Five Ways Of Crop Rotation For A Summer Cottage. Crop Rotation Tables For Vegetable Crops

Table of contents:

Five Ways Of Crop Rotation For A Summer Cottage. Crop Rotation Tables For Vegetable Crops
Five Ways Of Crop Rotation For A Summer Cottage. Crop Rotation Tables For Vegetable Crops

Video: Five Ways Of Crop Rotation For A Summer Cottage. Crop Rotation Tables For Vegetable Crops

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Crop Rotation Made Simple - Rotate Your Vegetable Beds for Healthier Produce 2023, January
Anonim

The word "crop rotation" is familiar to almost every gardener. However, in practice, the application of crop rotation turns out to be quite difficult and often neglected, especially in a small garden. But if you are not afraid and delve into the question, then this principle of planting vegetables will not be so inaccessible. You just need to pick up a pencil, prepare a sheet of paper and draw up a planting scheme for your version of the beds. Moreover, there are five ways to build crop rotation for small areas! And even the simplest of them is able to give a significant increase in yield, and at the same time and significantly reduce the problems arising from the cultivation of monocultures.

Autumn harvest of vegetables
Autumn harvest of vegetables

Making a list of cultures

The first thing to start with building a crop rotation is to make a list of vegetables planted in your garden. Potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, onions, garlic, parsley … If something is not an annual crop, do not add it to the list so as not to complicate your task.

We calculate the number of beds

The second step is to determine the number of beds allocated for crop rotation. The most practical is the alternation of 4-5 sections. But there are three-field, six-field, seven-field and even twelve-field crop rotations.

If you do not have an established number of beds, then which option will suit you will become clear in the course of the article.

We build a crop rotation

The basic principle of building a crop rotation is the annual change of crops grown in a certain place.

This, firstly, makes it possible to exclude soil fatigue in a given area (since the same crop grown on the same area annually selects from the soil mostly the same nutrients, from the same depth). Secondly, it prevents the accumulation and spread of pests and diseases that affect not just one crop, but also different vegetables of the same family. Thirdly, it allows you to correctly use fertilizers applied to the soil, since different crops have a different attitude to fertility.

Thus, even if vegetables belonging to a different family than those that grew last season are planted on the garden every year, this will already be the most primitive way of maintaining crop rotation!

One could dwell on this, but it is interesting to consider deeper versions of the approach to this issue.

Crop rotation method No. 1. Rotation of cultures by groups

One of the simplest crop rotation solutions is to break down all vegetable crops into four main groups.

Division of cultures into groups
Leafy different types of cabbage, lettuce, green onions, spinach
Fruit tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, zucchini, eggplant, pumpkin
Roots radishes, beets, carrots, potatoes
Legumes peas, chickpeas, beans

In this case, the alternation is performed in the following order:

  • 1st year: 1st bed - fruit, 2nd bed - root crops, 3rd bed - legumes, 4th bed - leafy.
  • In the 2nd year, fruits go to the 4th bed, roots to the 1st, legumes to the 2nd and leafy crops to the 3rd. It turns out: 1st root crops, 2nd legumes, 3rd leafy, 4th fruit.
  • In the 3rd year, on the fourth bed, root crops leave, and all the rest of the groups move one step forward again. And so, every new season.

Crop rotation method No. 2. Alternation of crops according to soil requirements

The next simple way of compiling a crop rotation is the alternation of crops according to the requirements for soils. On this basis, vegetables are also divided into 4 main groups.

Division of crops according to the level of requirements for soil fertility
Demanding fertility aster, cabbage, pumpkin
Medium demanding nightshade
Undemanding amaranth, amaryllidaceous, umbrella
Soil enriching legumes

However, here it is necessary to know the belonging of cultures to botanical families.

The ratio of vegetable crops to botanical families
Family name Vegetable crops
Nightshade Potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, vegetable peppers
Umbrella or celery Carrots, dill, parsley
Amaranth Beets, spinach
Pumpkin Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelon, melon
Cabbage or cruciferous Cabbage, radish, criss-salad
Amaryllidaceae Onion garlic
Cereals Corn
Astrovye Sunflower, salad
Legumes Peas, beans

Alternation according to this principle is as follows:

vegetables demanding fertility → medium demanding → not demanding → legumes.

Vegetable beds
Vegetable beds

Crop rotation method No. 3. Rotation of crops by families

This method is based on the rotation of crops from different families. Their sequence should be as follows:

nightshades (except for potatoes) → legumes → cabbage → umbrella

or:

pumpkin → legumes → cabbage → haze

or:

nightshade → legumes → cabbage → haze

In this case, garlic and onions can be planted before winter after nightshades.

Crop rotation method No. 4. Rotation of crops according to the effect on the soil

Proceeding from the fact that each culture leaves behind not only pathogens, certain indicators of soil contamination by weeds, but also the lack of one or another element, it is possible to alternate crops according to their effect on the soil.

The influence of vegetable crops on the soil
Plants that severely drain the soil all types of cabbage, beets, carrots
Moderately depleting plants tomatoes, peppers, zucchini, eggplant, onions
Slightly depleting plants cucumber, peas, salads, spinach, radish
Plants that enrich the soil all legumes

In this case, the principle of alternation is as follows:

plants strongly depleting the soil → depleting the soil moderately → slightly depleting the soil → enriching the soil

Crop rotation method No. 5. Alternation of crops according to the best predecessor

And finally, the last, most time-consuming method of planning a crop rotation, but at the same time the most complete.

It consists in the choice of crops for alternation according to the best predecessor and includes a full set of factors that contribute to the preservation of fertility and the exclusion of weediness and infection of the site with diseases. When building it, it is easier to use the derived table.

Major crops and their predecessors
Eggplant
the best admissible unacceptable
melons, legumes, greens, zucchini, early varieties of white cabbage, cauliflower, onions, carrots, cucumbers, squash, green manure, pumpkin, garlic cabbage of medium and late varieties, corn, gingerbread, beets eggplant, early potatoes, peppers, tomatoes
Notes: Eggplant is an unacceptable predecessor for nightshades and melons, for all other crops it is acceptable.
Legumes (peas, chickpeas, beans)
the best admissible unacceptable
garden strawberries, early potatoes, cabbage (all types), zucchini, onions, cucumbers, squash, pumpkin, garlic eggplant, greens, carrots, peppers, gingerbread, green manure, beets, tomatoes legumes, corn
Notes: Legumes for vegetable crops are not only the best predecessor, but also an excellent green manure. They can be returned to their original place after 2-3 years, but these crops are not afraid of growing in one place.
Greens (onions, spinach, lettuce) and gingerbread (basil, coriander)
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, cucumbers, zucchini, early white cabbage, cauliflower, onion, squash, green manure, pumpkin, garlic eggplant, greens, early potatoes, corn, pepper, gingerbread, tomatoes, beets white cabbage medium and late ripening, carrots
Notes: These two groups of plants are a good and valid precursor for all vegetable crops except onions. They can be returned to their original place after 3-4 years.
Zucchini
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, potatoes, early white cabbage, parsley, cauliflower, corn, onion, garlic legumes, greens, early potatoes, gingerbread, beets eggplants, white cabbage of medium and late varieties, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin
Notes: Zucchini, as a predecessor, tends to leave a minimum of weeds. After it, you can plant any vegetable crops. Zucchini can be returned to its original place after 2-3 years.
Cabbage
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, zucchini, early potatoes (for medium and late varieties), onions, carrots (for medium and late varieties), cucumbers, tomatoes, green manure, beans peas, greens, eggplant, pepper, lettuce, tomatoes cabbage, cucumbers, radishes, beets, pumpkin
Notes: Cauliflower and early white cabbage are an excellent precursor for all vegetable crops, but mid-season and late varieties are unacceptable as a precursor for herbs and gingerbread. It can be returned to its original place after 3-4 years.
Potatoes
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, early white cabbage, cauliflower, zucchini, onion, cucumbers, squash, green manure, pumpkin, garlic greens, cabbage of medium and late varieties, corn, carrots, gingerbread, beets tomatoes, peppers, eggplants;
Notes: With increased care, potatoes can be grown as a monoculture. After potatoes, it is good to plant cabbage of medium and late varieties, carrots, beets, onions, legumes, unacceptable - cauliflower and early cabbage, nightshade. In a crop rotation, it can be returned to its original place after 2-3 years.
Corn
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, potatoes, beets all cultures millet
Notes: Corn can be grown in one place as a monoculture up to 10 years, with the introduction of manure digging. After it, you can plant any crops.
Bow
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, zucchini, early potatoes, early white cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, squash, pumpkin, green manure eggplants, white cabbage of medium and late varieties, corn, onions, peppers, beets, tomatoes, garlic greens, carrots, gingerbread
Notes: Any vegetables can be grown after the onions except garlic. They can be returned to their original place after 3-4 years. However, leeks are not afraid to grow in one place for several seasons.
Carrot
the best admissible unacceptable
greens, cabbage, onions, zucchini, early potatoes, cucumbers, squash, gingerbread, pumpkin eggplants, legumes, cabbage, corn, onions, peppers, radishes, beets, tomatoes, garlic beet
Notes: Carrots are a good precursor for cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, unacceptable for melons, onions, herbs, gingerbread.
Cucumbers
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, potatoes, early white cabbage, parsley, cauliflower, corn, onion, garlic legumes, greens, early potatoes, gingerbread, beets eggplants, white cabbage of medium and late varieties, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin
Notes: Any vegetables can be planted after the cucumbers. They can be returned to their original place after 2-3 years.
Squash
the best admissible unacceptable
basil, legumes, potatoes, early white cabbage, cauliflower, corn, onion, garlic legumes, greens, early potatoes, gingerbread, beets eggplants, white cabbage of medium and late varieties, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin
Notes: Patisson is a good predecessor for all vegetable crops. It can be returned to its original place after 2-3 years.
Pepper
the best admissible unacceptable
melons, legumes, greens, zucchini, early varieties of white cabbage, cauliflower, onions, carrots, cucumbers, squash, green manure, pumpkin, garlic cabbage of medium and late varieties, corn, gingerbread, radish, beets eggplants, early potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin
Notes: Pepper is a valid precursor for all crops except nightshade and melons.
Sunflower
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, corn potatoes peas, tomatoes, beets, beans
Notes: Sunflower is a very bad predecessor for any crop; it can be returned to its original place not earlier than 6-8 years later, after which it is possible to sow green manure - white mustard, peas, vetch.
Radish
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, garlic, strawberries eggplant, greens, corn, pepper, gingerbread, tomatoes, beets cabbage, carrots
Notes: Radish is a fast growing crop, so it can be grown between rows of major crops. After it, it is good to plant strawberries.
Beetroot
the best admissible unacceptable
greens, zucchini, onions, cucumbers, squash, gingerbread, pumpkin, green manure legumes, eggplant, early white cabbage, cauliflower, corn, onions, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, garlic medium and late cabbage, potatoes, beets
Notes: Beets must be placed in the garden for 2-3 years after applying organic fertilizers. After it, it is good to plant legumes, it is unacceptable - cabbage and root crops. The beets can be returned to their original place after 2-3 years.
Tomatoes
the best admissible unacceptable
basil, peas, greens, early white cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, cucumbers, green manure legumes, white cabbage, medium and late ripening, corn, onions, gingerbread, beets, garlic eggplant, early potatoes, peppers, tomatoes
Notes: Tomatoes are allowed in cultivation without crop rotation, however, in this case, they need increased care. After culture, it is not recommended to plant nightshades and melons; for the rest, tomato is an acceptable predecessor. It can be returned to its original place after 2-3 years.
Pumpkin
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, potatoes, early white cabbage, cauliflower, corn, onion, parsley, garlic legumes, greens, early potatoes, gingerbread, beets eggplants, white cabbage of medium and late varieties, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin
Notes: The pumpkin leaves behind a weed-free soil and can be a good precursor for all crops. It can be returned to its original place after 2-3 years.
Garlic
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, zucchini, early potatoes, early white cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, cucumbers, squash, pumpkin, green manure eggplants, white cabbage of medium and late varieties, corn, onions, peppers, beets, tomatoes, garlic greens, carrots, gingerbread, radish
Notes: Garlic not only disinfects the soil well, but also leaves it practically weed-free. After it, you can grow any crops, except for onions. Garlic can be returned to its original place after 3-4 years.
Garden strawberry
the best admissible unacceptable
legumes, onions, radishes, carrots, garlic, dill cabbage, corn potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes
Notes: After tomatoes, potatoes and cucumbers, strawberries can be grown no earlier than 3-4 years later. The culture itself is a valid precursor for legumes, garlic, onions, parsley.

An example of a crop rotation according to this principle can be the following:

cabbage → cucumbers → tomatoes → carrots or cucumbers → garlic → beans → spinach or cabbage → tomatoes → carrots → potatoes

However, potatoes, due to the need to grow in large areas, can be excluded from the crop rotation and grown as a monoculture. In this case, a large amount of organic matter and mineral fertilizers are annually applied under it and the quality of the seed is carefully monitored. At the same time, once every several years, organic fertilizers are replaced with green manure.

Corn can also be grown outside the crop rotation. This culture is not demanding on its predecessor and is itself a neutral predecessor for most cultures. However, a wireworm builds up under it rather quickly.

Tomatoes are also sometimes grown in one place, but in this case, more careful care is required for them.

You can also include strawberries (strawberries) in the crop rotation.

A garden of radishes next to corn
A garden of radishes next to corn

Fertilization

Based on the fact that all crops have a different relationship to the soil, in the crop rotation it is necessary to take into account the moment of applying the main fertilizer.

So, for cabbage (this is the most demanding crop in this respect), potatoes, cucumbers, it is advisable to add manure, they are very demanding on nutrition. But tomatoes, carrots, onions, beets respond better to this fertilizer applied under their predecessor. Peas, greens and strawberries manage with organic matter embedded in the soil under the predecessor's predecessor.

In addition, the full rate of the main fertilizer is applied for the most demanding crop, while for the rest of the vegetables fertilizers are applied taking into account the aftereffect of the main fertilizer. (For reference: in the first year, plants remove up to 30% nitrogen, 30% phosphorus and 50% potassium from the manure, therefore, it is impractical to apply manure every year).

Example. In the crop rotation, cabbage - cucumbers - tomatoes - carrots, the most advantageous moment for introducing the full norm of manure is autumn before cabbage planting.

Mixing cultures

Based on the fact that different vegetables are grown by us in different volumes, it is advisable to place several crops in one area at once when making up a crop rotation. This allows not only to effectively plan the planting area, but also to improve the growing conditions of plants, since many of them have a beneficial effect on each other.

Vegetable compatibility (for joint and compacted crops)
Peas
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
carrots, cucumbers strawberries, corn, parsley, radish, lettuce, beets, dill, spinach legumes, cabbage, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, garlic
Eggplant
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
beans, herbs, leeks, garlic strawberries, cucumbers, parsley -
Zucchini
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
greens, corn, legumes eggplant, strawberry, carrot, sunflower, garlic, spinach potatoes, tomatoes, radishes
Cabbage
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
strawberries, carrots, lettuce, beans potatoes, corn, leeks, cucumbers, radishes, beets, tomatoes, dill, garlic, spinach peas, onions, parsley, garlic
Potatoes
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
beans, spinach strawberries, cabbage, corn, onions, carrots, radishes, lettuce, dill, garlic, spinach peas, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, pumpkin
Corn
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
cucumbers, tomatoes, lettuce, beans peas, strawberries, cabbage, potatoes, onions, carrots, radishes, pumpkin, dill, garlic, spinach beet
Bulb onions
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
carrots, tomatoes, beets strawberries, potatoes, corn, radishes, cucumbers, lettuce, garlic, spinach peas, cabbage, onions, dill, beans
Leek
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
strawberries, tomatoes potatoes, cabbage, corn, carrots, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, beets, dill, beans, garlic, spinach peas, onions
Perennial onion
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
- strawberries, carrots, cucumbers, parsley, radishes, lettuce, tomatoes legumes, garlic
Carrot
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
peas, cabbage, onions, spinach potatoes, corn, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, tomatoes, garlic beets, dill, beans
Cucumbers
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
legumes, cabbage, corn, lettuce, beets, dill, beans eggplant, strawberries, onions, carrots, sunflowers, garlic, spinach potatoes, tomatoes, radishes
Patissons
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
legumes, greens, corn strawberries, carrots, sunflowers, garlic potatoes, tomatoes, radishes
Pepper
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
basil, carrots, onions parsley beans
Parsley
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
strawberries, tomatoes eggplant, peas, leeks, perennial onions, carrots, cucumbers, peppers, radishes, lettuce, spinach cabbage
Sunflower
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
- cucumbers potatoes
Radish
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
carrots, beans; peas, strawberries, cabbage, potatoes, corn, onions, parsley, radishes, lettuce, beets, tomatoes, dill, garlic, spinach onions, cucumbers
Lettuce
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
cabbage, corn, cucumbers peas, strawberries, potatoes, onions, carrots, parsley, tomatoes, radishes, beets, dill, beans, garlic, spinach -
Beet
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
onions, tomatoes, beans, spinach peas, strawberries, cabbage, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, dill, garlic potatoes, corn, leeks, carrots
Tomatoes
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
corn, carrots, parsley, radishes, beets, beans, spinach strawberries, cabbage, onions, lettuce, garlic; peas, potatoes, cucumbers, dill
Pumpkin
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
greens, legumes corn potatoes
Dill
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
cabbage, cucumbers peas, strawberries, potatoes, corn, leeks, radishes, lettuce, beets, beans, garlic, spinach onions, carrots, tomatoes
Beans
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
eggplants, strawberries, cabbage, corn, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, radishes, beets, spinach lettuce, dill, spinach peas, onions, carrots, garlic
Garlic
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
- strawberries, leeks, carrots, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, beets, tomatoes peas, perennial onions, cabbage, beans
Spinach
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
strawberries, potatoes, carrots, beets, tomatoes, beans peas, cabbage, onions, cucumbers, parsley, radish, lettuce, dill, garlic beet
Garden strawberry
good neighborhood admissible neighborhood unacceptable neighborhood
cabbage, carrots, parsley, beans, spinach eggplants, peas, potatoes, corn, onions, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, beets, tomatoes, dill, garlic -

An example of such a crop rotation would be the following:

cabbage + cucumbers → tomatoes → carrots + onions → potatoes

When choosing crops according to the principle of combination, it is necessary to take into account the timing of their ripening. So, for example, radish has time to grow by the time when you can still sow melons.

And, of course, in combined crops it is necessary to find a place for flowers, because they not only decorate the beds, but also scare off pests. It can be marigolds, nasturtium, calendula, mattiola.

Garden
Garden

Siderata

And the last thing. To maintain soil fertility at the proper level, it is necessary to provide for the mandatory use of green manure in your crop rotation scheme. They can be sown in their free time from vegetables, before winter, or be part of a crop rotation, occupying a separate bed. What could it be? Winter rye, vetch, mustard, peas, lupine and various combinations thereof.

For example: zucchini → peppers → carrots → potatoes → green manure (legumes)

Popular by topic