Complex Mineral Fertilizers. Names, Descriptions, Composition Of

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Complex Mineral Fertilizers. Names, Descriptions, Composition Of
Complex Mineral Fertilizers. Names, Descriptions, Composition Of

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Fertilizers are simple, consisting of only one element, for example, nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium, and complex when there are several components in the composition of such fertilizers. Complex fertilizers are commonly referred to as complex fertilizers. Based on the composition, they are divided into double, that is, they have only a couple of elements in their composition, for example, nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium or phosphorus and potassium and ternary, containing three or more elements, say, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements …

Application of complex mineral fertilizers
Application of complex mineral fertilizers


  • Classification of mineral fertilizers

    • Complex fertilizers
    • Combined or complex-mixed fertilizers
    • Mixed fertilizers
    • Multifunctional fertilizers
    • Fertilizer mixtures
  • The most famous complex fertilizers

    • Complex fertilizer - amofos
    • Complex fertilizer - sulfoammophos
    • Complex fertilizer - diammonium phosphate
    • Complex fertilizer - ammofoska
    • Complex fertilizers - nitroammophos and nitroammofoska
  • Liquid complex fertilizers

Classification of mineral fertilizers

In fact, the range of complex fertilizers cannot be called very significant and confusing, and even having the initial knowledge that this material will provide you, it is quite possible to understand them without much difficulty.

Usually these are double fertilizers containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), for example nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers: ammophos, nitroammophos, nitrophos, as well as double phosphorus-potassium fertilizers containing phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), specifically - potassium phosphate or potassium monophosphate, as well as ternary, having all three compounds nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK): ammophoska, nitroammfosk, nitrophoska and magnesium-ammonium phosphate containing nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium (Mg).

In addition to such a simple division, there is a more complex one, that is, according to the option of obtaining fertilizer. They are divided into complex, combined (complex-mixed fertilizers), mixed, multifunctional fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures.

Complex fertilizers

The first category is complex fertilizers, it includes potassium nitrate or potassium nitrate (KNO 3) - diammophos and ammophos. Such fertilizers are produced by chemical interaction of the initial substances. For example, in their composition, in addition to the familiar NPK - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, there may be trace elements, various pesticides (fungicides, acaricides, insecticides) or herbicides (weed control agents).

Combined or complex-mixed fertilizers

Further, combined fertilizers or complex-mixed fertilizers, this group includes fertilizers, the result of which is a single technical process. In a small granule of such a fertilizer, all three main elements can be contained, but not in the general chemical compound, but in different ones. They can be obtained due to a special chemical and physical effect on the starting products.

It can also be fertilizers consisting of one element or several. This group includes: nitrophos and nitrophoska, nitroammophos and nitroammofoska, as well as polyphosphates of both potassium and ammonium, carboammophos, pressed phosphorus-potassium and complex liquid. The proportions of nutrients are contained in them based on the amount of initial substances required for manufacture.

Mixed fertilizers

Mixed fertilizers are banal mixes of the most elementary nutrients that are produced in factories or in mobile plants (producing fertilizer mixtures).

Complex and complex-mixed nutrients are always characterized by an increased proportion of basic elements, therefore, their use is a tangible reduction in the cost of soil enrichment. Simply put, if you buy and deposit each element separately, it will be more expensive than if you deposit them all at once, when they are combined in one connection.

Such fertilizers, however, also have negative qualities - for example, the proportions of the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in these fertilizers usually vary within rather narrow limits. What does this mean? For example, if you need to focus on nitrogen, and you apply a complex fertilizer, in which this element is the most, you still enrich the soil with both phosphorus and potassium, and not always in optimal doses for this.

Multifunctional fertilizers

In addition to the listed groups of complex fertilizers, there are several more, for example, multifunctional fertilizers. In addition to the main elements, they contain various microelements and biostimulants. These substances usually have an immunity-enhancing effect and enhance the growth activity of plants.

Fertilizer mixtures

Do not forget about fertilizer mixtures, now in our country the production of these fertilizers is reaching a new level. Fertilizer mixtures are mechanically mixed and necessarily compatible with each other types of fertilizers. The composition of fertilizer mixtures can be made completely different, allowing you to choose a certain ratio for a particular crop, type of soil and even a region. In Western countries, the use of fertilizer mixtures is a well-known and well-known way of enriching the soil with food, but for our country, one might say, it is still a novelty.

Granular complex mineral fertilizers
Granular complex mineral fertilizers

The most famous complex fertilizers

Let's talk about the main and most commonly used complex fertilizers.

Complex fertilizer - amofos

Let's start with fertilizing ammophos. This is monoammonium phosphate, the chemical formula of this fertilizer is NH 4 H 2 PO 4. This fertilizer is highly concentrated, it is a granule containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In this case, the nitrogen in this fertilizer is in the ammonium form. Fertilizer is good because it does not absorb moisture and can be stored in ordinary rooms, does not form a dust cloud when applied, it does not crumble during long-term storage, therefore, it does not need to be crushed before adding. The lack of hygroscopicity, however, does not in any way affect the solubility of the fertilizer in water.

It is noteworthy that taking ammophos as a basis, you can prepare a large number of various brands of mixed fertilizers. This fertilizer is considered highly efficient and quite versatile. Ammophos can be applied to a wide variety of soil types and used both for the main soil fertilization and for additional fertilizing. Ammophos is also good for fertilizing the soil of greenhouses and greenhouses. The greatest effect from the use of ammophos is achieved in areas where droughts often occur, therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are needed less than phosphorus fertilizers.

Complex fertilizer - sulfoammophos

The next widespread complex fertilizer is sulfoammophos, its chemical formula is (NH 4) 2HPO 4 + (NH 4) 2SO 4. This fertilizer is considered versatile and highly soluble in water. Externally, these are granules, which contain nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Fertilizer is good because it does not cake during storage, therefore, it does not need crushing before applying. The fertilizer does not possess and is hygroscopic, therefore, it can be stored in ordinary rooms, in addition, when applied and poured, the fertilizer does not form dust.

Unlike ammophos, sulfoammophos contains phosphorus, which is better soluble in water; in addition, the ratio of these two substances is more balanced. The nitrogen component is in the form of ammonium, therefore, nitrogen is very slowly washed out of the soil and a substantially greater part of it will be absorbed by plants.

In addition, sulfur (S) is also present in the composition of sulfoammophos, which, if fertilized, for example, under wheat, contributes to an increase in the level of gluten. When fertilizing the soil for sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans, sulfoammophos increases the content of oil in the seeds.

In small quantities, about half a percent, this fertilizer contains magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), they are necessary for the full life of plants.

This fertilizer is used on any type of soil, it is suitable for any crop. Fertilizer can be applied to the soil both as the main and additional. It has been proven to be successful in greenhouses and greenhouses, especially in combination with nitrogen fertilizers and containing potassium. A wide variety of mixed fertilizers can be made using sulfoammophos.

Complex fertilizer - diammonium phosphate

Another complex fertilizer - diammonium phosphate, in fact, is diammonium hydrogen phosphate, its chemical formula is (NH 4) 2 HPO 4. This fertilizer is concentrated, it does not have nitrates, it is highly soluble in water and is in the form of granules, the main elements of which are nitrogen and phosphorus. The undoubted advantages of this fertilizer are the absence of hygroscopicity, caking and dust formation when applied to the soil and poured. In addition to the main elements, the fertilizer contains sulfur (S).

Complex fertilizer - ammofoska

Familiar to many ammophoska (NH 4) 2 SO 4 + (NH 4) 2 HPO 4 + K 2 SO 4 - it contains all three essential elements. The effectiveness of this fertilizer has been proven more than once, in essence, it is a rather complex fertilizer, in which potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) are potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4) and phosphate, and nitrogen is ammonium sulfate. Ammophoska does not possess hygroscopicity and caking properties. Nitrogen in this fertilizer is practically not washed out from the soil.

In addition to the three main elements, ammofosk contains sulfur (S), calcium and magnesium are also present. Given the absence of chlorine in the composition, this fertilizer can be safely used on soils with salinity. This fertilizer can be used as a main or additional fertilizer on any type of soil and for all crops. Especially fruit and berry plants, as well as a number of vegetable crops, for example, potatoes, respond well to ammofoska. Ammofoska is a good fertilizer for greenhouses and greenhouses.

Complex fertilizers - nitroammophos and nitroammofoska

Nitroammophos (nitrophosphate) (NP) and nitroammophoska (NPK), both of these complex fertilizers are obtained by neutralizing a mixture of phosphoric and nitric acids with ammonia. The fertilizer that is made from monoammonium phosphate is called nitroammophos, and if potassium (K) is added to its composition, then it is called nitroammophos. These complex fertilizers contain more nitrophosphate, additional nutrients are present, the ratio of which can vary.

For example, nitroammophos fertilizer can be produced with the amount of nitrogen in its composition varying from 30 to 10 percent, phosphorus from 25-26 to 13-15 percent. As for nitroammophoska, its composition of the main elements, that is, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P, K), is about 51%. In total, two brands of nitroammofoska are produced - grade "A" and grade "B". In the “A” grade, the composition of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is divided as follows - 17 (N), 17 (P) and 17 (K), and in the “B” grade - 13 (N), 19 (P) and 19 (K), respectively. Currently, other brands of nitroammophoska with other compositions can be found on sale.

All elements in nitroammophos are in a water-soluble form, so they will be easily accessible to plants. The effect of nitroammophoska is exactly the same as if we introduced each of these elements separately, but at a cost it turns out to be almost twice as cheap to use nitroammophoska. It can be applied on any type of soil, both in autumn and in spring or during the season.

Application of complex mineral fertilizers dissolved in water
Application of complex mineral fertilizers dissolved in water

Liquid complex fertilizers

Well, in conclusion, we will tell you about liquid complex fertilizers, because gardeners and gardeners often have questions about them. Liquid complex fertilizers are produced by neutralizing polyphosphoric and orthophosphoric acids with ammonia, with the addition of various fertilizers containing nitrogen, for example, urea or ammonium nitrate, as well as potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, and trace elements are included in especially expensive liquid complex fertilizers.

As a result, a fertilizer is obtained, in which the proportion of nutrients based on phosphoric acid reaches only thirty percent, this is quite small, but if the solution is more concentrated, then at low temperatures the salts crystallize and precipitate.

In liquid complex fertilizers, the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is sometimes quite different. For example, nitrogen can be from five to ten percent, and phosphorus and potassium from six to ten percent. In Russia, liquid complex fertilizers are usually produced with a ratio of nutrients equal to 9 (N) to 9 (P) to 9 (K), as well as 7 to 14 and 7, then 6/18/6 and 8/24/0, their composition is usually written on the packaging.

In addition, on the basis of polyphosphate acid, liquid complex fertilizers are also made, in the composition of which up to 40% of nutrients, for example, the composition may contain 10 to 34 and 0 NPK or 11 to 37 and 0 of the same elements. These liquid complex fertilizers can be obtained by saturating superphosphoric acid with ammonia.

These fertilizers are sometimes referred to as basic fertilizers; they are often used for the manufacture of so-called ternary liquid complex fertilizers, the composition of which can be quite different. It is allowed to add ammonium nitrate, urea or potassium chloride to the composition. In the latter case, the negative effect of chlorine is leveled.

Of course, liquid complex fertilizers have their own disadvantages, the main one is the difficulties in their application. In order to enrich the soil with nutrients with the help of such fertilizers, it is necessary to have at disposal special equipment for transporting, applying and storing liquid nutrients.

As for the direct application of any fertilizers, the process can be carried out by continuous spreading over the soil surface before digging the soil or plowing, applying fertilizers when sowing or planting plants, or in row spacing when feeding during the season.

Now you know what complex fertilizers are, if you have any questions, then write them in the comments, we will be happy to answer.

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