Manure Is The Best Organic Fertilizer. How To Apply? Description, Types, Application Rates. Humus, Photo

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Manure Is The Best Organic Fertilizer. How To Apply? Description, Types, Application Rates. Humus, Photo
Manure Is The Best Organic Fertilizer. How To Apply? Description, Types, Application Rates. Humus, Photo
Anonim

At present, to form high yields and maintain soil fertility, summer residents everywhere use available mineral fertilizers, which contain elements removed from the soil by the harvest. You need to know that fats provide only a short-term increase in the yield of agricultural crops, while simultaneously reducing the amount of humus in the soil, that is, the natural fertility of the soil. In recent years, a growing number of landowners have switched to organic farming. In this case, the basis of ecology is the use of only natural products in everyday life, the receipt of which is impossible without returning to mother earth those substances that have taken the harvest. A worthy substitute for "chemical well-being" is natural fertilizers - the waste of animals that eat plant foods.Such an organic fertilizer is manure.

Rotted manure compost
Rotted manure compost

Content:

  • What is the difference between organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizers?
  • Types of manure and its features
  • Useful properties of manure
  • The content of the main nutrients in manure
  • Manure use
  • Rules for the use of fresh manure
  • Using fresh mullein for feeding
  • Application of semi-rotted manure
  • Application of rotted manure
  • The use of humus in summer cottages

What is the difference between organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizers?

Mineral fertilizers are produced at chemical plants and, when applied to the soil, are a foreign substance for plants that must be converted into an accessible form of use.

  • To become available to plants, the nutrient salt elements must be chelated.
  • Mineral fertilizers contain only a narrow list of chemical elements necessary for plants.
  • Tucs are introduced into the soil, taking into account its parameters and the needs of plants.
  • Mineral fertilizers do not contribute to the formation of humus, thereby reducing the natural soil fertility.

The nutrients of organic fertilizers are more available to plants, since they are a product of the vital activity of animals, and in the ecosystem it is its natural element. The only limitation in agriculture: with improper agricultural technology, nitrites accumulate in fruits and vegetables. During processing, organic waste forms humus, which determines the level of soil fertility.

Types of manure and its features

The following types of manure are obtained from animals:

  • cow (mullein);
  • horse;
  • pork;
  • bird (chicken);
  • rabbit;
  • sheep, etc.

Each type of manure has its own characteristics and composition, differs in the duration of exposure to the soil.

The effectiveness of cow manure: it shows its greatest efficiency within 2 - 3 years on light sandy and sandy loamy soils and 4-6 years - on heavy clay.

Bird droppings decompose within a year. It is the fastest-acting organic fertilizer. It is convenient to use it in top dressing. However, the concentration of poultry droppings is so high that its use in the form of top dressing is possible only when diluted 10-12 times.

Horse manure is one of the best. Porous structure and rich chemical composition, high decomposition temperature, it is most effective when used in open field and greenhouses. In connection with the mechanization of agriculture, the amount of horse manure on farms has decreased significantly. It has become less available than the mullein.

Pig manure is used to a lesser extent by gardeners. It contains an increased nitrogen content (pungent ammonia smell), a large number of helminths. You cannot use it fresh. Usually mixed with horse, dolomite flour is added, composted for a year for natural disinfection (from helminths) and only then is it introduced into the soil. Pig manure is good because it has a high decomposition temperature. In combination with horse for a year of fermentation, high-quality compost is obtained.

If necessary, manure from other animals and birds is used to improve soil characteristics and increase soil fertility.

Chicken droppings
Chicken droppings
Horse manure
Horse manure
Cow dung
Cow dung

Useful properties of manure

The basis of manure is the excrement of various animals mixed with bedding (straw, grass, sawdust and other plant residues). According to the degree of decay, manure can be divided into 3 categories:

  • fresh litter and non-litter manure;
  • slurry;
  • semi-rotten manure;
  • rotted manure, or humus.

Fresh manure without bedding, not diluted with water - thick, non-flowing form, the consistency of homemade sour cream (you can cut it with a knife like butter).

Fresh litter manure easily retains its shape, mixed with straw or other materials (sawdust, small shavings).

Slurry is less concentrated than fresh manure. Basically, this is a nitrogen-potassium liquid fertilizer, which is used for feeding all garden and berry and vegetable crops. In order not to burn the plants, the slurry is diluted in a ratio of 1: 5-6. Apply after watering. Used for moisturizing when laying compost.

Semi-rotted is one that has lain in the open air for some time (3-6 months), partially dried out and decomposed. The litter is rotten, easily crumbles in hands. It is used as the main fertilizer for digging, especially on humus-depleted soils.

Humus is a completely rotted bulk mass, in which individual components of litter and other inclusions are not visible. The most common natural fertilizer used by summer residents.

In humus, the content of nutrients and nitrogen, in comparison with fresh manure, is 2-3 times less, which makes it possible to use it directly during the growing season of plants for feeding.

Manure-based humus
Manure-based humus

The content of the main nutrients in manure

The composition of manure includes components that provide nutrition to plants, improve the physicochemical properties of the soil, its structure. Being a source of organic matter, during fermentation, manure forms humus compounds that increase the natural fertility of the soil.

Manure in any state (fresh, semi-rotten, humus) is a source of macro- and microelements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, magnesium, boron, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum. Active microorganisms of manure are the main source of energy for soil microflora.

All types of manure are distinguished by alkaline properties, the alkalinity indicator reaches pH = 8-9 units. For cow manure it is 8.1, for horse manure - 7.8, for pig - 7.9 units. Naturally, their introduction alkalizes the soil, reducing acidity. The content of the main nutritional elements is presented in the average values ​​of Table 1

Table 1. Chemical composition of the main types of manure and dung

Manure, droppings Content, g / kg mass of manure
nitrogen phosphorus potassium calcium
Cow (mullein) 3.5 3.0 1.4 2.9
Horse 4.7 3.8 2.0 3.5
Pork 8.1 7.9 4.5 7,7
Avian (chicken) 16.0 13.0 8.0 24.0

Manure use

Unlike mineral fertilizers, the content of nutrients in organic fertilizers is much lower, but organic matter improves the physicochemical properties of the soil, loosens, increases the absorption capacity, enriches it with useful microflora, and provides plants with the necessary nutrients in an accessible, easily assimilated form.

Table 2. The rate of application of manure

Manure, droppings Introduced into the soil, kg / sq. m area
Cow (mullein) 7-10 kg / m²
Horse 3-5 kg ​​/ m²
Pork 4-6 kg / m²

Some gardeners recommend up to 10-15 kg / m² for autumn digging

Avian (chicken) 1-3 kg / m² for autumn digging. In feeding, a solution of 1: 10-12 liters of water.

Rules for the use of fresh manure

Since fresh manure is the most concentrated fertilizer, it is applied to the soil in autumn and winter in a field free from fruit and vegetable plants. Close up to a depth of 25-30, less often - up to 40 cm.

Spring application is foreseen only for middle and late crops. For early crops, manure is introduced only for autumn digging (Table 3).

Table 3. Frequency and rate of application of fresh cow manure

Culture Application rate, kg / m2 area Frequency of application
Onions, cabbage, garlic 4-6 kg / m² From autumn or spring for digging
Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkins, melons 6-8 kg / m² From autumn or spring for digging
Tomatoes late, medium and late varieties of white cabbage 4-5 kg ​​/ m², for cabbage up to 6 kg / m² From autumn or spring for digging
Dill, celery 5-6 kg / m² From autumn or spring for digging
Carrots, potatoes, beets 4 kg / m² From autumn or spring for digging
Berry (currant, raspberry, gooseberry) Layer up to 5 cm Annually only in autumn
Pome and stone fruit crops Up to 3 kg for each tree Autumn with an interval of 2-3 years
Strawberry wild-strawberry 10 kg / m² in row spacing In autumn, once every 3 years
Grapes Solution: 1 part mullein to 20 parts water In autumn, once every 2-4 years

In winter, fresh manure is spread over the snow. After the snow melts, it falls on the soil and is dug up in the spring. The planting depth is the same as in autumn.

The application rate on snow is 1.5 times higher. This is due to the fact that during the winter, part of the nutrients is lost (nitrogen). Usually, manure is left in a pile for 2-3 months before application. During this period, part of the weed seeds die from the high temperature of "burning manure". If the manure from the barn immediately fell on the field, then it is better to leave it fallow, destroying the weeds in the summer.

Remember that any crops, especially vegetables, overfed with organic matter, sharply reduce keeping quality. Vegetable and especially root crops are more often affected by root rot, the incidence of late blight and powdery mildew increases. In order not to overfeed the plants, use the data in Table 3.

Table 3. The volume of manure mass, kg / 10 l bucket

Fresh manure 10 l bucket
Cow without bedding 9 kg
Cow bedding 5 Kg
Horse 8 kg
Slurry 12kg
Humus 7 kg

Using fresh mullein for feeding

Mullein can be used for feeding vegetable and horticultural crops during the summer season. Low-concentrated water fermented solutions are used for feeding.

Preparation of the solution: any container (more conveniently a galvanized barrel) is 1/3 filled with manure, topped up with water to the top, and closed. Stir once a day. Fermentation lasts 1-2 weeks. This is a stock solution.

For feeding berries and fruit trees, a working solution is prepared: 1 bucket of mother liquor from the container is diluted with water 3-4 times. Top dressing is carried out in the phase of young leaves. The working solution is applied after watering under the root at the rate of 10 liters of working solution per 1 m². Be sure to mulch.

For vegetable crops, the working solution is prepared at the rate of 8-10 liters of water per 1 liter of mother liquor. Top dressing is carried out during watering or after watering for mulching, 1-2 times during the growing season, alternating with mineral fertilizers (if necessary).

Preparation of liquid fertilizing from manure
Preparation of liquid fertilizing from manure

Application of semi-rotted manure

Semi-rotted manure is less concentrated and can be used directly in top dressing or as mulch.

For dressing, a solution is prepared in a concentration: one part of the fertilizer to 10 parts of water. Stir and bring under garden and berry crops.

Trees are watered along the outer diameter of the crown onto loosened soil or into furrows cut in 1-2 rows around the crown.

Under the bushes, top dressing is applied, departing 15-20 cm from the bushes.

For vegetable crops in the furrows of the row spacings (if they are wide) or in the furrows cut along the bed.

It is impossible to pour a solution of a semi-rotten mullein under the root of plants.

Top dressing is covered with soil, if necessary, watered and mulched.

The semi-over-ripe mass is a good fertilizer for cabbage, pumpkin seeds, and spinach. With such fertilization, these crops will be excellent precursors for root crops, sweet peppers, tomatoes, eggplants.

Application of rotted manure

Formation of humus

Rotted manure, or humus, is the main source of humus entering the soil. Humus is a homogeneous, loose substance of dark brown color, with a spring smell of a healthy soil substrate. Formed by fermentation of manure under the influence of microorganisms. As a result, humus, humic acids and simpler mineral compounds are formed. The composition of humus is light. 1 m³ contains 700-800 kg of humus. In a standard 10 liter bucket, its amount is 6-7 kg. Healthy matured humus is odorless.

The higher the humus content in the soil, the more fertile the substrate is considered. So, in chernozems, the humus content is 80-90%, and in soddy-podzolic soils, its amount decreases to 60-70%.

Putting manure into compost for roasting
Putting manure into compost for roasting

Humus properties

Humus has the following agronomic properties:

  • improves soil porosity;
  • increases the ability to retain moisture;
  • enhances photosynthesis, which contributes to an increase in crop yields;
  • activates the growth and development of plants;
  • increases resistance to diseases and pests;
  • populates the soil substrate with useful microflora;
  • reduces the accumulation of heavy metals in products;
  • improves the decorativeness of flower crops, etc.

How to prepare quality humus?

  • provide a shaded area for storing components;
  • Fencing with improvised material so that the front wall is open;
  • the components are laid in layers, 10-15 cm; components - straw, straw cutting, leaves, fresh, semi-rotten manure;
  • each layer is spilled with water or diluted liquid, mullein solution;
  • cover with a film or other material that does not allow water to pass through (from rain);
  • air access through the vents with a film shelter is required;
  • periodically shovel and watered with water in dry weather; humidity during fermentation within 50-60%, temperature under + 25 … + 30 * С;
  • to accelerate fermentation, it is recommended to spill layers of components with preparations (Baikal EM-1, Ekomik Yielding, Shining-3 and others).

If all requirements are met, mature humus can be obtained within 1-2 months.

In addition to the proposed one, there are other methods of quick processing of manure into humus or compost, which is also used for fertilization and feeding of garden crops. For example, vermicomposting with California worms, aerobic and anaerobic composting.

The use of humus in summer cottages

Humus is used for:

  • improving soil fertility;
  • fertilizing and fertilizing crops during the growing season;
  • preparation of soil mixtures for growing seedlings;
  • preparation of soil mixtures for indoor flower crops, etc.
Adding manure to the beds
Adding manure to the beds

Rules for the use of humus

The humus contains minimal ammonia residues that do not damage the plant root system. Therefore, humus can be applied both as the main fertilizer and used in top dressing during the warm season.

During the spring preparation of the soil for sowing / planting of plants, humus in the recommended quantities is introduced into a 10-15 cm layer of soil for digging. On average, 10-15 kg of humus are used per 1 m² of area.

Humus is used for all crops as mulch, which rotting during the summer serves as an additional fertilizer for grown plants.

Humus is found in most potting mixes for growing seedlings and flower crops. But if for seedlings the soil mixture can contain up to 50% humus, then a moderate rate of fertilization is applied under flower bed crops. Excess humus can cause “fattening” of ageratum, escholtia, cosme. To the detriment of flowering, plants will increase their vegetative mass.

For indoor plants, the rate of humus is up to 1/3 of the volume of the prepared substrate.

Raspberries and other shrubs can be mulched with a 5 cm layer of mulch from spring to July without embedding in the soil.

In greenhouses, humus is applied to the beds (in addition to the main substrate) in the first year at the rate of 40-60 kg / m². In subsequent years, 15-25 kg / m² are applied annually before changing the soil.

In summer, humus is diluted with water for foliar and root dressings at the rate of no more than 1 part per 10-15 parts of water.

Humus, like fresh manure, is used to equip warm beds.

A short list of the use of manure and its processed types clearly highlighted the benefits of organic matter for the land. Using organic fertilizers, you can solve many issues of home gardening and gardening, including the main one - increasing the natural fertility of the site.

Dear Readers! Share your ways of processing and using manure, humus, compost for garden and horticultural crops. Share your experience of subsistence farming with minimal use of fertilizers and other chemicals that are not typical for the soil, increasing soil fertility, increasing yields, increasing the immunity of crops to diseases and pests.

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