observations, even with proper planting, after 15 years, begin to age, their flowering worsens, flowers become smaller, many buds do not bloom at all, shoots become thinner. This is due to insufficient nutrition of the root system, which by this time goes to a depth of 1 m. Therefore, the usual surface dressing does not work.
You can restore the full-color flowering of peonies of this age as follows. After the first top dressing through melted snow, when, together with melt water, nutrients penetrate to a considerable depth, four wells with a depth of 30-40 cm are made around the bush at a distance of 20-25 cm with a garden drill 120 mm in diameter. … In the second case, abundant but slow watering is required in the wells so that the fertilizers dissolve and reach deep roots. To prevent the wells from being covered with soil, you can insert into them small pieces of asbestos-cement pipes with holes or bundles of dry thin branches from trimming shrubs.
The second feeding is carried out during the budding period at the rate of 25-30 g of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium according to the active substance. The composition of the third dressing is similar to the second one, carried out at the beginning of flowering, since it is during this period that the plants require significant nutrition. After the flowering of peonies, 15-20 g of phosphorus and 10-12 g of potassium are poured into each well according to the active ingredient, then watered. The system of such feeding allowed the authors to get up to 50 full-fledged flowers from a bush at the age of 20 - 25 years.
To cause the beginning of flowering of peonies 12-15 days earlier than usual, the Moscow florist L. N. Sokolov suggests using a film shelter. For this, a plot of 4 X4 m in size, on which up to 25 medicinal peony bushes are located, in early spring in early April, having previously cleared the snow, is covered with a film. The greenhouse is a gable frame with side walls 90 cm high, along the ridge - up to 150 cm. In one of the end walls. a door has been made, in the other - a window for ventilation.
The foil on the roof can be rolled up to the ridge, and on the side walls it can be rolled up 30 cm for ventilation. The feeding system is usual. A complex of preventive measures against the development of fungal diseases, which develop especially actively in conditions of high humidity and high temperatures, is very important. In the daytime, the temperature should not exceed 20 - 25 ° C. While the weather is cold, the film is rolled up for airing during the day. Finally, it is removed when a positive temperature is established at night. During this period, the peony bushes are already growing well, budding begins.
In many cases, shrubs at the age of three and older require the installation of supports for the flowering period. This is especially necessary for tall, densely doubled varieties, whose large and heavy flowers inevitably, even with powerful stems, begin to lean to the ground. The latter is aggravated during precipitation and strong winds. As a result, the flowers become dirty and lose their decorative effect, becoming unsuitable for exhibitions and for sale.
It is better to put supports in advance - seven to ten days before flowering. It is easier to make circles with a diameter of 50 -80 cm out of wire with a diameter of 4-5 mm, fixed on three rods 1 m long from the same wire.
Instead of a metal ring, you can take plastic tubes with a diameter of 8-10 mm and thread them into the loops at the top of the peg rods. Such supports, painted in the color of the leaves, are practically invisible and do not reduce the decorative effect of the site. The support should be 50 to 70 cm above the ground.
It is important to choose the diameter of the ring, depending on the age and size of the bush, so that the stems are freely located inside it. This will avoid the development of fungal diseases on the bush, greatly facilitate the cutting of flowers.
At the end of flowering, the support can be removed, and not cut faded flowers can be removed with a stem 10-15 cm long. This will not reduce the amount of green mass of the bush, but will improve the conditions for the development of the root system and the formation of renewal buds.
D. B. Kapinos, V. M. Dubrov - "Peonies in the Garden"
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