Eremurus - Luxurious Verticals. Planting And Leaving. Growing Outdoors. Photo

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Eremurus - Luxurious Verticals. Planting And Leaving. Growing Outdoors. Photo
Eremurus - Luxurious Verticals. Planting And Leaving. Growing Outdoors. Photo

Video: Eremurus - Luxurious Verticals. Planting And Leaving. Growing Outdoors. Photo

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Video: How to grow Eremurus (Foxtail Lily) bulbs/tubers - FarmerGracy.co.uk 2023, February
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Among herbaceous perennials with erect inflorescences, there is no culture more spectacular than the legendary Eremurus. Long, lacy, fluffy, consisting of very beautiful bell-shaped flowers with unforgettable stamens, Eremurus inflorescences fascinate with their details. This plant catches the eye from afar, placing luxurious accents in the garden. The requirement to recreate the natural development cycle for the eremurus complicates its cultivation in regions with severe winters, but still, even in the middle lane, this plant remains one of the undisputed favorites.

Eremurus, or Shiryash (Eremurus)
Eremurus, or Shiryash (Eremurus)

Content:

  • Desert luxury of incomparable inflorescences
  • Types and varieties of eremurus
  • The use of eremurus in ornamental gardening
  • Selection of partners for eremurus
  • Conditions Needed by Eremurus
  • Planting an eremurus
  • Eremurus care
  • Wintering Eremurus
  • Pest and disease control
  • Reproduction of eremurus

Desert luxury of incomparable inflorescences

The botanical name eremurus received in honor of its long, luxurious, especially spectacular looking in the desert area even from a considerable distance of long inflorescences (from the Greek 'eremos' and 'ura' - "desert tail"). The popular names for Eremurus are much less poetic than its official name. Shiryash or Shrish comes from the Tajik and Kazakh words "glue", indicating the unique properties of the sticky substances contained in the roots. Despite the fact that eremurus is an edible plant (young roots and leaves of some species are eaten as a vegetable), as well as a source of natural yellow ocher dyes, it is considered primarily as an ornamental plant. The majestic beauty of the fluffy huge verticals of the inflorescences gave him an equally beautiful nickname - Cleopatra's needle.

Eremurus are powerful herbaceous perennials that form a very large rhizome. Fusiform, tuberous, thickened Cornedonian eremurus with buds on the upper side is difficult to confuse with any other garden plant. Their maximum diameter reaches 15 cm.In addition to the Cornedonian, the Eremurus also forms a powerful system of feeding spindle-shaped or cordlike thick roots (up to 30 pieces), extending almost horizontally from the bottom, and a network of thin feeding long roots (thickened roots - up to 15 cm in length, thin - up to 1 m). When sold, especially in imported plants, the roots are often shortened, but then the plant grows a full-fledged root system. The Cornedonce constantly grows upward, the lower part with old roots dies off annually after a period of summer dormancy, and new storage roots grow in the upper part.

The plant forms dense "bundles" of root leaves collected in rosettes. Long and linear, very beautiful, triangular or keeled, the leaves of the plant look great in any decorative composition, immediately giving the impression of an exotic and bright plant. Erect leaves, as if fanning out from the center of the bush with strongly pointed tips, add graphicality and rigor to the plant.

Eremurus develop in a rather specific way: in the summer they have a "habit" inherited from their wild ancestors, the summer period of dormancy begins, during which the aerial part dies off completely or partially. In the fall, not all species wake up, some eremurus form buds and roots in the spring, and in the fall they completely leave the garden scene until the next season.

The status of a flowering plant in Eremurus is undeniable. Despite the rather attractive foliage, Eremurus are prized primarily for their flowering. Huge, half a meter and more, openwork cylinders on a slender peduncle of this culture are the largest and most catchy of all garden crops with a similar elongated type of candle-shaped inflorescences.

Eremurus himalaicus (Eremurus himalaicus)
Eremurus himalaicus (Eremurus himalaicus)

Eremurus inflorescences-sultans are able to enchant with their fluffy effect, bright colors and tenderness. Tall, elongated, conical or cylindrical inflorescences are crowned with straight peduncles up to almost 2 m in height, spectacularly towering over a rosette of beautiful leaves. Eremurus peduncles are very simple and strong, most often they are quite thin. The shape and beauty of individual flowers can be seen only close, but a cylindrical elongated inflorescence - an erect brush - is visible even at a very great distance. The length of the inflorescences ranges from 15 cm to almost 1 m.

The flowers in the raceme are arranged in a spiral, on short or elongated pedicels. Flowers are bell-shaped in all Eremurus, in most they are wide open, with a large and catchy, most often lanceolate or triangular bracts. The flower flaunts a graceful perianth with six leaves decorated with colored veins, which outwardly seem to be typical petals, and six stamens with thin filaments and swinging anthers. Most often, filaments are longer than the perianth. In the buds, the pedicels are almost pressed against the axis of the inflorescence, gradually protruding, which, in combination with the long stamens, gives the cylinders of the inflorescence an openwork fluffiness and a feeling of living lace.

Flowers bloom from bottom to top, a wave of flowering rises along a tall peduncle, as if the widest and brightest area is gradually rising in a spiral. At the same time, up to 10 flowers bloom in Eremurus, the number of flowers in one inflorescence ranges from several tens to a thousand.

The color palette of Eremurus includes white, pink, yellow, cream and brown in delicate pastel variations and bright acrylic shades of the “warm” part of the color spectrum in hybrid varieties.

Traditionally, Eremurus bloom in the first half of summer, delighting with gradually opening flowers in inflorescences in June and July. Some species are capable of blooming in spring, in April-May. The earliest flowering variety of Eremurus is the Himalayan Eremurus, but earlier than the main species, the narrow-leaved Eremurus also blooms. Flowering lasts from just over one week to 40 days.

After flowering, Eremurus tied dry rounded tricuspid capsules of fruits, hiding wrinkled winged triangular seeds.

Eremurus x isabellinus 'Romance'
Eremurus x isabellinus 'Romance'

Types and varieties of eremurus

The genus Eremurus is very large and includes more than six dozen separate species, although some of them are actively revised and combined today, constantly including other similar crops in different sections of the genus Eremurus, in particular, plants that used to belong to the genera Henningia and Ammolirion. The Eremurus are represented by the Xantoreev family (Xanthorrhoeaceae). In nature, one can meet wild, but no less charming than garden, representatives of Eremurus throughout Eurasia, but today the plant is still associated primarily with Caucasian and Central Asian landscapes.

About a dozen varieties of eremurus are actively used in landscape design, although almost 40 plant species are considered promising. The most popular types of garden eremurus include:

Eremurus himalaicus (Eremurus himalaicus) is a tall, up to 2 m, and spectacular look, which is appreciated not only for its long white inflorescences, but also for its strikingly large rosettes of long pointed leaves. Peduncles up to 170 cm high are straight and powerful, keeled leaves are bright and hard. Dense cylinders of inflorescences consist of closely spaced funnel-shaped flowers.

Eremurus white (Eremurus candidus) is one of the tallest, up to 2 m, species of Eremurus with broad-linear dark-gray leaves, green peduncles and cream-colored broad-bell-shaped flowers, shortened filaments and orange anthers. Blooms in May-June.

Eremurus altaicus (Eremurus altaicus) is a very tall, up to one and a half meters view with a few, dark, almost smooth narrow half-meter leaves and a very high bluish peduncle, crowned with a half-meter cylindrical dense brush. In the inflorescence against the background of a light green ribbed axis, ciliate light yellow bracts, pale yellow perianths and greenish filaments of stamens glow. This eremurus blooms in May or June.

Eremurus robustus is one of the largest representatives of the genus. A gigantic perennial with a lush semi-standing rosette of long, up to 60 cm, large linear-wide leaves, at least two-meter peduncles and inflorescences exceeding half a meter in length, in which pale pink broad-bell-shaped flowers up to 4 cm in diameter flaunt.The buds of the plant are darker and brighter, than the opened flowers. The aroma of the inflorescences is very pleasant.

Eremurus beautiful (Eremurus spectabilis) - one of the most beautiful and hardy representatives of the genus. Quite variable, the height ranges from 1 to 2 m.The leaves are few, but beautiful, slightly bluish, up to 5 cm wide and up to 60 cm long.Green peduncles are crowned with very large and dense clusters up to 80 cm long. Funnel-shaped flowers with a pale yellow color and a dark back are combined with short filaments and brownish anthers.

Eremurus fluffy (Eremurus pubescens) is a beautiful species with a height of one to one and a half meters with a few rough narrow leaves and purple stems. The dense cylinders of half-meter-long inflorescences look the more spectacular, the more wide open the lilac-pink flowers with a dark vein, pubescent from the outside. This eremurus blooms in late spring.

Eremurus albertii is a meter-long species with straight leaves and loose clusters of inflorescences up to 60 cm long, blooming in March or April. Pink filaments, pale anthers, wide open perianths with a meat-red color distinguish this eremurus against the background of its fellows. The muted pink tone of large and transparent inflorescences combined with bluish-emerald leaves seems strikingly refined.

Eremurus bukharicus (Eremurus bucharicus) is a large species with a height of 1 to 1.5 m with narrow keeled gray leaves, a green stem and a conical lace brush, which in favorable conditions exceeds 1 m in length. The bluish axis is combined with upright buds that gradually tilt when blooming. White or pale pink flowers with narrow outer lobes and yellow straight filaments with long anthers adorn the plant.

Eremurus aitchisonii (Eremurus aitchisonii) is one of the brightest varieties of shiryash. The flowers not only flaunt their candy pink color, but they are also large, up to 5 cm in diameter, with a strong aroma. Peduncles reach 2 m in height, the leaves are located in loose rosettes. The inflorescences are conical. Plants usually bloom at the end of May, always before the main competitors.

Eremurus crested (Eremurus comosus) is a rare but original species with large silvery leaves and unique bracts, located at the stage of budding, tiled and forming a kind of crest at the top of the brush. A flesh or dirty pink color emphasizes the density of the inflorescences.

Eremurus brachystemon (Eremurus brachystemon) differs from other species in thickened and shortened filaments, wide open bell-shaped flowers. At a height of up to 120 cm, the plant flaunts with few, but rather wide, bluish leaves and bare thin peduncles, crowned with a sparse brush with a diameter of only 6 cm. with brown anthers.

Olga's Eremurus (Eremurus olgae) is a one and a half meter species, forming a more graceful rosette of very narrow leaves with a muted bluish color. On thin peduncles elongated, very long cone-shaped brushes of pale pink flowers with pale filaments flaunt. Olga's Eremurus blooms in May-June.

Eremurus anisopterus is a compact plant about 40-70 cm high with gray leaves, a thick peduncle whose height does not exceed the length of the leaves, and loose, from 15 cm to half a meter, clusters of inflorescences with white wide open perianths and white staminate filaments. The inflorescences seem to be hiding in thin leaves in a basal rosette.

Eremurus lactic- flowered or lactic-flowered (Eremurus lactiflorus) is a more compact species with linear, up to 4 cm wide leaves, a maximum height of one and a half meters and milk-cream flowers on red peduncles. Filaments are white.

Eremurus narrow-leaved (Eremurus stenophyllus) is quite similar in size to the two previous species, but radically different from them both in flower color and in the type of leaves. This eremurus has narrow leaves, only up to 1 cm wide, almost threadlike at the ends. The flowers surprise with their golden color and strongly protruding stamens, creating a unique fluffy effect. Inflorescences are cylindrical.

Eremurus yellow (Eremurus luteus) is one of the most spectacular cut species. With a height of only up to 80 cm, it flaunts with narrow-linear leaves and loose cylindrical inflorescences. Fragrant, wide-open flowers with green veins against a bright yellow background are combined with short filaments and bright yellow anthers.

Eremurus x isabellinus 'Spring Valley Hybrids'
Eremurus x isabellinus 'Spring Valley Hybrids'

Species plants today are almost superseded by varietal Eremurus. They are often referred to as garden hybrids, or simply garden broadsides. These are bright, crossed varieties with much more interesting inflorescence colors. Dazzling yellow, orange, brown, pink, juicy fruity shades of colors and various variations of dark veins, strokes and spots make the inflorescences of hybrid Eremurus inimitable. At the same time, the representation of hybrids is very diverse.

The most popular breeds are considered to be Eremurus Isabella hybrids (or as it is often called, Eremurus x isabellinus), also known as Shelford Hybrids. Despite the controversy over the classification of the plant, these varieties are one of the most popular varieties of shiryash. These are one and a half meter perennials with upright dense basal rosettes of triangular keeled leaves with a unique gray-gray color. The inflorescence is one of the densest. The flowers are small, up to 1 cm in diameter, yellow-orange-pink with stunningly bright long orange anthers.

In addition to Isabella's hybrids, other varieties of hybrid origin are very popular:

  • varieties of the Highdown Hybrids group with brightly colored dense inflorescences of undersized or high eremurus;
  • varieties of the Ruiter Hybrids group, distinguished by early flowering and acrylic colors, most often one and a half meter.

It is worth paying attention to individual plant varieties - the orange-brown Eremurus variety "Cleopatra", the white variety "Obelisk" with an emerald center and a vein, the dazzling yellow variety "Pinocchio" with cherry stamens, the salmon variety "Romance", the light green variety "Odessa", a two-meter golden variety "Gold", orange-melon variety "Sunset", as well as a group of undersized Eremurus "Dwarf", etc.

The use of eremurus in ornamental gardening

Eremurus are genuine garden exotic plants. And their greens, and even more so inflorescences during the flowering period, look like an exclusive decoration of any ensemble, but they are so self-sufficient that they do not need any addition, but this does not mean that they cannot be combined with other plants. Eremurus are equally good when grown alone, and when placed in a large group of different species and varieties, and when mixed with other herbaceous plants.

When choosing a place to place an eremurus, it is worth considering the possibility of digging out rhizomes, easy access to the plant for additional protection measures in the summer dormant period. Eremurus are planted in the foreground or in places that are easy to approach.

Eremurus in garden design are used:

  • on alpine slides and rockeries;
  • in the ceremonial flower beds;
  • in mixborders;
  • in flower beds and beds;
  • in imitation of oriental styles and for the introduction of exotic accents;
  • as vertical accents;
  • for decorating flat or uninteresting compositions;
  • as points of attraction of the gaze.

Large verticals of eremurus inflorescences look good not only on flower beds in the garden, but also in bouquets. Spectacular inflorescences are suitable for the simplest arrangements, and for stylish floral arrangements. Sultans of eremurus are good both fresh and in winter bouquets.

Eremurus are valuable melliferous crops that can be introduced into special flower beds or used to attract beneficial insects to the garden.

Eremurus Ruiter Hybrids 'Cleopatra'
Eremurus Ruiter Hybrids 'Cleopatra'

Selection of partners for eremurus

Eremurus is a plant that is original enough to stand out favorably against the background of any decorative partner. Therefore, the choice of neighboring crops for Cleopatra's needle is limited only by practical tasks and the style of the garden. Since the eremurus completely or almost completely leaves the garden scene in the summer, it is necessary for him to select partners who can mask the glades, voids, and drying leaves. Usually, Eremurus are combined with perennial stars, which come to the fore only at the beginning of summer. These perennials include veronica, monarda, garden geraniums, sage, daylilies, coreopsis.

When looking for plants that complement and highlight the beauty of the Eremurus themselves, the choice is always made from the most spectacular bulbous, tuberous and textured stars. Eremurus go well with high and medium ornamental grasses, look harmoniously in addition to irises and yucca, echoing with them like foliage and contrasting with their inflorescences. Daffodils, late varieties of tulips, hazel grouses, decorative bows, especially large species, will also be good partners for Eremurus. Among the flowering neighbors, it is also worth paying attention to roses and herbaceous peonies with early flowering, penstemones, delphiniums, astrantia, solidago.

If eremurus are dug, then the voids are usually filled with letniks, who are selected for the style and thematic design of the composition - vervains, calendula, purslane, etc.

Conditions Needed by Eremurus

Eremurus is rightfully considered a capricious plant. The natural conditions for plant growth are so difficult to recreate in regions with harsh winters that it is easier to make a mistake in growing Eremurus than to do everything right. The plant is rightly recommended for experienced florists. But nevertheless, with a careful selection of conditions, soil characteristics, good care and high-quality preparation for winter, Eremurus not only survive, but will also delight with luxurious flowering even in the middle lane. In the southern regions, eremurus is one of the most unpretentious plants.

The capriciousness of the Eremurus manifests itself in the requirements for lighting, for soils, and even in the choice of location. Eremurus do not tolerate drafts and winds, they are planted only in the warmest and most protected areas of the garden with a minimal risk of stagnant water or dampness. The flower stalks of the plant are very stable, but eremurus are sensitive to temperature extremes, prefer to grow in warm and warm areas, which is practically impossible in a windy environment.

Lighting should be as bright as possible. South-facing sites are considered the ideal environment for the Eremurus. Even the slightest shading will not only lead to a lack of full flowering, but also an increase in the chance of plant loss due to the spread of diseases. Of course, certain species - such as Eremurus powerful, lactic-flowered and Echison, can bloom with light shading, but it is better not to experiment with reducing lighting in regions with severe winters.

In nature, Eremurus grow in a variety of conditions, but in the garden their requirements are strikingly similar. For eremurus, only high-quality, nutritious garden soil worked out to a great depth is suitable. Plants can take root on poor soil, but in this case flowering will suffer, and growth will be slowed down. First of all, it is worth analyzing the risks of waterlogging, choosing the driest areas for the wider. The soil should contain a large amount of organic matter, but eremurus can grow on the poorest, rocky soil. The preferred reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline. Even in a slightly acidic substrate, the eremurus cannot grow.

Choosing a site for planting eremurus
Choosing a site for planting eremurus
Preparing the landing pit for the eremurus
Preparing the landing pit for the eremurus
Planting an eremurus
Planting an eremurus

Planting an eremurus

Even in ordinary areas of the garden, it is advisable to lay a high drainage layer for eremurus. Only on rocky hills or in rockeries can you do without this measure, but usually Eremurus is always planted with a drainage layer of pebbles or gravel from 20 to 40 cm high.It is better to improve the soil at the site of planting Eremurus with organic fertilizers (compost or humus is perfect), sand and small pebbles.

Eremurus are planted in the fall, in September-October (before the onset of regular night frosts).

The optimal distance for planting eremurus is from 25 cm for small species to 40 cm for large eremurus.

Plants are placed in individual planting pits about 15 cm wide and deep. When handling the Cornedonians, care must be taken not to break off or damage even small roots, and the roots themselves are evenly distributed around the perimeter of the planting pit. The Cornedonians are installed evenly, laying on an earthen mound so that the buds are at a depth of 5-7 cm. If the planting is not carried out on rock gardens, then it is better to put the Cornedonian on the sand and sprinkle the plants on top with it. The soil is poured and tamped carefully, trying to fill the voids, but not damage the roots and buds.

Eremurus care

This plant is sensitive to waterlogging and is resistant to droughts, so watering can be safely excluded from the eremurus care program. If prolonged droughts and very high temperatures coincide with a period of active growth and flowering, then the plant can be watered occasionally to prolong flowering, but this is not necessary.

During the summer resting phase, when grown on alpine slides, in rockeries, on hills, problems with eremurus do not arise. On ordinary flower beds, or in the absence of guarantees of plant protection from excessive moisture, Eremurus need to create special conditions - digging up the soil around the roots after the leaves begin to wither or the construction of dry shelters, alpine greenhouses, etc. But it is much safer to dig up the plants until mid-August, after the leaves dry (if the foliage remains partially green, then with leaves), dry the Cornedonian and store the roots of the Eremurus in a warm, ventilated and dark room. The Cornedonians should spend at least three weeks at rest. Peduncle, remnants of roots and dried leaves are cut off just before planting.

Eremurus are afraid of excess nitrogen, but it is impossible to achieve active growth and development without regular feeding. Top dressing for this plant is applied quite specifically:

  1. The first feeding is carried out before winter, using a twice reduced dose of superphosphate - about 30-40 g per square meter.
  2. The second top dressing is applied in early spring, using a standard (50-60 g) portion of complete mineral fertilizers and supplementing the mineral dressing with mulch or organic soil.
  3. The third top dressing is applied at the budding stage or at the very beginning of blooming. It is not necessary, before flowering, only Eremurus growing on poor soils are fed.

Loosening the soil after irrigation or precipitation allows you to maintain a comfortable soil permeability. Loosening can be combined with weeding. Eremurus responds well to soil mulching.

Eremurus in a flower garden
Eremurus in a flower garden

Wintering Eremurus

Eremurus need protection for the winter, but not only from frost. This plant is very afraid not so much of severe winter cold as of dampness and damage from spring frosts. The thing is that Eremurus start to grow as soon as the temperature rises a little, and suffer greatly from recurrent frost. Pre-winter protection, which is created only in late autumn, after a steady drop in temperature below zero, but before heavy snowfalls, it must protect the rhizomes from excess moisture, and the leaves and peduncles from spring frosts. Eremurus are covered with a high layer of mulch and a hitch or a thick wrapping layer of dry leaves, pine needles, peat or spruce branches. Obligatory shelter in the form of mulch with a layer of about 10 cm as protection from frost will be needed only for the most thermophilic Eremurus - Albert, Olga, Bukhara, yellow,as well as non-acclimatized varieties.

Unlike many other tuberous and bulbous crops, Eremurus does not like digging for the winter. Plants cannot be stored even in the cool in the sand, because the buds begin to develop too early and are depleted. Therefore, it is better to buy eremurus rhizomes only when they can soon be planted in the soil - in summer and autumn.

Pest and disease control

Eremurus in regions with severe winters are quite capricious. They suffer from waterlogging, manifested in stunted growth and chlorosis, viral diseases, rust, but are resistant to pests. At the slightest sign of rotting or damage to the bulbs, eremurus must be dug out, removing damaged tissue and processing the sections. In case of rust damage, the plant is treated with fungicides. If pale yellow marks and uneven, bumpy spots appear on the leaves, indicating viruses, these specimens are best destroyed.

Eremurus love vole mice, and moles often feast on the Cornedonians, so it is better to take timely measures to combat rodents, and in winter to trample snow around the plantings.

Eremurus in landscape design
Eremurus in landscape design

Reproduction of eremurus

This perennial is considered difficult to reproduce, and this is often the reason for the very high cost of planting material, but in fact, shiryashi are not at all capricious in terms of reproduction of culture. Eremurus can be independently obtained from seeds or by vegetative methods.

The easiest way is to separate the adult Eremurus. Near the main rosettes of the plant, small rosettes constantly appear (usually from one to 3 annually), which signals the division of the Cornedonian and the formation of daughter ones, which have their own bottoms and buds. In the absence of division for many years, the plants thicken and bloom worse, but daughter plants should not be separated annually either. Usually, the ability to separate new eremurus from the mother bush is checked by whether the connection lines break (if light pressure does not lead to separation, then it is not worth separating the babies for at least another year).

The separation and rejuvenation procedure is recommended to be carried out with a minimum frequency of 5-7 years, because otherwise the eremurus become smaller and grow. With good conditions and care, division can be carried out much more often. The plots are carefully separated, the sections are processed and dried, if desired, they are etched with a solution of fungicides. Delenki are planted shallow, in shallow planting pits about 10 cm deep.

An alternative method of vegetative propagation is to stimulate the separation of the Cornedonian by cutting. In strong and adult Eremurus, the bottom of the Cornedonian is slightly incised and incised, as if "marking" parts with several roots in each. After processing the sections with charcoal and drying, the plant is planted in a permanent place. By the next year, each "artificial division" forms its roots and buds, then the plants can be divided and planted, and in the second or third year the eremurus will bloom fully.

The seed reproduction method is quite simple, the plants bear fruit abundantly, but due to cross-pollination it is very difficult to predict the characteristics of the offspring. When self-collecting seeds, they are collected only from the lower part of the inflorescences, previously reducing the cylinders by one third to improve the seed formation process. For Eremurus, they do not podwinter, but autumn, September or October sowing of seeds. Sowing is best done in greenhouses or boxes rather than open beds. Seeds are sown in grooves about 1 cm deep. Eremurus do not germinate at the same time - some for the next year, and some of the seeds - after two or three years.

In the spring, seedlings develop quickly enough, they are grown, providing regular care, stable light moisture, protection from weeds and soil compaction. They continue to grow in boxes until the leaves wither, after which they are carried away to a dark and dry room without digging. In the fall, crops are placed in the garden, in the first winter they are covered with a high layer of mulch made from compost, leaves and spruce branches. Plants are grown in boxes until the third year, when the Cornedonian can be planted in open ground. Eremurus obtained from seeds will be able to bloom in regions with severe winters only 5-7 years after sowing.

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