Nematoda On The Site - Who Is It And How To Deal With It? Photo

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Nematoda On The Site - Who Is It And How To Deal With It? Photo
Nematoda On The Site - Who Is It And How To Deal With It? Photo
Video: Nematoda On The Site - Who Is It And How To Deal With It? Photo
Video: Вредители растений. Нематода - серьезная угроза вашему урожаю. 3 способа избавиться от нематоды. 2023, February
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Previously, it was believed that if a nematode started up on a site, then you can safely throw it, sell it, build a house on it, or lay a road along this site. People did not know how to get rid of the nematode, and waited years for her to die of hunger before sowing plants in an area that had previously been infected with the nematode. It is as easy as shelling pears to enter a nematode and there is no need to describe all sorts of ways: it is enough, for example, to buy a rose with a lump of earth, and the nematode is already on your site, period. But how to deal with it? We will talk about this in the article.

Cucumber root nematoda
Cucumber root nematoda

Content:

  • Nematode biology
  • Why is the nematode dangerous?
  • More about root nematode
  • Stem and leaf nematodes
  • Beet nematode
  • Potato nematoda
  • Site-specific nematode control measures
  • What is fumigation?
  • Drawing conclusions about the nematode

Nematode biology

Nematodes are, according to some classifications, a kind of roundworms, and according to others - gastric worms. More than three tens of thousands of species of these creatures are described, however, most likely, there are much more of them. The overwhelming species of nematodes are parasites of a wide variety of plants; they can also live peacefully in the organisms of fish, humans and animals. Nematodes are far from harmless creatures; they cause a variety of diseases in humans, animals and plants.

The length of the nematode body can vary greatly (from 80 microns to several meters, if we mean certain types of parasites). Nematodes have a specific fusiform shape, narrowed at the ends. The body is round in diameter.

Here we will talk about nematodes that parasitize plants, and try, in the light of modern science, to fight them so quickly that already in the next season after infection, something could be planted or sown on the site.

Let's start with the types of nematodes that annoy plants. It is usually very difficult to understand that your site is infected with a nematode, there are few signs of its activity. For example, you see that the seedlings are slow in development or there is almost no growth and development of seedlings, or the flowering is weak, or the death of plants at a young age is suspiciously significant, or the harvest dies en masse.

All this can be both a sign of a nematode and a sign of other diseases or pests. The reason for the unhealthy plants may be a simple lack of one or a group of elements in the soil. Therefore, if the next year exactly the same picture is observed, then we advise you to take a soil sample, digging it into a bag with a shovel and take it to the laboratory, they will tell you if it is a nematode or something else, otherwise you will still treat plants from one, then from another, not getting the desired effect and simply massively multiplying the worst enemy.

Nematoda under the microscope
Nematoda under the microscope

Why is the nematode dangerous?

In the course of its active life, it penetrates the roots or vegetative mass, violates the integrity of the plant, causes rot, infection of the roots and vegetative mass with viruses, fungal infection, bacteria.

In principle, it is possible to understand that the nematode attacked the roots if the plant that has begun to wither is pulled out of the soil entirely and carefully inspected its root system. When infected with a nematode, you can see a large number of branches on the roots, as if the plant was trying to find a way around it, getting rid of the pest.

In this case, the smallest roots are likely to look rotten. In addition, on the roots, if these are not legumes, you can see galls, these are literally clusters of nematodes, cysts with eggs, as well as sharpening and swelling, all sorts of ulcers - all this is deadly both for the root and for the entire plant as a whole.

More about root nematode

So, a root nematode is, in fact, a filamentous worm belonging to a very extensive group of parasitic worms and a class of nematodes that form galls on the roots of plants, somewhat similar to those in legumes (only in such galls there are no nodule bacteria, and females slaughtered with eggs).

Males of root nematodes look like a worm up to two millimeters long, females are more swollen (galls) or similar to egg capsules, half as long.

The earth nematode is surprisingly polyphagous: it is known for certain that it can infect the root system of more than two thousand plant species. Of course, this group includes cultivated vegetable plants, various valuable industrial crops, as well as ornamental plants, grasses, shrubs and even trees.

Its full development to a real active organism, it takes place depending on the temperature in the soil for 20-50 days (when it is warmer, then the development takes place, as a rule, faster). It is noteworthy that a female nematode during her life can lay a monstrous number of eggs - up to two thousand, and according to the latest information - even more.

In each egg, the nematode larva first molt, then comes to the surface and, thanks to the sharp edges at the ends, immediately penetrates into the root of a nearby plant, starting to intensively feed on the juice of this culture. She can become either an immovable female, which subsequently lays the same huge number of eggs, or a male who can move freely, looking for a female for her fertilization.

Nematodes grow and develop most actively at moderate soil moisture (about 70-75%) and temperatures from +22 to + 28 ° C. As for the acid-base balance, they prefer slightly acidic soil, but not alkaline.

Root nematode in tomatoes
Root nematode in tomatoes

Stem and leaf nematodes

In addition to soil nematodes, there are also leaf and stem nematodes. Most often, they lead to a fusiform thickening of the stems, while the leaves either underdevelop to normal size and shape, or there is a strong deformation of the leaf blades in a variety of plants.

Usually, a more accurate proof of the presence of a nematode on the leaves is dry necrotic spots of various shapes, which do not have any regularity in their location. Most often, leaf nematodes are infected: garden strawberries, chrysanthemums and nephrolepsis. The stem nematode also likes to eat vegetables such as garlic, onions, parsley, parsnips, radishes, tomatoes and cucumbers.

Consider the types of nematodes for the most important crops, and the first on this list will be table beet

Beet nematode

Interestingly, the presence of nematodes on beets was not officially recognized before and for some reason the disease was called beet fatigue: supposedly, when grown in the same place, even fertilizing did not help to get good results. But then everyone learned that the nematode also happens on beets, and it rages very strongly.

To understand that beets are infected with a nematode, in fact, is quite simple, for a start you can see a clearly visible browning of its leaves, and if you pull out such a plant, you can see a root crop that has rotted by half (or a little less), which can only be thrown away, because it cannot be recycled. Often, root vegetables can be whole, but they lose a lot in weight several times, and are absolutely not stored, they can only be used for processing. From a plantation infected with a nematode, no more than half of the root crops of beet can be harvested

Potato nematoda

Another vegetable that most commonly affects the nematode is potatoes. It is extremely easy to infect your site with this scourge; it is enough to buy seed material in an unverified place just once, and you can give up on a good harvest for many years (or start using harsh chemistry). The fact is that even if you cut the purchased tuber, you may not notice the larva lurking in the potato at all, and only after placing it in the soil will it get out in the form of a worm.

The potato nematode is a round worm, reaching about a millimeter in length, which can parasitize both the roots and tubers of potatoes. Usually, worms move into the tuber from the roots if the soil is poor in nutrition and the roots are very thin.

The very process of life of the potato nematode is very interesting. After the release of the worms from the tuber, the females attach to the end of the root and wait for the male, and the male, in search of the female, can move along the roots of the potato, causing harm to the plant, and when he finds the female, he dies after her fertilization. After that, the female actually also dies, she turns into a cocoon-cyst, in which up to a thousand individuals of different sexes are in the form of eggs, they, of course, remain in the soil after digging potatoes.

The next spring, when the potatoes are planted in this place, the cysts burst, the larvae come out and everything is repeated again.

It is clear that the nematode strongly inhibits the development of potato plants, the yield drops several times, and if the soils are poor, then the nematode simply does not allow the roots of plants to absorb nutrition, and in the holes you can find no more than a couple of small tubers.

Outwardly, you can see that the plants are far behind in growth from their counterparts, in warm weather they seem to curl up, because the nematode does not allow moisture to be absorbed from the soil, and if you pull the plant out of the soil, you can also find a huge number of thin roots unusual for potatoes.

In general, it is possible to describe a different kind of nematode on various plants for a long time, better let's move on to the story about the measures to combat this infection.

Potato nematode
Potato nematode

Site-specific nematode control measures

If a nematode somehow got to your site, then you just have to listen to professionals, although many advise you to just wait two or three years, keeping the plants under black steam, digging up the site with a lump of earth before winter, without breaking clods, and then you, maybe exterminate the nematode.

But if you want to get rid of it as soon as possible, then first try using a crop rotation. That is, in the area where you noticed a beet nematode, do not plant more beets, and if you notice a potato nematode, then potatoes. Perhaps, in this way, it will be possible to get rid of a certain type of nematode in its area.

After a crop rotation, which is unlikely to help, a heavier technique operates, this is fumigation, which at the moment is the most effective means of fighting the pest, but it is also harmful.

What is fumigation?

This is the treatment of soil, definitely infected with a nematode (for which samples and analyzes are taken in advance) with various poisons and even their vapors, sometimes in a red-hot form. In principle, the pesticides themselves can be bought now even on the market, these are Nefamos, Dimetoat or Vidat.

These drugs can both treat plants infected with nematodes and spill the soil with them. These drugs are quite dangerous and we would not advise just pouring chemistry, but it is better to entrust this business to professionals who can reliably process the site and destroy not only adult nematode worms that die almost immediately, but also much more tenacious larvae, which sometimes require several processing.

Next year, in this area, it is better to carry out only a control planting of plants, occupying, say, a third of the area with a variety of crops and check whether the nematode has remained in the soil.

Drawing conclusions about the nematode

Nematoda is a dangerous pest, you need to be careful when buying seed material, plants in closed ground, and just seedlings with parts of the soil. It can be especially offensive for the owners of small plots, who will have to wait years for at least something to be planted on them, or to bring in liters of chemistry to fight a harmful infection without a guarantee that there is still no cyst with a couple of thousand eggs left somewhere.

Remember that a nematode is both an external and an internal quarantine object. You cannot trade nematode-infested produce, you cannot transplant plants from nematode-infested areas. If potatoes are grown on a site infected with a nematode, then they can only be used for processing and, best of all, for feed to farm animals.

If you have ever dealt with a nematode, describe your experience in the comments to the article, perhaps it will be very useful to some of the readers.

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