Hyssop Medicinal - Beautiful And Useful. Medicinal Properties. Growing. Photo

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Hyssop Medicinal - Beautiful And Useful. Medicinal Properties. Growing. Photo
Hyssop Medicinal - Beautiful And Useful. Medicinal Properties. Growing. Photo

Video: Hyssop Medicinal - Beautiful And Useful. Medicinal Properties. Growing. Photo

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It is difficult to name a region with a warm and temperate climate, where the medicinal and ornamental plant hyssop is not found. Long-term culture suffrutescent yasnotkovyh family (Lamiaceae) in a separate genus - Hyssop (Hyssopus) with a typical representative - Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis).

Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)
Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)

The greatest variety of wild hyssop (common hyssop) is found in Western and Central Asia, as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean, which indicates its place of origin. Common hyssop is widespread in the wild throughout Europe, in warm and temperate regions of the European and Asian part of Russia and the CIS countries.

The study of the species of hyssop and its domestication made it possible to isolate the medicinal hyssop as a species containing significant amounts of substances that have a positive effect on human health.

Currently, hyssop is introduced into the official pharmacopoeia in Romania, Portugal, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Germany. In the form of dry preparations and alcoholic tinctures, hyssop is sold in pharmacies in Russia and some CIS countries.

Content:

  • Composition and useful properties of medicinal hyssop
  • Description of hyssop
  • Hyssop varieties for cultivation in the country
  • Hyssop in landscape design
  • Growing hyssop
  • Hyssop care requirements
  • Propagation of hyssop
  • Hyssop care
  • Procurement of raw hyssop medicinal for home use

Composition and useful properties of medicinal hyssop

For medicinal purposes, the leaves of medicinal hyssop, roots and the upper flowering part of plants are used. Dry the plant in the shade. When properly dried, the herb has a pleasant sage, bitter-spicy aroma. The taste of the herb is astringent, with a camphor aftertaste.

The roots and aerial flowering part of the medicinal hyssop contain:

  • flavonoids, including hyssopin, diosmin, hesperidin, vicenin-2;
  • essential oil, from 0.6 to 2.0%; the main components of the essential oil are: geraniol, thujone, pinocampon, borneol, fellandren; greenish-yellow liquid; its components give the essential oil a spicy aroma with a distinct turpentine-camphor smell;
  • triterpenic acids, including oleic, ursolic, chlorogenic;
  • vitamins - "C" (0.2%), vitamins of the "B" group (B1, B2, B6), "A", "E", "PP", "K", "D";
  • macro- and microelements: potassium, calcium, iron, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, boron, fluorine, chlorine, tungsten, flint;
  • tannins and bitter substances, alcohols and aldehydes; they are composed of resins and gums.

The chemical components of the organs of the medicinal hyssop determine its medicinal properties. Their pronounced positive effect is manifested:

  • with inflammatory diseases;
  • as an expectorant;
  • antipyretic;
  • antispasmodic;
  • wound healing agent.

Hyssop medicinal is widely used in gynecology, for hormonal disorders, asthma and gastrointestinal diseases (dyspepsia, constipation), anemia and many other ailments and diseases. Good phytoncide.

Infusions and decoctions of hyssop medicinal excite the central nervous system, therefore, it is necessary to use its preparations, even pharmacy ones, carefully, after consulting a doctor.

In folk medicine, medicinal hyssop is used for bronchitis, laryngitis, bronchial asthma, neuroses and angina pectoris, for rheumatic attacks, as a tonic, diuretic and antihelminthic.

The antimicrobial property allows the use of medicinal hyssop for purulent staphylococcal skin lesions. They wash their eyes with broths, singers use them in the form of rinsing with hoarseness. Everywhere rinsing with decoctions is used for stomatitis and diseases of the pharynx.

Hyssop officinalis is a valuable honey plant (aromatic honey, one of the best with medicinal properties).

The raw material is widely used in perfumery. In cooking, hyssop is used as a spice and flavoring culture. It promotes digestion and stimulates appetite.

Young hyssop shoots with leaves, fresh and dried, are used to flavor cold snacks. They are added to improve the taste of fresh cucumber and tomato salads, first courses (potato and bean soups) and second courses (stuffed eggs, stews, zrazy). Hyssop is a part of tonic drinks and absinthe.

Infusion of hyssop medicinal
Infusion of hyssop medicinal

Description of hyssop

For those who do not know the distinguishing features of hyssop or do not identify the medicinal hyssop with synonyms, we remind you that this plant is popularly called:

  • blue sage;
  • St. John's wort is blue;
  • susop;
  • hisop;
  • yuzefka;
  • common hyssop (not to be confused with the wild species of common hyssop).

Hyssop officinalis is a perennial low shrub with an aboveground mass from 20 to 80 cm in height.

Root hyssop medicinal system is pivotal. The main roots are woody with a large number of lateral additional roots. Numerous stems form a lush, slightly spreading bush. Stems are rod-shaped, tetrahedral, lignified at the base.

The arrangement of leaves of hyssop officinalis on the stems is opposite. The leaves are small, sessile. The leaf blade is entire, lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, dark green, covered on both sides with elastic, glandular villi, through which essential oil vapors are released in hot weather. The sizes of the leaves from the base to the top become smaller.

Inflorescences of hyssop officinalis are spike-shaped, often one-sided, located in the upper part of the plants. Below are located in the axils of the leaves of 3-7 small flowers in the form of false half-whorls.

The corolla of the flowers are blue, purple, less often white, pink. The flowers are double-lipped, asymmetric. The stamens are long, extending beyond the corolla. A single flower lives for 5-7 days and then fades. Blooming is gradual. Flowering lasts from June to September.

The fruit of medicinal hyssop is a triangular nutlet, oblong-ovoid in shape. Seeds are small, dark brown. Ripen in the second half of August - the first half of September. Seed germination lasts 3-4 years.

Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)
Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)

Hyssop varieties for cultivation in the country

At the dacha, medicinal hyssop can be grown as a spice-flavoring culture, an ornamental shrub and a honey plant for beekeepers.

Varieties of hyssop medicinal for the pharmacy garden

For the purpose of using in the form of medicinal decoctions, tinctures, teas, it is best to grow medicinal hyssop in a pharmacy garden, where no fertilizers are applied and, most importantly, the plants are not sprayed with pesticides. Recommended for growing varieties:

  • Pleasing Semko;
  • Nikitsky white;
  • Dachny;
  • Healer;
  • Lapis lazuli;
  • Frost and others.

Plants bloom with blue, bright blue and white flowers.

Based on the results of chemical analysis, some researchers report that plants with blue flowers contain the largest amount of essential oils than white and pink-flowered plants. According to other sources, varieties with white flowers contain the maximum amount of essential oils during flowering, the minimum - with pink flowers, and intermediate - with blue and blue.

Hyssop in landscape design

Summer residents use a bright and ornamental plant to form a hedge. Low varieties - for edging rockeries, paths, flower beds, borders.

In landscape design, varieties are used:

  • Nikitsky white;
  • Summer resident;
  • Amethyst;
  • Chord;
  • Pink fog;
  • Pink flamingo;
  • Healer, as well as varieties recommended for cultivation in the pharmacy garden.

The varieties Akkord, Pink fog, Doctor and Pink flamingo are included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.

All varieties of hyssop fit beautifully into flower beds of spicy plants when grown together with mint, lavender, rosemary, oregano and are used in cooking.

At the dacha for medicinal purposes on the pharmacy bed, it is enough to grow 2 varieties of medicinal hyssop with multi-colored flowers. If the owners keep hives, then the number of varieties will not matter: they are all good honey plants and attract pollinators.

Pharmacy bed with medicinal hyssop
Pharmacy bed with medicinal hyssop

Growing hyssop

All types and varieties of hyssop are very unpretentious plants. In natural nature, they occupy mainly steppe, stony dry areas, mountain slopes. The culture is frost - and winter - hardy, drought - resistant.

When growing hyssop officinalis in summer cottages, plants prefer well-drained, loose soils, neutral or slightly alkaline and cannot tolerate swampy and saline areas. With quality care, one place can live up to 10 years. After 5 years of use, they need rejuvenation using the transplanting method.

Hyssop care requirements

Hyssop can grow anywhere in the garden, but it needs enough light. In the shade, the content of essential oils sharply decreases in it.

Hyssop is a very interesting plant to care for.

  • The culture is not affected by diseases and pests, but it can get sick from excessive watering and feeding.
  • Needs weeding at a young age and pruning flowering shoots.
  • With regular pruning, the plant bushes well, throws out new candles with buds.
  • The cut flowering twigs are dried and used in teas and broths.
  • For the winter, the bush is cut off, leaving high (15-20 cm) hemp above the ground.
  • Before the bushes close, the soil is mulched after watering.

Propagation of hyssop

Hyssop is propagated by seed and vegetative division of the bush and cuttings.

Seed propagation of hyssop

For seed propagation, hyssop seeds can be purchased or prepared yourself.

When self-harvesting, the brown tops of faded plants are cut off and laid out on paper. When completely dry, the capsules crack, and the seeds are easily shaken out onto paper. Seeds remain viable for up to 4 years. Hyssop blooms from the first year of life, but seeds are suitable for reproduction starting from 2-year-old plants.

Sowing seeds in open ground

In warm regions, hyssop seeds are sown in the soil without stratification in May or early October. The soil is prepared as usual for all flowering shrubs. Sowing seeds directly into the ground, the seedlings are thinned out when they reach a height of 8-10 cm, leaving a distance of 15-20-25 cm in a row, and 45-50-70 cm between rows.

Growing from seeds in seedlings

Hyssop with seed propagation is often grown through seedlings. For seedlings, seeds are sown in late February - early March in prepared light, permeable, well-moistened soil. Sowing is carried out in grooves of a centimeter depth, located every 5-6 cm. Sowing is sprinkled with a dry substrate. The tray is covered with foil, creating greenhouse conditions. After 2 weeks, hyssop shoots appear. Seedlings in the nursery grow within 2 months, sometimes less. Seedlings break through after 7-10 days, increasing the distance between plants to 5 cm or planting them in separate containers. When the seedlings form 5 true leaves, the seedlings are planted in open ground after 15-20 cm.

Seedlings of hyssop medicinal
Seedlings of hyssop medicinal

Vegetative propagation of hyssop

Cuttings

Cuttings 10-15 cm long are cut with a sharp tool in spring or summer from the green shoots of the root zone. Hyssop cuttings are immediately planted in a prepared place or bed, previously dug up and sufficiently moistened with a root solution. For better rooting, the planting is covered with a cut plastic bottle or film. A rooted stalk blooms only the next year. Further care is the same as for adult hyssop plants.

Dividing the bush

Reproduction by divisions is the simplest. Usually, by 5 years of planting, hyssop is renewed by seating. An adult bush with a spring transplant is divided into several parts. Young people are selected. Each division should have a part of the root system and a one-year shoot. The planting is carried out in shallow holes, watered. After absorbing water, mulch with any fine mulch.

Hyssop care

  • Until the aboveground mass is closed, the plants are systematically loosened.
  • Watering is carried out once every 2-3 weeks when the topsoil dries up only young plants. In the future, watering is carried out in dry periods. A small amount of moisture is sufficient for plants. They tolerate drought calmly.
  • Young plants are fed, if necessary, once a month with full fertilizer (nitrophos, nitroammophos and others). One of the dressings can be replaced by adding wood ash. Since the root of the hyssop is taproot, then by the age of 2 - 3 years of age you can switch to a one-time feeding. Moreover, top dressing must be carried out before flowering. In practice, hyssop is fed when necessary or when grown in poor soils.

Procurement of raw hyssop medicinal for home use

For homemade preparations, the flowering tops of the hyssop are cut, starting from 2 years of age. The length of the cut shoots is 10-15 cm. Only green flowering shoots are cut. Lignified or lignified are not suitable. Dried, spread out on tables, in a dry room or in dryers at a temperature of + 35 … + 40 ° C. At a higher drying temperature, plants lose their medicinal qualities. A properly dried plant remains green, has a pungent odor, and a bitter taste.

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