Table of contents:
- Jerusalem artichoke use
- Description of Jerusalem artichoke
- Growing topinmabur
- Jerusalem artichoke care
- Jerusalem artichoke recipes
Video: Jerusalem Artichoke, Or Earthen Pear. Cultivation, Care, Reproduction. Photo
The homeland of Jerusalem artichoke (earthen pear) is North America, where the Indians cultivated it for a long time. In Europe, earthen pears began to be grown before potatoes. In 1613, French travelers brought Indians from the Tu-Pinambo tribe to Europe. This coincided in time with the spread of the earthen pear, hence the name of the outlandish vegetable.
From France, the culture spread throughout Europe. The first information about the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke in our country dates back to the second half of the 18th century. The wild earthen pear is still found in Ukraine and North Ossetia.
The widespread use of Jerusalem artichoke began in our time, from the beginning of the 30s of this century. The Maikop selection station paid particular attention to the development and alteration of the earthen pear. Here for the first time they got a hybrid of Jerusalem artichoke and sunflower, called topisflower. Both were cultivated for livestock feed and food.
Jerusalem artichoke use
The aboveground part of Jerusalem artichoke is used for silage, and the tubers are used for food and as a juicy nutritious food for animals. Jerusalem artichoke and topisflower are eagerly eaten by cows, goats, pigs, birds. Fructose, a valuable dietary product, is extracted from tubers. Fructose is obtained by hydrolysis of inulin, the main storage substance of tubers. Iron is richly represented in them, there is 3 times more of it than in potatoes. That is why, when feeding tubers to piglets, they do not get sick with anemia.
Tominambur has tall, straight, hollow stems with numerous lateral shoots. When irrigated, the plant grows a huge green mass. Plant height often reaches 3.5 m. With poor watering and when cultivating tuberous varieties, the height of plants does not exceed 2 m. Often, gardeners use Jerusalem artichoke as a curtain plant.
The aboveground part of the earthen pear, mown in July, will not yield to meadow hay in terms of nutritional value. It is readily eaten by livestock, and when peas are sown to Jerusalem artichoke, the feed is also enriched with protein.
Description of Jerusalem artichoke
In the earthen pear and topisflower, as in the potato, tubers are formed on underground stolons. Their shape is pear-shaped or fusiform. They vary in size and color. There are tubers white, yellow, purple, pink, red.
Jerusalem artichoke inflorescence is a multi-flowered basket, similar to a small sunflower basket. In the cold summer in the Non-Black Earth Region, plants usually do not bloom, but in the south they not only bloom, but also bear fruit. This plant is propagated mainly by tubers.
A wonderful property of an earthen pear is cold resistance. Imagine its tubers, having overwintered in the soil, as if nothing had happened in the spring, start to grow. Topisflower tubers are less cold-resistant and winter worse in soil. Tubers of both plants germinate at 7..8 ºС. Stems grow well at 16 … 20 ° C.
The aboveground part develops slowly at the beginning of the growing season, growth intensifies only in July. In northern regions, shaded plants increase tuberization (remember this well). In mid-July, when the tubers are the size of an acorn, the first cutting of the green mass can be carried out. The stems are not cut very low, leaving the first pair of lower leaves intact. Side shoots will grow from the axils of these leaves. The second cut will ripen by the end of August. This is done when Jerusalem artichoke is grown for livestock feed. Both green mass and grass flour made from it are fed.
When cultivating an earthen pear for tubers, the green mass is removed in the fall, when it is ensiled. The tubers are dug up or left in the soil before winter. When conducting a perennial culture, Jerusalem artichoke is grown in one place for 15 or more years. A case was recorded when Jerusalem artichoke grew in one place for over 40 years.
It is especially beneficial to grow Jerusalem artichoke permanently on a plot designated for grazing pigs. In this case, the green mass is harvested in the fall, and the tubers are allowed before winter. In the spring, the animals dig up the tubers themselves. We recommend 4-5m² per head for young pigs and 6-8m² for adult pigs. The tubers can also be fed steamed.
After the end of grazing, before germination of tubers, the soil must be dug up, leveled and fed. Jerusalem artichoke will resume from the tubers remaining in the soil.
Jerusalem artichoke care
While mastering this plant, keep in mind that although it is unpretentious to soil and climatic conditions, it does not tolerate waterlogged heavy soils. It is very responsive to fertilizers. The yield on fertilized plots increases 1.5-2 times.
In the fall, under the new plantings of earthen pears, manure is brought in and the site is dug deeply. In early spring, heavy soils have to be dug up again, and the lungs are loosened with a hoe. The plot is marked in two directions, so that squares of 70X70 cm are obtained.
Planting Jerusalem artichoke
Tubers are planted in early spring or autumn. In areas where moles or mice are found, the planting of Jerusalem artichoke is timed to the spring. With the nesting method, 2-3 small or 2 medium tubers are placed in each hole. Then add 1 - 2 handfuls of humus. The depth of planting planting material is 8-10 cm in spring, and 12-15 cm in autumn.
Tubers are planted in the fall immediately after digging them up from other sites. In this case, the stolons (outgrowths) are not cut off. If the tubers are dry before planting, they are dipped in water for 2-3 days. Note that planting tubers are not cut in autumn, but in spring they can be divided. Even with eyes, from which seedlings are grown in pots, Jerusalem artichoke can be propagated in the spring.
As the shoots appeared, before the rows close, the aisles are loosened 2-3 times. With sufficient moisture during the last inter-row treatment, the plants are spud. For the second treatment, the plantings are fed with urea - 10-15 g / m². If you master Jerusalem artichoke as a perennial crop, then it is necessary to introduce manure into the aisles every 5 years (in the fall). In the spring, after harvesting the tubers, they also give nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers - 10-15 g / m² each.
Harvesting and storage
It should be borne in mind: during spring harvesting the Jerusalem artichoke harvest is often 1.5 times higher than the autumn harvest. In autumn, the tubers are harvested as late as possible: until October, there is an outflow of nutrients from the stems to the storage organs. For storage, the nests of tubers can be turned out entirely. They are stored in pits dug in areas with a low groundwater table or in cellars, sprinkling layers of tubers with sand. Storage temperature is not higher than 1..2 ºС. So that the dug tubers do not dry out, they are laid for storage immediately after harvesting.
Diseases and pests of Jerusalem artichoke
Tominambur and topis flowers are resistant to diseases and pests. But sometimes on thickened plantings or heavy floating soils they are affected by sclerotinia. The same disease destroys carrots and sunflowers. This is why these crops cannot be placed side by side.
Jerusalem artichoke varieties
To date, breeders have bred many varieties of Jerusalem artichoke. Here are some of them: White fruitful, Volzhsky, Interest, Nakhodka, Vadim, Saratov, Tambov, Leningrad white, Kiev white, Hybrid 15, etc.
Jerusalem artichoke recipes
Delicious dishes are prepared from earthen pears. Just keep in mind that peeled tubers darken quickly when exposed to air. They are cleaned with a bone, wooden or metal stainless knife and kept in cold water slightly acidified with vinegar before use.
- Baked earthen pear. The washed tubers with unpeeled peel are placed on a baking sheet, baked in the oven for 40-50 minutes over low heat. Eat with butter or peeled. Salt and pepper to taste.
- Earthen pear with breadcrumbs. The tubers are cleaned, boiled in salted water, laid out on a dish and poured with vegetable oil, sprinkling with crushed breadcrumbs.