Table of contents:
- Seed sorting
- Seed disinfection
- Germination and "hardening" of seeds
- Sparging seeds with oxygen or air
Video: Pre-planting Seed Preparation. Disinfection. Germination. Hardening. Bubbling. Seedling. Vegetables. A Photo
Inexperienced gardeners often put off purchasing seeds until the spring. But by the time of sowing, the demand for them increases sharply and you can be left without the necessary seeds. Some gardeners make purchases for future use and in large quantities. Meanwhile, for a small vegetable garden, few seeds are required. For example, to sow a plot of 10 m 2 it is enough to have 2.5-3 g of turnip seeds or lettuce, 5-6 g of carrots, 6-8 g of cucumber. The purchased seeds should be stored in a heated room, and where they will not be damaged by rodents.
Don't buy seeds from random people. It is sometimes difficult even for a specialist "by eye" to distinguish the seeds of some crops. So it grows in the garden instead of cabbage - rutabaga, instead of radish - radish.
Before sowing, the seeds are sorted. The largest of them are easier to sort one by one, removing injured, puny, with traces of diseases. Vegetable seeds can be sorted in sodium chloride solution. To do this, they are placed in a vessel with a pre-prepared 3-5% sodium chloride solution and mixed. The seeds are given the opportunity for 1-1.5 minutes. get wet, then the floating seeds are removed, and the remaining ones are washed and dried twice. Cucumber seeds can be sorted in water. For sowing, seeds that have settled to the bottom are used.
To increase the germination of vegetable seeds, they are disinfected before sowing by subjecting them to heat treatment. It is carried out in different ways. To decontaminate the seeds of crops such as cucumber, pumpkin and beets - especially if these seeds were stored in the cold - solar heating is used in the open air for 3-4 days, while the seeds are constantly mixed. The sun's rays not only disinfect the seeds, but also accelerate their germination. In some cases, dry cabbage seeds are heated for 10-25 minutes in water at a temperature of 48-50 ° C, followed by immersion in cold water.
Germination and "hardening" of seeds
Many amateurs are worried about the question - is it possible to harden seeds, and through them - and plants of heat-loving crops? Here it is impossible to answer unequivocally. The fact is that in some cases, say, in tomato and cucumber, cooling down and even freezing of wet seeds for 1-2 days noticeably increases the cold resistance of sprouts and seedlings. However, this effect is not constant and is easily lost when plants are "pampered" by elevated temperatures, with an excess of moisture and nitrogen in the soil.
To accelerate the germination of vegetable seeds, and especially of such stagnant ones as carrots and onions, gardeners have long used soaking. When sowing with wet seeds, seedlings can be obtained 2-6 days earlier than when sowing dry. Soak the seeds in room temperature water. Seeds are scattered in a thin layer and watered with water in two steps (after 3-4 hours), they are periodically stirred. You can place the seeds in a bag before soaking, and then in water.
The seeds are kept in moisture for a day or more. The duration of soaking depends on the type of crop and air temperature. When 1 - 5% of the seeds "bite", they are slightly dried to give them flowability, then sown. If the soaked seeds cannot be sown immediately, they are placed on ice, sprinkled in a thin layer, and stirred periodically. You can dry such seeds at a temperature not higher than 35 ° C, and then sow.
Sow wet seeds in moderately damp soil. If such seeds are sown in dry soil, the sprouts that form on the wet seeds die off. Something similar happens in waterlogged soil, only the cause of death in this case will be a lack of oxygen.
To obtain superearly shoots, seeds are germinated. Germination is carried out in seed boxes in a room at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. The box is half-filled with wet, pre-scalded sawdust. A sheet of newsprint or filter paper or a piece of cloth is placed on top, moistened seeds are poured onto it with a layer of 1-1.5 cm. The seeds are covered with a piece of cloth and a layer of sawdust, the seeds are mixed once a day. Germinate them before the start of "pecking".
Sparging seeds with oxygen or air
Treatment of vegetable seeds in water saturated with oxygen or air is called bubbling. Bubbling is carried out from 6 to 36 hours. It is important that oxygen or air evenly penetrates from below the entire water column into which the seeds are poured. For a more uniform supply of oxygen to the seeds, they are periodically stirred. The duration of bubbling depends on the culture: pepper seeds, for example, are treated for 30-36 hours; spinach - 18-24 hours; parsley, onions, dill, beets, carrots - 18 hours. For radishes and salad, 12 hours are enough, and for peas - only 6 hours,
Before sowing, the seeds are dried until flowable. If for some reason it is not possible to sow the seeds after treatment, they must be dried in a draft.
It is quite possible to use air instead of oxygen. Such treatment is not much inferior to oxygen bubbling; it is only necessary to slightly increase its duration. Aquarium compressors and small elongated cans are used for bubbling air. Water is poured into the jar (2/3 of the container), the tip from the compressor is lowered to the bottom. After turning on the compressor, the seeds are poured into the water.