The "root Of Life" Is Ginseng. Care And Cultivation. Properties, Application. Photo

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The "root Of Life" Is Ginseng. Care And Cultivation. Properties, Application. Photo
The "root Of Life" Is Ginseng. Care And Cultivation. Properties, Application. Photo

Video: The "root Of Life" Is Ginseng. Care And Cultivation. Properties, Application. Photo

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Video: 14 Amazing Health Benefits of Ginseng To Blow your Mind 2023, January
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In folk medicine since ancient times, especially in the countries of East Asia, an outstanding place has been given to the "root of life" - ginseng. He is credited with exceptional healing properties for almost all diseases. Of course, this is not the case. Scientific studies of the medicinal properties of preparations made from ginseng roots, carried out by Soviet scientists, have shown that they are among the stimulating and tonic. They are used for physical and mental fatigue, exhaustion, functional disorders of the cardiovascular and central nervous system, neurasthenia, as well as to increase the body's resistance to infection or adverse environmental conditions. The active ingredients of ginseng root are glycosides called panaxosides.

Real ginseng (Panax ginseng)
Real ginseng (Panax ginseng)

Content:

  • Description of ginseng
  • Growing ginseng
  • Planting ginseng
  • Ginseng care
  • Diseases and pests of ginseng

Description of ginseng

Real ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family. Its root is tap, cylindrical, branched, white or pale yellow in color. In the upper part of the root, one, rarely 2-3 wintering buds are laid annually, from which one or more stems develop in spring. The stem is straight, smooth, up to 70 cm in height, ends with a whorl of 3-5 long-petiolate palmate five-partite leaves.

The peduncle bears numerous flowers, collected in a simple umbrella. The flowers are bisexual, nondescript, pale pink with white stamens. Fruits are juicy, berry-like, when ripe they acquire a bright red color. Seeds (bones) are yellowish-white, oval, flattened, wrinkled. The mass of 1000 pieces of freshly harvested seeds is 35-40 g.

Under natural conditions, ginseng grows in Primorsky and in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory, usually in mountain cedar-deciduous forests at an altitude of 600 m above sea level, on loose, well-drained soils. Occurs in single specimens, rarely in "families" from 2 to 20 or more plants. Natural resources are very limited, which is why ginseng is listed in the Red Book. It is cultivated artificially in the Primorsky Territory, where specialized farms have been created, in the mountainous zone of the Stavropol Territory. Ginseng is grown in various parts of the country by amateur gardeners.

Real ginseng (Panax ginseng)
Real ginseng (Panax ginseng)

Growing ginseng

For those who are just starting to engage in this interesting but laborious medicinal culture, we want to give some general information and practical advice. To avoid unnecessary fears and premature disappointments, remember: ginseng grows very slowly. In the first year, only one leaf with three leaves is formed from seeds. In the second year, two leaves with 3-5 leaves appear. In the future, growth increases, and by the end of the fifth year, the plants reach a height of 40-70 cm, having 5 leaves, each of which consists of 4-5 leaves.

The most intensive growth of the root mass occurs from the third year of the growing season, when some of the plants begin to bear fruit, and starting from the 4th year all normally developed individuals give seeds. On one plant, 40-100 of them are formed. They are quite large - 5-7 mm long, 4-5 mm wide and 1.5-3 mm thick.

In ginseng seeds, the embryo is underdeveloped. Therefore, sown freshly harvested seeds germinate only after 18-22 months, that is, in the second year after sowing. To obtain seedlings in the year of sowing, a long-term stratification of seeds is required (more on it below).

Usually ginseng is grown in seedlings. Seedlings are one-two-year-old roots. It is better to plant them in the fall. It is possible in early spring, before regrowth, but this reduces plant survival. Sometimes the roots of ginseng, most often damaged, do not give aerial shoots for one or two years, they “fall asleep”, and then they develop and bear fruit normally again.

The growing area should be protected from prevailing winds, located near a water source for irrigation, and have a slight slope for melt and rainwater drainage.

The moisture content of the soil for the growth of ginseng is of particular importance. The plant does not tolerate stagnant water - even a short-term flooding of the site with melt or rainwater causes its death. And at the same time, the relatively shallow root system makes ginseng susceptible to drought and dry winds. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the soil moist and loose.

Ginseng is picky about soil conditions. The most favorable for it are loose, well-drained, slightly acidic (pH 5.2-6.5), sandy loam and loamy soils with a high humus content (6-10%).

Soil preparation is carried out in advance. They begin in autumn or early spring and for 1.5-2 years they support it under black steam, systematically loosening it. Organic fertilizers - manure, leaf and wood humus, as well as 2-3-year-old compost have a good effect on the physical and chemical properties of the soil.

Organic and mineral fertilizers are applied for plowing steam before cutting ridges. On the areas where the seedlings will be grown, 6-8 kg of humus or compost, 25-30 g of superphosphate and 5-8 g of potassium chloride are applied per m 2. Where ginseng will grow, 10-12 kg of organic fertilizers, 40-45 g of superphosphate and 15-16 g of potassium chloride are applied per 1 m 2.

Ginseng does not tolerate a high concentration of soil solution, it is especially sensitive to an increased content of nitrates. Large doses of nitrogen fertilizers contribute to plant disease.

To improve the water-physical properties of the soil, coarse-grained sand (20-50 kg / m 2), coal-tar boiler slag (10 kg / m 2) are introduced.

Ginseng is a shade-tolerant plant. He does not tolerate open sunny places. Therefore, it is grown under artificial shading or under the canopy of trees.

Ginseng
Ginseng

Planting ginseng

The breakdown and cutting of the ridges begins in early September, two to three weeks before the start of planting ginseng. At the same time, ridges are prepared for spring sowing with seeds. Place them in the direction from east to west. Height - 25-30 cm, width - 90-100 cm, and any length. Paths 70-90 cm wide are made between the ridges. The soil is carefully loosened and leveled, especially where the seedlings will be grown.

Many amateur gardeners prepare beds from artificial soil mixtures. The main components are leaf humus, peat crumb, forest land, dung humus, rotted sawdust, coal slag and some others. A fringe 25-30 cm high is made of the boards, which is filled with the mixture.

Stratified seeds for seedlings are sown in late April - early May. For stratification, they are mixed with thoroughly washed coarse-grained sand in a ratio of 1: 3 by volume and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C in a moderately moist state. The thermal period of stratification lasts 5-6 months.

During this time, they are systematically moistened, ventilated once a month, separated from the sand, the moldy and rotten ones are selected, then mixed again with sand and kept at the same temperature. During the heat period, the embryo develops. By the end of its seeds with an open pit, there should be at least 80-90%.

After the end of the heat period, the seeds are again mixed with slightly moistened sand in the same ratio and placed in a cellar or refrigerator, where they are kept at a temperature of 1-4 ° C. The cold stage of stratification lasts 2-3 months. At the end of this period, the seeds are stored until sowing on a glacier or refrigerated at 0 ° C.

Before sowing, they are separated from the sand and ventilated on a sieve in the shade. Seeds with a completed stratification cycle to stimulate germination are treated with 0.05% boric acid solution or 0.2% potassium permanganate solution for 30 minutes.

Seeds with an unfinished cold stage of stratification (less than 3 months) are treated with 0.02% gibberillin solution for 23 hours before sowing, and then washed in cold water.

Seeds planted for stratification in August will be ready for sowing next May.

The ridges prepared in the fall are loosened to a depth of 10-15 cm, leveled and marked with a board with rows of pointed thorns 4 cm long. The seeds are laid out by hand in the indentations that form a marker, and immediately covered with soil. Crops are mulched with leaf humus or forest soil, fresh sawdust with a layer of 1.5-2 cm. If necessary, water it moderately. Seedlings appear 15-20 days after sowing.

Freshly harvested seeds are sown in September. The preparation of the beds and the sowing technique are the same as for sowing with stratified seeds. Seedlings appear in the second year after sowing. When frost occurs, the ridges are additionally covered with leaves with a layer of 6-7 cm.

Planting of one-two-year-old roots is carried out in late September - early October. Immediately before planting, the ridges are marked with 20X20 or 25X20 cm.For annual seedlings, the feeding area should be 6X4 cm, for biennial - 8X4 - or 10 × 5 cm per plant. The seedlings are placed in the holes at an angle of 30-45 ° C to the soil surface, so that the root heads with the bud are at a depth of 4-5 cm. When planting, the roots are carefully straightened and covered with soil, slightly compacting it. Then the ridges are mulched with fresh sawdust, sawdust or leaf humus with a layer of 2-3 cm, and additionally insulated for the winter. When planting in spring, watered.

One-two-year-old roots are dug just before planting, after the leaves die off, trying as little as possible to damage even the smallest roots and hibernating buds, from which the aerial part of the plants grows. The roots are damaged, underdeveloped (less than 0.3 g) and the sick are discarded.

Real ginseng (Panax ginseng)
Real ginseng (Panax ginseng)

Ginseng care

The growing season for ginseng begins in late April - early May, it blooms in June, the fruits ripen in August. In spring, ginseng tolerates slight frosts, but the buds most sensitive to cold die at minus 4-5 ° C. In autumn, frosts at 5-7 ° C damage the leaves. We advise you to cover the ridges with plants for the winter with dry sawdust with a layer of 4-5 cm or leaves - 6-7 cm. Such a shelter will allow you to preserve the plants even in severe frosts. You should know that much worse than frosts, ginseng tolerates mild winters with frequent thaws and rains. In this case, the roots rot, and the plant dies.

In the spring, after the snow melts, the ridges are cleaned from the insulation and the shading devices are installed. This work must be completed before the emergence of seedlings and growing perennial plants.

For shading ginseng, various shields are made, fixed on strong frames. The posts of the frames are installed along the sides of the ridges at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other, depending on the available material. The height of the columns from the surface of the ridges on the south side should be about 1 m, and from the north - 1.2-1.5 m. Planks, slate and other materials are used for shields. The size of the shields depends on the width of the ridges. On both sides, visors are made to protect the edges of the ridges from the sun.

In the middle lane, you can use shields from planks with gaps of 0.5-1 cm. Some amateur gardeners shade ginseng plantings by laying branches of coniferous trees on the frames. But in areas where seedlings are grown, the shields must be dense.

The first loosening to a depth of 2-3 cm is carried out before the awakening of the wintering buds. This should be done carefully so as not to damage the kidneys and root system. Subsequently, the soil is loosened and weeds are weeded. Be sure to process the paths between the ridges and the territory adjacent to the plantings.

During hot and dry periods, plants are watered (during flowering and fruit formation - daily).

Three times during the growing season with irrigation, mineral fertilizing is applied (0.1-0.2%, that is, 10-20 g per 10 liters of water - solutions of complex or mixed fertilizers at the rate of 2-3 l / m 2).

In autumn, the aboveground part of the plants is cut off and burned.

Seeds are pre-harvested when the fruits take on a bright red color. This usually happens in August. They are separated from the pulp, wiped on a sieve, washed repeatedly with water until the pulp and shriveled seeds are completely removed, which float to the surface. Then they are thrown onto a sieve, allowed to drain off excess water and slightly dried in the shade, stirring occasionally. Dry for about a day. Longer drying reduces the activity of the seeds and makes it difficult for them to germinate. When dried, the seeds quickly lose their germination, so they need to be stored in slightly damp sand.

In the process of drying, clearly diseased seeds of a grayish-brown color or with brown spots are selected.

Diseases and pests of ginseng

A few words about plant protection. Before planting, the roots are disinfected in a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid for 10 minutes. It is also used during the growing season, carrying out 6-8 sprays. The first is when unfolding the leaves with a 0.5% solution, and the subsequent ones - with a 1% solution.

All organs of the plant are treated with a fungicide - leaves, peduncles, umbrellas with fruits and even the underside of leaves.

When plants are damaged with a black leg, the seedlings are watered 2-3 times with a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate with an interval of 7-10 days.

Pyrethrum (2-4 g / m 2) or 1-1.5% suspension of this preparation is used against aphids, caterpillars, leaf rollers and other insects that damage the aerial organs of plants. Wireworms are caught with potato baits. Medvedok is destroyed with the help of poisoned baits, which are embedded in the soil to a depth of 3-5 cm. The larvae of beetles are selected by hand. Against mice, drugs of murine typhus or baits poisoned with zoocoumarin are used. They are laid out in burrows or poured into tubes rolled from tar. Slugs are also caught using bait. You can dust the plots in the evening with fresh fluff lime.

Used materials:

V. SHEBERSTOV, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences

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