Table of contents:
- The first mistake. Why plant a tomato hybrid if there is a variety ?
- Second mistake. Seeds from tomato hybrids also sprout ?
- Error three. Greenhouse tomato hybrid? I don't know that …
- The fourth mistake. In the same greenhouse I have cucumbers and tomatoes
- Mistake five. Film, it is film …
- The sixth mistake. The later the better
- Error seven. The more I plant, the more I shoot
- Error eight. Formation of a tomato, why?
- The ninth mistake. I'll tie it tighter
- Mistake ten. Stepson? I'll be in time
- Mistake eleventh. Removing more leaves - the food goes to the fruit
- Mistake twelfth. The more feeding, the larger the fruits
- Error thirteen. More lei - the tomatoes will be sweeter
- Error fourteenth. I closed the greenhouse and went home
- Error fifteen. Means of protection? What for?
Video: The Main Mistakes When Growing Tomatoes. Care Tips. Photo
The key to a high yield of tomatoes is not only timely sowing of seeds for seedlings and planting them in open ground or a greenhouse, but also proper care of tomato plants throughout the growing season, right up to harvest. Only if you do everything correctly and if external circumstances do not interfere - such as a hurricane, hail and the like, then a good harvest of tasty and healthy tomatoes will be guaranteed to you. Let's talk today in as much detail as possible about the main mistakes when growing tomatoes both in the open ground and in the greenhouse. We will firmly learn what needs to be done and what is undesirable or not at all, and, applying this knowledge on our site, we will get high yields of tomatoes every year.
The first mistake. Why plant a tomato hybrid if there is a variety ?
In fact, this misconception is massive, many gardeners to this day, despite the fact that breeding work is now mostly aimed at obtaining F1 hybrids, they acquire exclusively varietal tomato seeds. Why?
Some are simply afraid and do not understand the quite simple word hybrid, others, knowing that it is simply pointless to collect seeds from hybrids, thus save by growing outdated varieties from year to year, with small fruits, of a mediocre taste that ripen only in certain years, therefore that usually they all kill late blight.
In fact, the savings here are more than dubious, tomato seeds cost a penny by today's standards, but it is the hybrids that will give you a solid harvest and tasty fruits, which with a high degree of probability will ripen not on the windowsill, but on the bushes, because they are much more resistant to many diseases and vagaries of the weather than outdated varieties.
Of course, we do not recommend completely abandoning the cultivation of tomato varieties on your site, but we wish you to experiment more often, give part of the site to hybrids, compare, evaluate, draw conclusions …
Second mistake. Seeds from tomato hybrids also sprout ?
Of course they do, and how, only there will be little sense from them. This is in the first generation, when you sowed tomatoes from a beautiful package, such solid bushes grew and gave a crop to the envy of your neighbors. But in the second - from those seeds that you isolated from the fruits of tomatoes and sown, there will already be strong deviations. Of course, there is always a place for a miracle, and beautiful plants will turn out from individual seedlings, but most of them will greatly disappoint you. If you want to collect seeds - grow varieties, but we have already mentioned the disadvantages of varieties above.
Error three. Greenhouse tomato hybrid? I don't know that …
Most gardeners, when planting tomato seedlings, do not even think about the fact that this variety or hybrid is recommended for growing, say, in a greenhouse or open field. And it often comes to the ridiculous - varieties or hybrids recommended for growing in a greenhouse grow in open ground and vice versa.
It would seem - a trifle, but not so simple. For example, tomatoes are undersized, they simply have nothing to do in the greenhouse, most of the space above their "head" will be empty, there is a place for vigorous varieties and hybrids. Hybrids and varieties of tomatoes recommended for the greenhouse, on the contrary, in open ground, where there are more negative factors, will suffer from sudden jumps in day and night temperatures and from diseases, and from poor pollination when it rains.
When buying a tomato variety or hybrid, always read its description on the package, it will definitely indicate: it is recommended for open ground or for a greenhouse, otherwise you may not get good yields from the best hybrid.
The fourth mistake. In the same greenhouse I have cucumbers and tomatoes
This is not true, if only because these plants are very different and they also have different requirements for themselves. So, say, a cucumber for full growth, development, therefore, for the formation of fruits, needs a high temperature, as well as humidity, but a tomato does not need it at all.
Of course, you can always try to divide the greenhouse in two, making something like a communal apartment, but then you have to make a separate door and a window, because tomatoes like frequent ventilation and are not particularly afraid of drafts, but cucumbers are exactly the opposite …
In addition, the treatments will need to be carried out not simultaneously, but at different times, because the diseases in plants are different, therefore, the preparations and the processing times should also be different. Do you need it?
Mistake five. Film, it is film …
While we're on the topic of the greenhouse, let's continue: film selection is an important part of successful tomato cultivation. Most gardeners need something cheaper, but simpler, perhaps, and the harvest will be. In fact, greenhouse film is almost half the success. For example, the thickest film, which is more expensive, but serves a neat owner for two or three seasons in a row, is not quite suitable for growing tomatoes: condensation forms on such a film, dripping onto the leaves, leads to the creation of a favorable atmosphere for development of late blight of tomatoes.
The ideal option is a hydrophilic unstabilized film, condensation also forms on the inside of it, but it does not drip, but runs down without falling on the leaves and fruits. In addition, such a film is better cleaned by rains, dust does not accumulate on it, and it “keeps” the temperature better.
The sixth mistake. The later the better
This is another common mistake of gardeners: they, fearing recurrent frosts and wanting to plant tomatoes almost with fruits, keep the seedlings for a very long time before planting. In fact, planting overgrown tomato seedlings or planting normal seedlings, but late, taking into account the late sowing, leads to growth and development delays, and consequently to a decrease in yield and its quality. The fruits of tomatoes simply do not have time to ripen properly and end up unripe in the late summer and even autumn periods, what quality and taste can we talk about here?
Error seven. The more I plant, the more I shoot
The small area of the garden is a problem for many, so summer residents are trying to "shove" everything and more onto modest hundred square meters. Alas, this does not pass in vain with any culture, here is a tomato - with a thickened planting, it grows worse, blooms poorly, sets fewer fruits, and gets sick much more often: after all, moisture does not evaporate, air does not circulate and all diseases spread at lightning speed through the foliage - they don't need to go far …
When planting tomatoes, in order to correctly calculate the planting scheme, it is imperative to build on the strength of the growth of a bush of a particular variety or hybrid. For example, tall tomatoes, of course, need to be planted less often and only four of them should be planted on a square meter of open ground or greenhouses if the soil is nutritious and three if the soil is moderately nutritious.
Medium-sized plants, which can still be grown in addition to open ground and in a greenhouse, can be planted in the amount of four or five pieces on the same area, but dwarfs, which are appropriate only in open ground, can be planted six per square meter of soil.
Specific planting schemes for dwarfs are 30 by 60 cm (between plants and between tomato bushes, respectively), for medium-sized ones - 35 by 70-75 cm and for vigorous ones - 40-45 by 60 cm.
Resourceful gardeners, however, figured out how to save a little space without harming the harvest: they make the so-called double plantings, that is, they plant tomatoes in two rows on beds half a meter wide, but staggered, but at the same time the distance between such double the beds should be equal to 75-85 cm.
Error eight. Formation of a tomato, why?
Formation of tomato plants is necessary, but many gardeners are simply sorry to break out seemingly powerful and potentially productive side shoots and pinch the crown, and as a result they get a very spreading bush or bush, generally devoid of fruits or with a small amount of them.
Considering that more than four brushes with fruits usually do not form in the soil open on a tomato plant, immediately after laying this very fourth brush and a couple of leaves after it, you need to pinch the stem, thereby removing the already unnecessary growth point.
The ninth mistake. I'll tie it tighter
This mistake is extremely common. When tying a tomato stem to a trellis, gardeners usually pull the stems strongly with twine, which leads to disturbances in the normal growth and development of the stem, the formation of constrictions, and sometimes to a split stem. In order to prevent constrictions, it is necessary, when twisting, not to wrap the tomato stem around the twine, but the twine around the stem.
Mistake ten. Stepson? I'll be in time
Another common mistake gardeners make is the delay in removing the lateral shoots of tomatoes that grow from the leaf axils, that is, stepchildren. It is optimal to remove stepchildren when they reach a length of three or four centimeters, just not more, because the plant, while the stepsons are growing, will actively consume moisture and nutrients for the growth and development of these unnecessary parts.
When plucking stepchildren of tomatoes, some also make mistakes, leaving their parts, that is, hemp. This cannot be done, the stepsons must be plucked out entirely and this operation should be carried out in the morning and, if possible, in dry weather, without rain or fog.
If you do everything this way, then the wound left after removing the tomato stepson will quickly heal. In the event that you leave the hemp from the stepsons, that is, remove the stepsons only partially, then various microorganisms, often pathogens, can settle on their surface and begin to actively multiply.
Mistake eleventh. Removing more leaves - the food goes to the fruit
This is a common misconception, although there is still a small grain of truth in this. Defoliation, or the removal of tomato leaf blades, can indeed somewhat contribute to an increase in the mass of fruits and an acceleration of their ripening, but only if the lowest leaves are removed, but not others. If you remove all the leaves of a tomato indiscriminately, especially after watering or rain, as many do, then the evaporation area will be greatly reduced, the main processes of photosynthesis will slow down, and rather not nutrition, but more moisture will go to the fruits, which is likely to cause their cracking, against the background of a taste changed for the worse.
Without fear for plants, you can remove the three lower leaves, especially if there is an excessive amount of moisture in the soil, and also pick off those leaves that have turned yellow, therefore, “do not work”, as well as damaged leaf blades, on which an infection can settle. Do not forget that you can remove no more than three tomato leaves at a time, it is better to postpone the operation until the next day if you need to remove more.
Mistake twelfth. The more feeding, the larger the fruits
Another extremely common mistake is violation of all possible terms and dosages when applying top dressing for tomatoes. Basically, excess nutrition leads to excessive "fattening" of plants, they form very powerful shoots, massive leaves and completely forget that they should form fruits.
For example, active fattening is observed when manure is applied under tomatoes. In addition to an excess of nutrients, there may be a lack of them, for example, gardeners do not always pay attention to the presence of essential trace elements in the soil, such as, say, magnesium. The lack of magnesium in the soil negatively affects the leaf blades, yellow areas appear between the veins, the processes of photosynthesis are disrupted, and the yield and its quality decrease.
The first, with a lack of magnesium, the lower leaves suffer, and then the necrosis moves higher. If you notice typical signs of magnesium starvation on tomatoes, then immediately apply foliar dressing with a 4-5% solution of magnesium sulfate at intervals of a week, until the symptoms are completely eliminated.
Error thirteen. More lei - the tomatoes will be sweeter
Probably everyone has heard such advice from a neighbor? But is he right? Of course not: not a single plant likes excess moisture, including a tomato, both in open ground and in a greenhouse, contrary to popular belief. All that you will achieve by pouring tomatoes is the appearance of rot of the root system and a series of fungal diseases on the leaves and fruits.
Watering tomatoes indoors should be carried out every week, and outdoors, depending on the presence of rain: if there is no rain, then twice a week, if there is, then less often. Watering should be rare, but abundant, moreover, you need to use settled water at room temperature and pour it under the bush, and not pour it over the foliage.
Of course, moisture is important, especially in the first 10-12 days after planting, but you should not allow the soil to dry out either: you must adhere to the golden mean. If you grow tomatoes in the country, where you visit once a week on weekends, and are afraid that the summer heat can dry out the soil so much that the tomatoes will not survive until the next weekend, then after watering, be sure to mulch the soil, that is, cover it.
You can use literally anything as mulch - humus, dry soil, white covering material, mowed grass, or even ordinary sheets of paper or newspapers.
And remember one interesting feature of tomatoes - they themselves can signal whether they have enough moisture or not. So, if the edges of the leaves begin to bend upward, forming a boat, then there is little moisture and it is necessary to water them urgently, if, on the contrary, they curl, directing the tips of the leaves down, then it is not worth watering them yet, there is a lot of moisture in the soil. As for the watering rates, the older the plant, the more moisture it needs. Depending on age, the rates are increased from three liters to five for each bush.
Error fourteenth. I closed the greenhouse and went home
This is a common mistake of all summer residents - to tightly close the greenhouse before leaving and open it a week later, only on the next weekend. It seems to be correct, but for some reason very few fruits are formed in this case. In fact, the increased temperature and the lack of cooling in the form of fresh air lead to the fact that pollen grains are elementary sticking together in tomatoes and pollination does not happen, and there is no pollination - there are no fruits either.
If you already grow vegetables in the country, where you do not visit often, then try to plant not tomatoes there, but cucumbers, especially parthenocarpic hybrids, which do not need pollination at all. In all other cases, you will have to open the greenhouse to reduce the temperature in it.
Error fifteen. Means of protection? What for?
Indeed, why, because the fruits can be plucked green, as soon as the plants "cover" the late blight and try to ripen, getting "burgundy miracles" of mediocre taste. Seriously though, tomatoes need to be processed every 10-12 days both in the greenhouse and in the open ground. It's great if you use biological agents for this that can protect plants without harming the environment.
In the same case, if biological preparations no longer save, you can use various folk remedies or preparations based on copper, and if this does not help, then resort to the help of fungicides and insecticides, be sure to follow the instructions on the package, not exceeding the dose and not violating the processing time.
Conclusion. Here, in fact, are all the mistakes that can be made when growing tomatoes, if you still have questions, then write to us in the comments, we will try to answer them in detail.