Table of contents:
- Description of fusarium
- Signs of Fusarium disease
- Ways to fight
- Fusarium in various plants
Video: Fusarium Disease: Stop Wilting Of Plants. Description, Methods Of Struggle, Prevention. Photo
Fusarium is a common and dangerous fungal disease. Fusarium is an infectious disease of plants (cultivated and wild) caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. Plants are affected at any age. The fungus is found in the soil and enters the plant through the soil and wounds. In young plants, the disease manifests itself in the form of decay of the roots and root collar. In these places, the tissues turn brown, the stem becomes thinner, the leaves turn yellow. Soon the whole plant withers and dies. The disease is mainly spread by foci. The infection spreads through the soil. Weakened plants are most susceptible to disease. The development of the disease is facilitated by the high humidity of the soil and air.
Description of fusarium
Description of fusarium
The disease is common in all climatic zones. With fusarium, the vascular system (fusarium wilting) and plant tissues (rot of roots, fruits and seeds, fusarium of ears, ears; other types of fusarium) are affected. Pathogens persist for a long time in the soil and on plant debris, and enter plants through the root system and the lower part of the stem.
Infected seeds and seedlings can also be a source of infection. The rapid development of the disease is facilitated by unfavorable factors (sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity of air and soil, lack of soil nutrition, etc.), weakening the plant, damage by insects, etc. mycelium of the fungus and the release of toxic substances (fusaric acid, lycomarasmin, etc.).
The disease begins with root rot. Pathogens penetrate from the soil first into small roots, then, as the mycelium grows, into larger ones. Then, along the conducting vessels, they rise to the stem and reach the leaves. The lower leaves wilt, the edges of the rest become watery, and some areas are pale green or light yellow. Vessels of leaves and petioles weaken, and limp leaves hang along the stem. At temperatures below +16 ° C, diseased plants die quickly enough. At the same time, fungi release toxins that cause decomposition of cell tissues, root rot, browning and drying of branches and leaves. With increased air humidity, a delicate white coating forms on the surface of the leaves.
Signs of Fusarium disease
With fusarium, the vascular system (fusarium wilting) and plant tissues (rot of roots, fruits and seeds) are affected. With fusarium wilting, damage and death of plants occur due to a sharp violation of vital functions due to clogging of blood vessels by the mycelium of the fungus and the release of toxic substances by them. Affected plants have poor flowering, yellowing and leaf fall, darkened underdeveloped roots, general wilting. Dark vessels are visible on the cut of the stem and leaves. At temperatures below +16 ° C, diseased plants die quickly enough.
On the bulbs, more often at the bottom, reddish-brown spots depressed inward appear (therefore, fusarium in bulbous plants is often called red rot), which, with high humidity, become covered with a pinkish-white bloom. During storage, the disease progresses rapidly and the bulbs rot, being a serious source of infection.
Fusarium wilts are especially dangerous for all bulbous plants, neoregelia, rose, chrysanthemum, echmea, anthurium, gerbera, cyclamen, balsam, zygocactus and other jointed cacti.
Ways to fight
To prevent fusarium of indoor plants, the soil must be calcined or frozen, the seeds must be etched before sowing. When preparing the soil mixture, you can add the drug Trichodermin - several grains per pot with a diameter of 25 cm. Do not neglect the rules for keeping indoor plants - the disease develops only on weakened plants.
Very often, the disease is detected too late, when the process has captured most of the plant and its death is inevitable. Diseased plants and bulbs are immediately isolated, and healthy ones are sprayed with Benomil (Fundazol). Before planting and storage, the bulbs are etched with Fludioxonil (Maxim) for 30 minutes, then dried for 24 hours.
If the plant is not severely affected, you can try to root a stalk from it. It is necessary to cut off the top, soak it for 8 hours in a solution of Benomil (Fundazol) with the addition of a drop of Epin. If the cutting takes root and does not die in the near future, it means that it has coped with the disease.
Biological antifungal drugs "Trichodermin" or "Mikosan-V". It is advisable to start using "Fitosporin-M", "Phytocide" from the stage of sowing seeds in the ground.
The development of the disease is facilitated by the high humidity of the soil and air, therefore, ventilate the premises more often, loosen the top layer of the earth and disinfect the soil before use. When working, sterilize tools - a knife, scissors and even a garter material (wire, thread) with alcohol. When using water from natural reservoirs or rainwater, it can be pre-conditioned with Fitosporin-M.
Fusarium in various plants
Fusarium wilt, or aster fusarium, is a fungal disease that is caused by one of the fungi of the Fusarium genus. The disease usually manifests itself in adult plants, in the budding phase and the beginning of flowering. Radical measures to combat the disease have not yet been invented. However, there are preventive control measures that can reduce the incidence. It is very important for the aster to create a crop rotation on the site, and on large areas - a crop rotation. Aster should alternate with other flower and vegetable plants so that it returns to its original place no earlier than 5 years later.
Manure and fresh compost should not be applied to the area that is being prepared for planting asters, but only humus and well-rotted compost. Increase field resistance to fusarium all the methods that help to increase the physiological resistance of plants, namely: pre-sowing treatment of seeds with solutions of microelements, growing healthy, strong seedlings, foliar dressing with macro- and micronutrient fertilizers. Plants should not be planted densely, it is necessary that the aisles are well ventilated and water does not stagnate at the root collar. Plants affected by fusarium should be removed from the site or from the flower garden as early as possible. In no case should they be buried in the ground or put into compost. They must be burned without fail. And of course, it is very important to choose the varieties that are most resistant to fusarium for planting.
The first sign of damage is that the lower leaves wilt slightly and become chlorotic. In the lower part of the stem, the vessels turn dark brown. The severity of symptoms increases on a hot day, over time, the disease affects the entire plant. Most of the leaves will wither and the plant will die. Vascular necrosis is found in the upper part of the stem and in the petioles.
One of the preventive measures to combat is the use of healthy seed material. Cultivation of disease-resistant hybrids (Red Arrow F1, Porthos F1, Titanic F1, Chibli F1, Erato F1, Santiago F1, etc.). The introduction of trichodermin into the seedling mixture (1–2 g / plant) and into the soil (at the rate of 100 kg / ha) before planting in a permanent place can reduce the damage to plants both in the early period and in adulthood.
Treating seeds with fungicides and warming them before sowing will eliminate the seed infection. Spraying plants and shedding soil during the growing season when symptoms of wilting appear with drugs from the benzimidazole group can inhibit the development of the disease.
This disease occurs in all areas of grain cultivation and causes significant grain losses during wheat harvesting. The quality of grain also suffers significantly: the ability to germinate decreases, the baking qualities deteriorate and, due to the formation of mycotoxins, the possibility of using this grain as feed is reduced. Along with wheat, barley and rye are susceptible to fusarium disease.
In exceptional cases, the entire ear becomes sterile. But, as a rule, only individual spikelets and parts of the ears are affected (partial barnacle). Such spikelets often have a yellowish-pinkish coating or are colored red. When the fungus Gerlachia nivalis is infected, clearly defined brown spots appear on the scales.
The disease develops on tubers during storage of potatoes. On the tubers, grayish-brown, slightly depressed spots are formed. Then the pulp under the stain becomes friable, acquires a brownish color. It forms voids filled with white, yellowish or dark fluffy mycelium of the fungus. The affected tissue dries quickly, the peel wrinkles, forming folds around the original spot.
To fight, compliance with the storage regime is required; prevention of mechanical damage to tubers during harvesting; fight against diseases and pests during the growing season.
How do you fight this disease? Looking forward to your advice!