Persimmon Is A Divine Fire In The Garden. Growing, Planting And Care. Types, Varieties. Photo

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Persimmon Is A Divine Fire In The Garden. Growing, Planting And Care. Types, Varieties. Photo
Persimmon Is A Divine Fire In The Garden. Growing, Planting And Care. Types, Varieties. Photo
Video: Persimmon Is A Divine Fire In The Garden. Growing, Planting And Care. Types, Varieties. Photo
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Each garden is rich in fruit crops familiar to the region. In the spring, the gardens are buried in flowers, in the fall - in fruits. But more and more gardeners appear - lovers of exotic fruits, unusual for the region. Their many years of work and time spent are rewarded by obtaining unusual fruits. And although their harvest may be quite small, it attracts with its unusualness. The mysterious persimmon, a natural storehouse of useful substances, belongs to such exotic cultures.

Persimmon
Persimmon

Content:

  • Origin and distribution area
  • Brief description of persimmon
  • Where can you grow persimmons? Persimmon requirements for growing conditions
  • Types and varieties of persimmon for growing in the open field
  • Persimmon varieties
  • Planting dates for persimmon seedlings
  • Rules for planting persimmons in the open field
  • Protection of persimmons from pests and diseases
  • Harvesting and storage of persimmons

Origin and distribution area

Persimmon belongs to the ebony family and is allocated in a separate genus - Diospyros. Latin has Greek roots and translated into Russian means "food of the gods", "divine fire". Cultivated persimmons are more often called date plums or wild dates.

According to various sources, some people consider China to be the homeland of persimmon, where its wild forms are 500 years old. Others consider Indochina as a place of origin, where wild forms live at an altitude of 2.5 km above sea level and withstand temperatures below freezing up to 18-20 ° C.

"Having tried it once, you will not forget" - they say among the people about persimmon. Indeed, this amazing fruit, which forms the taste of the fruit only after frost, is mesmerizing. Today it is difficult to name a country that does not know the fruits of persimmon. The culture is widespread in many countries of Europe and Asia. It is successfully grown in China, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, Indonesia, the USA, Israel.

This list of states also includes the Eurasian continent of the CIS and Russia. Persimmon comes to sales markets from Krasnodar Territory, southern Stavropol, Fergana Valley and other warm regions. As a fruit crop, persimmon is cultivated in all countries and regions where there are suitable climatic conditions, in open and protected ground.

Brief description of persimmon

Under natural conditions, persimmon trees reach 10-12 and even 20-30 m in height and in appearance resemble an apple tree. The leaves are alternate, dark green, without pubescence, a lighter shade below. By the shape of the leaf blade, they are broadly lanceolate, oblong-ovate, by autumn they acquire a red color of different shades and intensity.

Persimmon flowers are located in the leaf axils, singly or in bunches of several on short pedicels. The calyx and corolla are 4-lobed. Corolla petals are yellowish white. The calyx "grows" to the fetus. Persimmon blooms from May to June. Flowers are formed of 3 types: female, male and mixed. Plants can be mono- and dioecious, when the female and male flowers are located on different trees.

Novice gardeners sometimes cut down barren persimmon trees (male), depriving the crop and a tree with female flowers. Persimmon belongs to insect pollinated crops. Sometimes non-pollinated female flowers develop as parthenocarpics and form seedless fruits. (Parthenocarp - fertilization without pollination of plants).

Persimmon fruit is a berry, the color of which, depending on the species, ranges from brownish yellow to bright orange, bright red, brown, with a tasty slightly tart pulp, unusually sweet in biological maturity. The pulp contains 3-8-10 seeds. The smooth skin of the berry and the shape resembles a tomato. Fruit weight from 100 to 500 g.

Unripe fruits have an astringent, bitter taste due to their high tannin content. The fruits ripen in October-November, remaining on the tree after the leaves fall. It is after freezing that the fruits acquire their unusually sweet taste.

Persimmon tree with fruits
Persimmon tree with fruits

Where can you grow persimmons? Persimmon requirements for growing conditions

Persimmon, according to breeders, has more than 725 species and naturally grows in subtropical and tropical regions of different countries. In other regions, persimmons can also be grown in open and closed ground, creating conditions that meet its requirements.

If you decide to try to grow persimmons in your country house in the open field or at home, carefully read the requirements of this culture for environmental conditions and cultivation agricultural technology.

Temperature conditions

Persimmons require a lot of heat and sun. Therefore, before deciding in what conditions to grow a crop, be sure to use the reference books to find the values ​​of active temperatures and the duration of solar radiation (sunny days during the growing season) in your area. They should be respectively at least +3000 ° C and 2000 hours per year. At these temperatures, persimmons can be grown in the open field.

At the nearest station, get acquainted with the climatic characteristics of the area of ​​residence: the number of sunny days, precipitation, the temperature threshold for summer and winter temperatures, and other indicators. Keep in mind that persimmons are wind-resistant. See if the indicators fit into the optimal for growing persimmons. With other indicators - you can grow a crop in greenhouses with year-round heating and lighting, in greenhouses or at home.

During the growing season, persimmon develops well at temperatures of +25.. + 28-30 ° C. Loves sunny weather, but no dry air. On such days, the tree needs to be sprayed with clean water to create a humid microclimate (except for the flowering period).

In winter, the root system can withstand frosts down to -6..- 8 ° C. Frost-resistant varieties can withstand air temperatures within -16..- 18 ° С. With a further decrease (-19..- 20 ° С), one-year and partly two-year increments are frozen over. Some zoned frost-resistant varieties can withstand temperatures of -25..- 27 ° C, but at the same time frostbite of the crown constantly occurs.

It should be taken into account that sharp drops in temperature down to –9 ° C, especially in late autumn (November), can cause frostbite of young seedlings. With such cataclysms of the climate, young seedlings in the first years must be covered.

In regions where the winter temperature does not drop below -5..- 8 ° C, persimmons can be grown without winter shelter. In other regions, even frost-resistant varieties need winter shelter. For shelters, you can use any covering, but breathable material: agrofibre, reeds, spruce branches, etc.

Lighting for persimmon

Persimmons have a very long growing season, but one positive temperature is not enough for normal growth and development. You need bright lighting for a long period. Therefore, for cultivation in the open field, areas well-lit by the sun, closed from wind and drafts, are chosen. Some gardeners who have been dealing with persimmon for a long time recommend planting it against the wall of the house, thus creating a natural protection.

The number of sunny days with high enough temperatures is very important for this culture. With a lack of bright sunny days, the crown of persimmon becomes weakly branched, the fruits are small, crumbling early.

For example: in the Moscow region, there is not enough bright sun and summer heat for normal persimmon vegetation. In this region, it will normally develop in a partially heated greenhouse, home garden, greenhouse.

Persimmon soil requirements

The best soils for persimmons are forest chernozems (even loamy, with good drainage), soddy. Does not tolerate the culture of boggy, saline, calcareous soils. Does not grow on pebbles, and when grown on sandy soils requires increased amounts of humus, mature compost and other additives that increase the moisture content of the soil.

Moisture requirements

Under natural conditions, persimmon for growth and development is sufficient 900-1200 mm of precipitation per year, that is, irrigation is needed during prolonged dry weather. So, in the Krasnodar Territory, about 700 mm of precipitation falls annually, which is clearly not enough for this culture. With good irrigation, persimmon easily tolerates increased air dryness and reacts positively to additional shallow spraying. The soil should be moist, without stagnant water in the root system zone.

Young persimmon sapling
Young persimmon sapling

Types and varieties of persimmon for growing in the open field

Despite the great variety of species growing in natural conditions, mainly three species are used in fruit growing.

  • Caucasian persimmon, or common persimmon (Diospyros lotus),
  • Persimmon virginiana (Diospyros virginiana),
  • Eastern persimmon (Diospyros kaki).

On the basis of Caucasian and Virginian, used as rootstocks, hybrid varieties of persimmon with increased frost resistance and fruits that are characterized by increased weight, sweetness and lack of astringency have been obtained.

Caucasian persimmon, or common persimmon

The culture is spread mainly in China and Japan. In Russia and the CIS, Caucasian persimmon occupies significant areas in the Crimea and Transcaucasia. The height of the trees is 5-18 m, it is characterized by small fruit and tart pulp. Frost resistance is characteristic. The roots can withstand frosts -10 … -12 ° С, and the crown can withstand -22..- 24 ° С. These temperatures for her are the limit of frost resistance.

There are no cultivars, it does not form shoots when used as stock. They are used mainly as rootstock for oriental persimmons. Saplings on the Caucasian rootstock tolerate transplanting well, are drought-resistant, undemanding to soils.

Persimmon virgin

The homeland of the virgin persimmon is the southern part of North America. The trees are no more than twenty meters high and have a fairly good frost resistance.

Persimmon virginiana - high-quality rootstock. The root system can withstand frosts down to -15 ° C, the crown - up to -35 ° C. These properties allow grafted varieties to be promoted to colder areas. Moreover, they are not afraid of winter thaws. Saplings develop well on heavy loam and sandy loam, waterlogged soils, but it is difficult to tolerate transplanting, due to the formation of weak taproots. Persimmon trees on this rootstock are less durable than on the Caucasian rootstock and produce relatively low yields.

Cultivated varieties of virgin persimmon, which in America are called persimmon, have been bred. In Russia, an interspecific hybrid with an oriental persimmon was bred, called Rossiyanka and the Nikitsky Burgundy variety, which respectively have frost resistance of -25 and -30 ° C. The Russian woman brings her first harvest in 2 years. Grows well in Transcarpathia. Of the new varieties, the Belogorye variety is distinguished by its high frost resistance.

Kaki

Eastern persimmon is also called Japanese. Deciduous trees with a loose crown and fast growth. In Russia, persimmon grows in the Krasnodar Territory, Sochi, Sukhumi.

At present, on the basis of oriental persimmon, more than 1000 varieties and hybrids with different taste and economic qualities have been bred. Varieties of this type are intended mainly for garden plantings. The culture forms large juicy, very sweet fruits, the shape of which varies from round to elongated-rounded, and the color - from yellow-orange to dark red.

Eastern persimmon trees are mono- and dioecious. The flowers are female solitary, large, yellowish-white with fused corolla petals. Male flowers are much smaller. Bisexual flowers are usually located in groups of 2-4 flowers, forming colonies on the growth of the current year. Eastern persimmon blooms in the second half of May - early June, pollinated by bumblebees and bees.

The vast majority of eastern persimmon varieties tolerate frosts down to -15 ° С. Eastern persimmons are grown in all regions where climatic conditions are optimal for the culture (see Persimmon requirements for growing conditions).

Young persimmon tree with fruits
Young persimmon tree with fruits

Persimmon varieties

Persimmon varieties with sweet pulp

Persimmon varieties with sweet pulp, which do not change color during ripening and storage, include: Giro, Krymchanka 55, Nakhodka, Kiara, Meotse saukune, Mishirazu, Fuyu, Twentieth century, Korolek, Crimean, Excellent, Triumph, Sharon, Zolotistaya, Nadezhda, Tsyganochka, Urozhainaya, Vostochnaya, Khianume, Ukrainka, Zorya, Zorka, Chocolate and others. The fruits acquire a sweet taste of the pulp after the appearance of a characteristic varietal color on them, even if the pulp itself is still firm.

Persimmon varieties with tart pulp

Large-fruited varieties of Tanenasha and Khachia were obtained from the Virginian Russian woman. Sidles with brownish flesh, medium-sized, Dawn-187 with characteristic flattened fruits. They remain tart until biological maturation and acquire sweetness after full biological maturation and maturation or light freezing.

In addition to the above, these include the varieties Gosho, Soyo, Tsuru, Kostata, Adreula, Emon, Aizu-Mischirazu, Dream, New, Nikitskaya burgundy, Meader, John Rick, Weber, Autumn souvenir, Century, Varying, Golden autumn, Izobilnaya, Yalta, Friendship, Zhuravlenok, Adjara.

Persimmon varieties with increased frost resistance

Persimmon varieties with increased frost resistance, the most common among gardeners of Crimea and southern regions, some areas of the middle zone, where persimmons can be grown in open ground without shelter and with shelter, include Rossiyanka, Goverla Mountain and Roman-Kosh Mountain, Vostochnaya, Virginskaya, Kavkazskaya, Meader, Korolek, Nikitskaya Burgundy, Golden, Autumn Souvenir, Nakhodka, Dawn, Crimean Woman, Nikitskaya Burgundy, Southern Beauty, Golden Autumn. They are able to endure short-term frosts down to -20..- 30 ° С.

Persimmon varieties by ripening time

In summer cottages, it is best to grow early varieties of persimmons, large and medium-sized.

  • Ultra early: Ukrainka, Izobilnaya, Yankin-Tsuru. The fruits are ready for harvest in late August - early September.
  • Early: Sputnik, Hyakume, Chocolate, Asterisk, Golden, Southern Beauty. The fruits are harvested in the 2nd - 3rd decade of September.
  • Medium: Yuzhnoberezhnaya, Batumi II, Tempting, Zarya, Dawn, Khachia, Autumn souvenir, Dream, Zhuravlenok, Kuro-Kuma, Geili, Pollinator-48. The fruits are harvested in October.

The persimmon varieties listed above are annually replenished with more modern ones, with increased economic properties. But you need to remember: the older the variety, the more resistant it is withstand frost, drought, fog and other climatic disasters. Therefore, for growing in the country it is better to purchase old proven varieties.

Virginia persimmon seedling
Virginia persimmon seedling

Promising persimmon varieties

Of the above varieties, a group of the most promising for summer cottage cultivation can be distinguished: Golden, Autumn Souvenir, Nakhodka, Zorka, Krymchanka, Yuzhnaya Krasavitsa, Rossiyanka, Nikitsky Burgundy, Pollinator-48, Tempting, Dream, Zvezdochka, Golden Autumn.

When choosing persimmon varieties for cultivation in the country, be sure to familiarize yourself with the zoned local varieties in advance. Write down their names and descriptions in your garden diary.

Planting dates for persimmon seedlings

In southern regions with early hot spring and bright, drying sun, persimmon seedlings are recommended to be planted in autumn. A long warm time will allow the young tree to take root and adapt to the new environment, and in spring, early regeneration of their root system will begin.

In cooler regions, persimmon seedlings are planted in spring. In this case, planting in a sufficiently warmed soil (+ 14-15 ° C) will promote better development of the root system, and a moderately warm climate (+18.. + 20-22 ° C) will ensure the development of the upper part of the plants.

Persimmon seedlings for autumn planting are purchased no earlier than the third decade of October - the first decade of November in specialized stores or firms. By this time, the wood of the seedling has time to ripen. A seedling with mature wood has a brownish bark.

Persimmon seedlings with greenish bark are not worth buying. They will not survive the winter frosts and will die. After the autumn planting, the seedlings must be sheltered from frost and protected from rodents. The frost resistance of the culture increases with age. Therefore, in the first 3-4 years, even frost-resistant varieties need shelters.

For spring planting, persimmon seedlings bought in the fall are buried in and in the spring in the third decade of March - the first half of April they are planted in a permanent place. It is more reliable to determine the planting time by the soil temperature in the root layer.

Better to buy 2-3 seedlings, one of which should be a pollinator (male variety). You can pick up self-fertile or female varieties, get by with 2 seedlings with a lack of free space suitable for planting persimmons. Please note that self-fertile female and some male varieties bear fruit in persimmons. With cross-pollination, large-fruited increases and fewer fruits fall off during development and ripening.

Rodent-proof persimmon seedling
Rodent-proof persimmon seedling

Rules for planting persimmons in the open field

In general, planting and caring for persimmons is carried out in the same way as for apple trees, peaches. Planting pits are prepared in advance, of usual sizes. Usually its dimensions are 40-60x40 - 60x40-60 cm. The distance between plantings, depending on the future variety, is at least 4-5-6 m. The final volume of the planting pit is prepared before planting, according to the size of the root system of the seedling. The depth depends on the type of soil.

If it is necessary to install drainage or introduce a large amount of humus, sand, the depth of the pit is increased to 60-80 cm.At the bottom, drainage is formed from crushed stone, broken brick, pebbles 15-20 cm high, especially if the groundwater is close to the surface or the soil is clayey and passes water slowly.

The day before planting, the root system of the persimmon seedling is slightly shortened and the central conductor is cut to 80-90 cm. The root is soaked in a solution of root or zircon, another similar preparation. The soil from the pit is mixed with 1 - 2 buckets of humus or mature compost. Add a glass of nitroammofoska, you can kemira. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and part of the slide is transferred to the pit. In the center, a support is installed, preferably a wooden one, to which a planted seedling is then tied up with a soft rope through the eight.

A persimmon seedling is placed in the center of a soil hill in a hole. Spread the root along the sides of the hill and cover it with soil mixture to the middle. Lightly crush with your hands and pour out a bucket of water warmed in the sun. Fill up all the remaining soil.

At the final planting, the root collar should be at the level of the soil, which means that the grafting will then be higher. A mound (side) 5-6 cm high, about 1 m in diameter is poured around the planted persimmon tree so that water does not spread over the soil surface, but soaks the soil in the planting pit. Pour 3-4 buckets of water. After absorbing water, the soil around the seedling is mulched. Weeds are removed during the growing season. The soil around the seedling should be constantly loose and mulched.

Persimmon tree oriental age 7 years
Persimmon tree oriental age 7 years

Outdoor persimmon care

The formation of the crown of persimmon begins the next year after planting. The height of the trunk is left 50-60 cm. The crown is formed according to a sparse-tiered system or in the shape of a bowl, which makes it possible to reduce the height of the tree: this is very important for winter shelter (if necessary) and harvesting.

Watering

Persimmons are usually grown in warm, which means, as a rule, arid regions. Persimmon is considered an irrigated crop. In the first year, watering is carried out 3 times a month (without flooding). With age, their number is reduced to 3 - 4 times during the growing season, including the autumn moisture charge before the winter shelter. If the year is rich in rains, do not water the persimmon.

Fertilizing persimmons

The best fertilizer for persimmons is organic. Depending on age, they are brought under one tree in the spring from 0.5 to 2 - 3 buckets of humus once every 3-4 years. Of the mineral fertilizers, a year later, a complete mineral fertilizer is applied under the tree in the spring (nitrophoska, kemira, others).

Before flowering, adding 1-2 glasses of ash gives a good effect. Fertilizers are applied in special grooves around the crown or in dug holes, closed and watered. Good results in saturating the soil with the necessary nutrients are provided by podwinter sowing of green manure. In the spring, trying not to injure the roots, they are finely embedded in the soil.

Protection of persimmons from pests and diseases

Most often, persimmon is affected by scab. For protection, the crown is sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid during the phases of leaf blooming, budding and mass formation of ovaries. Other diseases include gray rot, causing massive shedding of ovaries, and powdery mildew. Under unfavorable climatic conditions, cracks appear on the branches, bark of boles, shoots, through which infection with bacterial cancer occurs, which leads to the formation of ulcers and death of plants.

Among other fungal diseases, the aboveground mass of persimmon is affected by black spot of leaves and shoots, fusarium. Persimmon is susceptible to bacterial burns. A neglected disease affects even the roots of the plant.

It is advisable in a small garden to use biological products to protect against diseases (phytosporin, mucosan, gaupsin, trichodermin, glyocladin, planriz, etc.) that do not harm human and animal health. In all cases, biological products should be used only in accordance with the recommendations. An independent change in the concentration of solutions will not give the expected effect.

Of the pests of persimmons, a soft false shield is common, an odorous woodworm, a seaside mealybug. With a high number, pests inhabit the entire tree, severely damage the generative organs and young shoots. Over time, they cause a complete fall of leaves, ovaries, create conditions for secondary infection with fungal ("rabble"), which, covering the organs of the plant with a dense black film, impede the passage of metabolic processes. A tree in an advanced form of infection may die.

It is better to fight pests, as well as diseases, when growing persimmons in summer cottages with biological products, using bicol, boverin, aktofit, acarin. The last 2 biological products are effective against the worm, but only when processed in warm weather (+18.. + 28 ° C).

If the tree is severely affected by the worm, then, in the bud phase and no later than 30-40 days before harvesting, you can use a chemical preparation (which is undesirable in the country) Confidor-extra for spraying. According to gardeners, it effectively destroys worms.

From biological products with double action against pests on persimmons, you can use gaupsin, which destroys not only fungal diseases, but also a number of pests.

Persimmon harvest
Persimmon harvest

Harvesting and storage of persimmons

Collect the fruits by hand, very carefully so as not to hurt the delicate skin. The beginning of the collection is determined by the characteristic color of the fruit. They store the crop in baskets and boxes.

To prolong the freshness of the persimmon, it is stored at a temperature of 0..- 1 ° C. Storage duration is up to 3 months. The persimmon that is soft to the touch is ready to use and will not be astringent. The best way to store persimmons is to freeze them in refrigerated chambers. Quick freezing preserves all the quality indicators of the fruit. In this case, the fruits become sweeter, their astringency goes away. The shelf life is extended to 6 months.

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