The Orchis Is A Vanishing Miracle. Growing, Care, Description, Types. Photo

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The Orchis Is A Vanishing Miracle. Growing, Care, Description, Types. Photo
The Orchis Is A Vanishing Miracle. Growing, Care, Description, Types. Photo

Video: The Orchis Is A Vanishing Miracle. Growing, Care, Description, Types. Photo

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The wild orchid, a rare and endangered beauty, is very rare in our gardens. Orchis thickets used to be enough to admire in the forests, but today such a phenomenon is so rare that you can enjoy it only in exceptional cases. Listed in the Red Book and carefully protected, an amazing perennial with lace candles of inflorescences is actively cultivated today. The orchis is grown for medicinal purposes, and in gardens it can become a real pride of the collection. Growing orchis isn't easy, but they're worth the effort.

Male orchis (Orchis mascula)
Male orchis (Orchis mascula)

Content:

  • Regal and proud wild orchid
  • Description of the orchis
  • Orchis variety
  • Lighting for orchis
  • Soils for orchis
  • Irrigation for orchis
  • Top dressing
  • Preparing the orchis for wintering
  • Pests and diseases
  • Orchis breeding methods

Regal and proud wild orchid

Orchis, wild orchid, cuckoo tears, orchis - no matter how you name this amazing and regal plant, its beauty will not diminish. Orchis is a garden culture from among the unique exotic plants. To understand the beauty of flowering, you need to consider it up close. But one thing is for sure - the best candidate for the role of "piece" accent, the main star is difficult to find even among the exotic.

Garden orchis, like garden snowdrops with lilies of the valley, are plants that are bred specifically for decorative purposes and industrial cultivation. And even if they are not found at every step, you can buy seedlings or seeds by ordering from catalogs. When purchasing plants from private gardeners or simply from the market, be sure to make sure that you are not involved in the criminal reduction of the population of this amazing species.

Description of the orchis

Orchis will not exceed half a meter in height, but they are so catchy and bright that they easily outshine their competitors. The rhizomes are thickened, ovoid, it is thanks to them that the orchis got its name. The leaves "embrace" numerous perfectly straight shoots, long, lanceolate, tapering to a stalk. The type of greenery makes orchis related to cereals, but they are completely different in terms of growth, and the bright and rich green color distinguishes the plant against the background of classic perennials.

Charred neotinea, burnt neotinea (Neotinea ustulata), or burnt orchis (Orchis ustulata)
Charred neotinea, burnt neotinea (Neotinea ustulata), or burnt orchis (Orchis ustulata)

Plants are most attractive during flowering. On tall leafy peduncles, spike-shaped inflorescences up to 15-20 cm long rise. Luxurious complex flowers sit quite tightly in them, the miniature size of which - only up to 2 cm - does not interfere with comparing flowering with orchids. Orchis have flowers, though not the largest, but spectacular.

The leaves of the outer and inner circles fold into a kind of "helmet", the lip is tripartite, and the upper and lower leaves differ in shape and size. In a wild orchid, the lip is most often decorated with specks, and a spur, equal in size to the ovary, gives the flower an amazing grace.

Orchis bloom for a long time. The parade of wild orchids begins in April or May in low-growing species and in June in large ones, and the duration of flowering ranges from 2 weeks to several months. Most species cannot boast of aroma, but upon closer inspection of the inflorescences, the subtle notes of vanilla, familiar to everyone who grows indoor orchids, show through quite clearly.

Orchis variety

About a hundred species of orchids are combined into the genus of wild orchids, and all of them are similar in flowering type. Moreover, most orchis are extremely attractive and capable of becoming a spectacular garden plant.

One species most widespread in ornamental gardening is the spotted orchis (orchis maculata). But there are a lot of disputes with its classification and belonging to orchis. Indeed, this plant has fingers-separate roots, and not ovoid, like most orchis.

Even today, gardeners and botanists classify it as dactylorhiza maculata, or spotted fingernail. But since the difference between plants is only in wider leaves and a more representative palette of colors, and not in the practical nuances of cultivation, it is difficult to call significant differences. Moreover, this plant is now included in both genera at the same time.

No matter how spotted orchis is called, one thing is certain - the plant is very spectacular. Herbaceous perennial with thickened, finger-like roots and shoots 15 to 60 cm high, striking and impressive. The ovate-lanceolate leaves, tapering to a petiole and encircling the stems, create a slender curtain.

Peduncles are crowned with leafy shoots. Spike-shaped inflorescences with original flowers with a three-lobed sponge, a conical spur and an outlandish color bloom on them. Light lilac, white or deep purple flowers of spotted orchis are always decorated with decorative dark spots. The leaves of this orchis are often decorated with patterns. The plant blooms in the second half of May, flowering lasts from 2 weeks to a month, depending on conditions.

The species Orchis maculata (Spotted orchis, or Speckled orchis) is currently synonymous with the species Spotted orchis or Dactylorhiza maculata
The species Orchis maculata (Spotted orchis, or Speckled orchis) is currently synonymous with the species Spotted orchis or Dactylorhiza maculata

Of the orchis proper, the basic plant species, they are bred in decorative gardening:

  • Male orchis (Orchis mascula) is one of the brightest orchis with purple-spotted stem and leaves, spectacular purple-pink inflorescences and beautiful flowers that stand out with a deeply incised lip and decorative white blur at its base, small dark spots (this orchis blooms in April-May, easy to hybridize and select);
  • very unusual purple orchis (Orchis purpurea) with brown peduncles, very wide lily-of-the-valley bright leaves and a fringe-like spikelet of dense inflorescence (this species has a flattened lip, very large, deeply dissected, and snow-white flowers are strewn with small dark dots);
  • unusual, with pyramidal dense inflorescences and a lace effect, Monkey Orchis (Orchis simia) up to half a meter high with long leaves and honey aroma (flowers with elongated leaves are pale, almost white, with a beautiful speck and stripes along the edge, reminiscent of a monkey);
Male orchis (Orchis mascula)
Male orchis (Orchis mascula)
Purple orchis (Orchis purpurea)
Purple orchis (Orchis purpurea)
Monkey orchis (Orchis simia)
Monkey orchis (Orchis simia)
  • Small-spotted orchis (Orchis punctulata) with unusual yellow-light green inflorescences and bright greens;
  • the tallest of the Orchis, the largest (Orchis maxima), up to 70 cm high with powerful fragrant inflorescences, speckled with a helmet and lip, watercolor color transitions from lilac to whitish, beautifully accentuated by a deep groove on the lip;

    Currently not a separate species, it is considered a variety of Orchis purpurea (Orchis purpurea)

  • Pale orchis (Orchis pallens) is a modest plant up to 30 cm in height with obovate, rather wide leaves up to 11 cm long and a dense spikelet of inflorescences with large, bright yellow, pale orange or purple flowers, lanceolate bracts and an original aroma, resembling an elderberry;
  • Provencal orchis (Orchis provincialis) with spotted leaves and large flowers in a rare inflorescence, distinguished by a light, yellowish-white color and touching spots;
Small-spotted orchis (Orchis punctulata)
Small-spotted orchis (Orchis punctulata)
Pale orchis (Orchis pallens)
Pale orchis (Orchis pallens)
Provencal orchis (Orchis provincialis)
Provencal orchis (Orchis provincialis)
  • medium-sized, but spectacular green-brown Orchis (Orchis viridifusca), subspecies of Spitzel's orchis (Orchis spitzelii), up to only 30 cm high with a marsh color of wide leaves, greenish-purple flowers with a large lip and no less spectacular helmet, collected in elongated narrow spikelets inflorescences and its fellow Orchis greenish-yellow (Orchis chlorotica), which is a synonym (Anacamptis collina), with yellow-light green flowers;
  • a tiny competitor of violets Dremlik orchis (Orchis morio) only 15-20 cm high with bluish leaves located at the bottom of the shoots and rare, short spikelets of inflorescences with very beautiful lilac-purple flowers, the shape of which resembles the muzzle of a bull terrier (the plant lives underground for two years, and only leaves and peduncles appear from the third);
  • Orchis (Orchis militaris), the flowers of which adorn with a variegated white-purple lip with very thin lobes and a light pink helmet that is larger than it.
Green-brown orchis (Orchis viridifusca), subspecies of Spitzel's orchis (Orchis spitzelii)
Green-brown orchis (Orchis viridifusca), subspecies of Spitzel's orchis (Orchis spitzelii)
Dremlik orchis (Orchis morio)
Dremlik orchis (Orchis morio)
Orchis (Orchis militaris)
Orchis (Orchis militaris)

Rod Anacamptis

  • spectacular orchis (Orchis coriophora) from 20 to 40 cm high with narrow lanceolate leaves, elongated cylindrical inflorescences and flowers with a pointed helmet and a deeply dissected lip, complex color transitions from greenish and white at the base to purple-brown with purple specks;
  • similar to it, but more pleasant in smell, narrow-leaved and decorated with dark veins Veinous orchis (Orchis nervulosa);
  • Vanilla-scented Orchis (Orchis fragrans) up to half a meter high with delicate spikelets of inflorescences and unusual, purple flowers with a beautiful helmet and a very long middle lobe on the lip;
At present, the Anacamptis veinous and odorous species are subspecies of Anacamptis coriophora. In the photo Anacamptis coriophora subspecies fragrans
At present, the Anacamptis veinous and odorous species are subspecies of Anacamptis coriophora. In the photo Anacamptis coriophora subspecies fragrans
  • Loose-flowered orchis (Orchis laxiflora) with very rare, almost double-sided purple inflorescences;
  • early flowering subspecies of loose-flowered orchis; pseudolaxiflora (Orchis pseudolaxiflora) with bright purple flowers, widely spaced in long inflorescences, reaching 60 cm in height;
Anacamptis laxiflora was previously distinguished as a species of loose-flowered orchis laxiflora
Anacamptis laxiflora was previously distinguished as a species of loose-flowered orchis laxiflora
  • similar to it Marsh Orchis (Orchis palustris) up to 70 cm high with long graceful leaves and rare, lacy inflorescences of lilac flowers with a large lip like a skirt, blooming in May and June;
  • miniature, with very dark purple flowers in an elongated, loose inflorescence Caspian orchis (Orchis caspia);
  • dark purple Spotted Orchis (Orchis picta) up to 30 cm high;
Marsh Anacamptis (Anacamptis palustris), formerly commonly known as Marsh Orchis (Orchis palustris)
Marsh Anacamptis (Anacamptis palustris), formerly commonly known as Marsh Orchis (Orchis palustris)
Anacamptis papilionacea was previously distinguished as a species of Caspian orchis (orchis caspia)
Anacamptis papilionacea was previously distinguished as a species of Caspian orchis (orchis caspia)
Currently, the point orchis (orchis picta) is a subspecies of Anacamptis dremlik (Anacamptis morio)
Currently, the point orchis (orchis picta) is a subspecies of Anacamptis dremlik (Anacamptis morio)

Genus of Neotineus

  • Orchis tridentata (Orchis tridentata) with light lilac, almost spherical dense inflorescences;
  • Orchis (Orchis ustulata) with dense, club-like spikelets of pale pink inflorescences up to only 30 cm high;
Three-toothed neotinus, Three-toothed orchis (lat.Neotinea tridentata), previously the species was placed in the genus Orchis
Three-toothed neotinus, Three-toothed orchis (lat.Neotinea tridentata), previously the species was placed in the genus Orchis
Charred neotinea, burnt neotinea, or burnt orchis (lat.Neotinea ustulata), previously the species was placed in the genus Orchis
Charred neotinea, burnt neotinea, or burnt orchis (lat.Neotinea ustulata), previously the species was placed in the genus Orchis

Lighting for orchis

Despite the fact that the orchis is an orchid, it is perfectly adapted for growing in gardens. And even more: it is the orchard orchards that can boast of the most luxurious flowering. But to admire the royal inflorescences, you need to carefully select the lighting for the wild orchid. After all, the orchis prefers partial shade, light, scattered, secluded. But if in natural species in the bright sun flowers suffer, and in the shade the plant will not bloom at all, then only shade should be strictly avoided for garden orchards. But cultivated species are not afraid of the sunny location and are much more plastic. True, the more intense the lighting, the more difficult it will be to care for the orchis.

Soils for orchis

You also need to be very careful with the soil. Orchis prefer moist, fertile, but very loose soil texture. They should be as waterproof and breathable as possible. The parameter of natural humidity is very important: despite the fact that the orchis does not tolerate waterlogging, it loves cool, moist, loose soils, the characteristics of which remain stable even in the summer heat. Orchis do not like dense soils, as well as fresh manure. When planting an orchis, the soil removed from the pit can be improved by adding to it the same amount of peat and half as much sand.

Irrigation for orchis

If your wild orchid grows in a sunny area, it will need to provide systematic, regular watering. Without it, the orchis will bloom worse, and the flowering duration will be significantly reduced. Orchis growing on depleted soil also require systemic irrigation.

If a wild orchid was planted on high-quality, moist soil, it does not need constant watering at all. It is enough just to control the weather and during prolonged droughts to saturate the soil with moisture to compensate for high temperatures. When irrigating orchis, you need to monitor the characteristics of the soil and the rate of its drying. Excess moisture for a wild orchid should not be allowed, as well as droughts; procedures should maintain an average soil moisture.

Italian orchis (Orchis italica)
Italian orchis (Orchis italica)

Top dressing

The wild orchid is not very fond of mineral fertilizers. This plant will bloom colorfully only when organic matter is used to improve the characteristics of the soil and compensate for the loss of nutrients. It is best to stock up on compost and needles for the orchis. They are brought in at planting and the soil is mulched twice a year with a layer of 5 cm or more. Fertilizing mulch for orchis should be created in mid-spring and early autumn.

Preparing the orchis for wintering

Despite its name, the wild orchid is not at all a thermophilic plant that is afraid of frost. The orchis winters well without winter shelter, even in the middle lane. But so that the excess moisture does not affect the quality of wintering, and the plant better tolerates temperature changes during periods of thaw, the bushes need to be prepared for the cold weather.

As soon as the orchis begins to dry out on the eve of the first autumn cold weather, it is better to immediately cut off all the ground parts of the plant to the base. Do not wait until the shoots die off by themselves, but feel free to carry out a cardinal pruning. So the rhizome will better prepare even for the most unstable winters.

Pests and diseases

Despite their "orchid" nature, orchids are amazingly resistant plants. They are resistant to all types of fungal diseases and pests. But they have no natural protection from slugs. Snails, slugs, and other leaf beetles adore this exotic plant. And around orchis plantings, it is better to place special traps or lay out straw circles.

Dremlik orchis (Orchis morio) is now known as the species Anacampsis dremlik (Anacamptis morio)
Dremlik orchis (Orchis morio) is now known as the species Anacampsis dremlik (Anacamptis morio)

Orchis breeding methods

Propagation of orchis by seeds

Sowing orchis seeds can be carried out at any time of the year, regardless of the planned date of transferring seedlings to the soil. Germination in a wild orchid can take 1 month or more than 3 months, so even sowing in summer is perfect for the plant. Orchis seeds are sown in a fertile, moist and loose substrate at a shallow depth. They can germinate only in warmth, but not in heat (the optimal temperature is considered to be the range from 18 to 24 degrees), in bright light.

Seedlings appear unevenly and develop at different rates. After the appearance of several leaves, it is better to plant young plants in new pots, trying not to damage the crops and neighboring seeds that have not yet hatched. Seedlings are grown according to the standard scheme until spring and the threat of severe recurrent frosts disappears. Orchis are planted, obtained by seedlings at a distance of 10-15 cm between seedlings

Propagation of orchis by root division

Root division, or rather the separation of the replacing tuber. This method is considered to be the simplest and most reliable. In autumn, after the beginning of wilting and pruning of the plant, the rhizomes can be dug up and the replacing root tuber can be separated from it. When planting separated rhizomes, along with the plant, part of the old soil is added to the new hole, because like all orchids, the orchis is dependent on fungi and only with them can it take root in a new place. The more soil from your old growing area you can transfer, the better.

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