What's Missing In Tomatoes? Signs Of A Lack Of Batteries. Photo

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What's Missing In Tomatoes? Signs Of A Lack Of Batteries. Photo
What's Missing In Tomatoes? Signs Of A Lack Of Batteries. Photo

Video: What's Missing In Tomatoes? Signs Of A Lack Of Batteries. Photo

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Video: Why Batteries Fail 2023, January
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Assessing the external state of tomato seedlings, and then of adult plants, most of us cannot say what they lack. But knowing the symptoms of nutrient deficiency for a culture so beloved by everyone is useful not only for professionals, but also for novice gardeners.

Lack of nutrients in tomatoes
Lack of nutrients in tomatoes

Let's look at the main signs of a lack and an overabundance of nutrients in tomatoes. This will allow us not only to achieve higher yields, but also to avoid unnecessary worries, as well as the improper use of chemicals, to which the hand often reaches at the sight of twisted leaves and all sorts of specks.

The main nutrients for tomatoes are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Then comes calcium, sulfur, magnesium. And finally - iron, boron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum and chlorine.

Let us consider in detail the symptoms of a lack and an overabundance of elements:

  • Lack or excess of nitrogen (N)
  • Lack or excess of phosphorus (P)
  • Lack or excess of potassium (K)
  • Lack or excess of calcium (Ca)
  • Lack of sulfur (S)
  • Lack of magnesium (Mg)
  • Lack or excess of iron (Fe)
  • Boron deficiency (B)
  • Zinc (Zn) deficiency
  • Copper (Cu) deficiency
  • Manganese (Mn) deficiency
  • Lack of molybdenum (Mo)
  • Chlorine deficiency (Cl)

and:

  • Other causes of the sickly look of tomatoes
  • Fertilization rules.

Lack or excess of nitrogen (N)

Nitrogen is one of the elements most demanded by tomatoes. Responsible for the growth, development and productivity of plants. Both its deficiency and its excess negatively affect this culture.

Tomatoes experience the greatest need for nitrogen nutrition in the early stages of development. During the flowering period, it decreases somewhat and increases again after the formation of the first brush. In the second half of the growing season, the crop's need for phosphorus and potassium comes to the fore, but, again, with a moderate nitrogen background.

Visual signs of nitrogen deficiency:

The lower leaves of tomatoes are the first to lighten and curl. In this case, the veins on their back side acquire a bluish tint with a red tint. The same color appears on the stems and on the leaf petioles. A delay in plant development becomes noticeable. New foliage grows shallow, dull, pale green. Premature flowering occurs. Small fruits are formed and, as a result, a small poor-quality crop (fruits are woody).

Visual signs of excess nitrogen:

Leading growth. Tomato leaves are large, juicy, rich in color. The shoots are powerful. Young leaves are fragile, curl into rings. The flowering, and then the ripening of the fruits, is delayed. The harvest is poor.

With an overload of fruits on the tassels above the fifth (with an excess of nitrogen against the background of a lack of potassium), a discharge of flowers and ovary is observed. Against the background of a lack of phosphorus, dark stripes appear on the fruits.

In addition, excess nitrogen leads to impaired absorption of iron by plants, increases the susceptibility of tomatoes to diseases.

How to make up for the lack of nitrogen and reduce its excess?

When tomatoes show signs of nitrogen deficiency, nitrogen-containing fertilizing is necessary. Ammonium, calcium, sodium, potassium nitrate, urea, manure, slurry are suitable. A feature of the introduction of this group of fertilizers is the need for their early incorporation into the soil, since nitrogen tends to evaporate.

When signs of excess nitrogen appear, it is necessary to increase lighting (in greenhouses) and apply fertilizers of the potash group, as well as flush the soil with plenty of water.

Nitrogen deficiency in tomato leaves
Nitrogen deficiency in tomato leaves

Lack or excess of phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus plays a special role in the formation of the root system of tomatoes and the establishment of the quantity and quality of the crop. With its lack, the instability of plants to diseases and low temperatures increases.

Visual signs of phosphorus deficiency:

Delayed plant development, and with prolonged starvation - growth arrest. Purple or purple coloration of the stem and the underside of the leaves. The leaves are curled up, with prolonged fasting - down. Young leaves have a smaller angle of inclination in relation to the main stem. Flowering is scarce. Tomatoes are formed small, with no pronounced taste.

Visual signs of excess phosphorus:

Plants have unnaturally short internodes. Young leaves are thin, have lightening between the veins. The tips and edges of the leaves are burnt out. The lower leaves are covered with spots, curl. The harvest is weak.

How to make up for the lack of phosphorus in tomato nutrition?

Phosphorus-containing dressings are required. Suitable: potassium monophosphate, superphosphate, phosphorus flour, highly diluted ash infusion or dry ash. Such dressings are especially important before the beginning of the flowering phase.

But! Phosphorus fertilizers have a peculiarity: they are poorly absorbed by plants until the soil temperature rises to + 15 ° C and above. Therefore, for seedlings, with optimal lighting and competent preparation of the soil mixture, to eliminate phosphorus starvation, it is enough to raise the temperature to + 23 ° C.

Phosphorus starvation in tomato
Phosphorus starvation in tomato

Lack or excess of potassium (K)

Potassium is an element responsible for the immunity and productive potential of tomatoes, the taste of their fruits, keeping quality, the accumulation of vitamin C.

Potassium deficiency disrupts the nitrogen metabolism of tomatoes. It causes instability to diseases, increases sensitivity to temperature extremes and lack of moisture. However, the manifestation of a lack of potassium is not common, mainly with long-term permanent cultivation of potassium-loving crops in the same place, with prolonged rainy periods, or, conversely, with a prolonged lack of moisture.

Visual signs of potassium deficiency:

Young tomato leaves grow small and dark, curl downward, become wrinkled, their edges die off. Signs of burnout, rusty tint (marginal burn) appear along the edge and top of old leaves. Interveinal chlorosis is observed around the necrotic points of the tissue of the leaf plates (spreading from the edge to the middle of the leaf). The smallest leaf veins fade. The leaf plates gradually dry out, crumble. The plant appears variegated, with severe damage - covered with rust.

Tomato growth slows down. There is an active education of stepchildren. Stems are thin, brittle, weak. A small number of buds are observed. The fruits ripen unevenly, with the formation of dark spots.

On ripe tomato fruits, unless this is a varietal feature, a dense yellow spot (the so-called "yellow shoulders") forms at the stalk. In addition, with a shortage of potassium, against the background of an excess of nitrogen and a deficiency of calcium, hard veins can form inside the fruit.

Visual signs of excess potassium:

Plants are stunted in growth and form long internodes. New leaves grow smaller, thinner, with chlorosis between the veins. The tops and edges of tomato leaf plates acquire a brown tint and die off over time. The lower leaves are covered with brown spots (mosaic), wrinkle, wither, curl, fall off.

An excess of potassium makes it difficult for tomatoes to assimilate other elements, in particular calcium and magnesium.

How to make up for the lack of potassium?

Potassium-containing dressings are required. Suitable: potassium sulphide, potassium magnesium, kalimag, potassium monophosphate, ash.

Tomato with prolonged potassium deficiency
Tomato with prolonged potassium deficiency

Lack or excess of calcium (Ca)

Calcium is involved in the growth and development of tomatoes. With its lack, the formation of the root system, the formation of root hairs, slows down.

Visual signs of calcium deficiency:

The growth of tomatoes slows down, with a strong deficiency, the top may lighten and die off. Young leaves with light spots and, as it were, opal at the tips, with strong starvation, may have an irregular shape. Old leaves are large, dark green. Falling buds and ovary may be observed. With a serious deficiency, apical rot develops on the fruit.

Visual signs of excess calcium:

On tomato leaves, light spots of various configurations. Veins are green.

How to Replenish Calcium Lack?

An excess of nitrogen, potassium and manganese often leads to a lack of calcium. Therefore, you need to make them without breaking the rules. To replenish the calcium deficiency, foliar feeding with calcium nitrate will be the best option. Calcium chloride, "Calbit C", eggshell infusion are also suitable.

Calcium deficiency in tomato leaves
Calcium deficiency in tomato leaves

Lack of sulfur (S)

Sulfur plays a significant role in the respiration process of tomatoes. If there is not enough of it, the plants wither. However, this sign may also be evidence of constant waterlogging of the soil.

Visual signs of sulfur deficiency:

The external symptoms of sulfur deficiency are very similar to those of nitrogen deficiency. But, if with a nitrogen deficiency, the leaf apparatus of tomatoes begins to turn yellow from the bottom of the bush, then sulfur - from the top. Over time, the lightened leaves on the underside, closer to the petioles, acquire a pinkish tint. Their veins also become bluish with red. The stems grow lignified, thin, tough and brittle.

How to make up for the lack of sulfur?

Foliar treatment of plants with magnesium sulfate helps to compensate for the lack of sulfur.

Lack of magnesium (Mg)

Symptoms of a lack of magnesium appear on tomato bushes during a period of fruit loading.

Visual signs of magnesium deficiency:

Tomato leaves, starting from the lower tier, dome-shaped upward, turn yellow, their edge wrinkles and dries out. Veins and the space around them do not change color.

How to Replenish Magnesium Deficiency?

You can fill the magnesium deficiency by foliar feeding of tomatoes with a solution of Epsom salts, magnesium nitrate.

Tomato leaves with a lack of magnesium
Tomato leaves with a lack of magnesium

Lack or excess of iron (Fe)

Iron deficiency is most often found on calcareous soils in tomatoes on young seedlings.

Visual signs of iron deficiency:

Yellowing of plants from the stem to the tips of young foliage. In this case, the veins brighten in the same direction, remaining green only at the edges of the leaf plates. There is also a lag in tomato growth, the formation of small flowers.

Visual signs of excess iron:

At first glance - the wanton dying off of green leaves. Stopping growth. The formation of a small number of flowers. Dying off the top. Withering.

How to make up for iron deficiency?

Iron deficiency is quickly replenished when plants are treated with green mass with a weak solution of iron sulfate or ferrous sulfate, repeated 2-3 times.

Tomato leaves with a lack of iron
Tomato leaves with a lack of iron

Boron deficiency (B)

The main danger of a lack of boron in tomatoes is the inability to set fruits. In addition, disease resistance deteriorates.

Visual signs of boron deficiency:

With a slight boron deficiency, tomatoes bloom, but do not set fruit. The tops are lightened, curled down. With a stronger one, which is not common, the leading growth point dies. Young leaves curl from tip to petiole. Large veins become dark (brown, black), and leaves become brittle. Stepchildren are strongly formed. Dark brown necrotic spots may appear on the fruit.

How to make up for a boron deficiency?

You can compensate for the lack of boron by treating tomato leaves during flowering with a solution of boric acid. It is better to repeat the procedure several times.

Zinc (Zn) deficiency

Zinc plays a leading role in tomato growth and vitamin synthesis. A deficiency of this element is found on sandy, gravel and calcareous soils.

Visual signs of zinc deficiency:

Young tomato leaves are atypically small and narrow, growing slightly vertically. Often covered with yellow dots or bleached. On the main leaves, starting from the lower tiers, gray-brown spots of various sizes appear, capturing veins. The edges of the sheet plates are twisted upward. The leaves gradually dry out completely. The same spots are found on the petioles and on the stems.

How to make up for the lack of zinc?

The lack of zinc on tomatoes is replenished with foliar feeding with a solution of zinc sulfate.

Copper (Cu) deficiency

Copper is involved in a number of plant processes, including respiration and the formation of stress resistance.

Visual signs of copper deficiency:

Tomato leaves are lethargic (especially apical), bleached at the ends, twisted into a tube. New ones grow small with a bluish tinge. The shoots are weak. Flowers are falling.

How to make up for the lack of copper?

The lack of copper is compensated for by spraying the leaf plates with a solution of copper sulfate.

Manganese (Mn) deficiency

Manganese deficiency in tomatoes is rare. Mainly on calcareous soils and when irrigated with very hard water.

Visual signs of manganese deficiency:

Tomato leaves are variegated, mosaic. They begin to lighten from the base of the upper tiers. Veins of heterogeneous color, darker than with iron deficiency. The flowers are crumbling.

How to make up for the lack of manganese?

To compensate for the lack of manganese, it is recommended to treat tomatoes for green mass with a solution of manganese sulfate.

Lack of molybdenum (Mo)

Lack of molybdenum in tomatoes is extremely rare.

Visual signs of molybdenum deficiency:

Young tomato leaves turn from green to speckled. Subsequently, the bleached tissue swells, the edges of the leaf plates die off, curl inward. The first two pairs of leaves are also highlighted and curled upward. In this case, the veins do not change color.

How to make up for the lack of molybdenum?

You can fill the lack of molybdenum in tomatoes by feeding them with an ammonium molybdate solution.

Chlorine deficiency (Cl)

Chlorine deficiency in tomatoes is rare. It can only be observed on leached soils.

Visual signs of chlorine deficiency:

Young tomato foliage has pronounced interveinal chlorosis, irregular shape, withers. Over time, a bronze tint appears on old leaves.

How to make up for the lack of chlorine?

It is possible to compensate for the lack of chlorine in tomatoes by foliar treatment of the foliage with a solution of potassium chloride.

The sickly look of tomatoes can be caused by other reasons: moisture deficiency, for example
The sickly look of tomatoes can be caused by other reasons: moisture deficiency, for example

Other causes of the sickly look of tomatoes

These are the main signs of a lack of the most important nutrients for tomato. However, peering into tomato beds, do not forget that a sickly type of plants can also form under the influence of various other factors.

In spring, this is a strong drop in temperatures at night. In summer - lack of moisture, diseases, pests. Close occurrence of groundwater. Stagnant water in the root zone. Wind. Natural aging of plants - in the second half of summer, the lower leaves of tomatoes begin to turn yellow.

If all these reasons do not take place, and external signs indicate a lack of this or that element in plants, then it is worth taking care to replenish them.

However, fertilization should be done on time and not redundantly. Since excess nutrition also adversely affects tomatoes, as well as lack. For example, one of the signs of excess nutrition is the lengthening of the glasses and knees in the tomato brush (parts of the hand that hold the fetus).

It happens that tomatoes lack several nutrients at once. In this case, when the main missing element is introduced (determined by the dominant symptoms), the plants react to its replenishment, and by the remaining signs, one can judge the lack of the next element.

Fertilization rules

In order for the plants not to suffer from a lack or excess of nutrients, it is necessary to apply both mineral and organic fertilizers according to the rules. Firstly, for the main cultivation of the soil in early spring or autumn, and secondly, during certain phases of plant development.

For growing tomato seedlings, use a balanced substrate. Carry out scheduled feeding on time. Adhere to the recommended temperature and light conditions.

Choosing between traditional and foliar feeding in terms of the lack of elements, it is better to give preference to foliar feeding, since in such a difficult situation for plants, a quick effect is needed.

Foliar top dressing of tomato is carried out either in the evening or in the early morning. In dry, calm weather. In no case in the heat. When spraying, both the upper and lower parts of the leaves are treated. Since on the underside of the leaf plates there is a greater number of stomata, through which fertilizers dissolved in water are absorbed.

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