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Video: Beet. Growing, Care, Storage. Kinds. Diseases And Pests. Recipes. A Photo
This is about red table beets said in the Nekrasov lines, most likely about its cylindrical varieties. From time immemorial this vegetable is loved in the countryside. And who doesn't know beets in dishes? Everyone eats it, and praises it. In soups, borscht, salads, vinaigrette, in hot dishes - this simpleton from the garden is good everywhere.
Culinary subtlety: beets are boiled in a peel and with a "tail", otherwise the useful substances of root crops are lost.
For lovers of vegetable dishes, we recommend a salad of beets: lightly fry the boiled beets, add crushed walnuts, garlic, lemon, salt and sunflower oil.
Here's another recipe: pickled beets with black currants. Mix pure currant berries in a ratio of 1: 4 with beet cubes, put the mixture in jars, pour hot marinade. Sterilization is conventional. The marinade is prepared in the same way as for cucumbers and tomatoes.
However, beetroot is not only about minerals, vitamins and nutrients. She, as an important root crop, is also a necessary component of a normal crop rotation. After all, beets are a good predecessor for many vegetable crops. And how fruitful are the figures: experienced gardeners in favorable years get 4-6 kg of root crops from 1 m 2.
Beet agricultural technology is described in detail in many reference books on vegetable growing, so we will dwell only on some of the features. It is known that beets grow well on soils with a slightly acidic reaction, therefore, the beds allotted for it are lime if necessary. In addition, on waterlogged soils, they must be with drainage, otherwise the root crops are formed very poorly. When growing table beet, special attention is paid to the timely thinning of seedlings. This is explained by the fact that usually beet varieties are multi-seeded, that is, one seed forms a nest of 2-4 seedlings. That is why there is a need for two-fold thinning of crops.
Now about the diseases of beets. The most common of them are korneed, fomoz, cercosporosis, clump rot.
Root-eater is a seedling disease, manifested in the decay of the root and hypocotyl knee. Sick plants die, seedlings are thinned out. An outbreak of the disease is caused by unfavorable climatic factors that contribute to the defeat of plants by various microorganisms, most often fungi, say, from the genus Fusarium.
The corneed grows mainly on soils with excessive moisture, heavy texture, poor in humus content. Sharp changes in night and day temperatures, frosts on the soil at the time of emergence aggravate the development of the root root.
© Forest & Kim Starr
Pathogens that cause root beetle can accumulate in the soil when this crop is re-cultivated in one place. Hence, the alternation of cultures is necessary.
And how does the phomosis manifest? Initial signs - yellowish concentric spots with black dots in the center appear on older leaves. Since the disease usually occurs at the end of the growing season, it does not bring noticeable harm to the plants themselves. But root crops suffer from it greatly, especially during storage. Once inside the root crop, the pathogen causes rotting of the core part, which is found on the cut. The disease affects to the greatest extent root crops that grew with a lack of boron in the soil. The pathogen persists on plant debris or seeds.
It is also carried over with diseased roots. They fight against phomosis using seed dressing. As a dressing agent, 75 and 80% polycarbacin wetting powder is used, which is approved for use in a backyard. The dose is 0.5 g per 100 g of seeds. On soils poor in boron, boron fertilizer is applied (3 g of borax per 1 m 2).
The causative agent of cercosporosis affects only fully developed leaves on plants of the first and second years of life. On plantings it develops weaker than on plants of the first year. The disease manifests itself in the form of numerous rounded, light spots (2-3 mm in diameter, and up to 5-6 mm on old leaves) with a red-brown border. A grayish coating forms on the surface of the spots in wet weather. It will be the distinguishing feature of cercospora from similar spots of bacterial origin.
© Böhringer Friedrich
Young plants of table beet, as well as growing testes, are affected by peronosporosis. With this disease, young central leaves turn yellow, their edges curl. A grayish-purple bloom forms on the underside of the leaves. The disease develops especially strongly in cool and humid weather. The causative agent of the disease can persist with seeds, uterine roots, and also in post-harvest residues.
Fleshy succulent beetroot vegetables during storage can get sick with clump rot. Pathogens of fungal and bacterial origin. With a longitudinal section of the affected root crops, brown and dead vascular fibrous bundles and dark stripes are often visible inside them. These characteristic signs are evidence that the root crop is sick and an infectious process is taking place inside it.
With strong decay of root crops, a white or gray bloom appears on their surface. The same is observed inside root crops. Interestingly, beet varieties with a rounded and oval root crop are more stable than flat ones, since they are less damaged during harvesting and are more transportable. The reasons that cause kagatny rot are mechanical damage to root crops, their freezing and wilting, improper storage conditions. So all this must be carefully monitored.
Of course, the roots are harvested before the onset of frost. The leaves of the dug plants are immediately cut off, leaving petioles about 1 cm long. The beets are stored in small boxes (with a capacity of 15-20 kg), after sprinkling it with sand together with fluff lime. Beets are well stored in plastic bags; keep them loosely closed, leaving an opening for fresh air. In winter, beetroot is stored at a temperature of about 2 ° and a relative humidity of 90-95%.
In conclusion, a few general agricultural recommendations:
- place the beets in the crop rotation so that they return to their original place no earlier than after 2-3 years;
- do not forget to enrich the soil with boron, this trace element is necessary for beets;
- start sowing when the soil warms up by at least 5-7 °, and the soil moisture is about 60% of the full moisture capacity;
- loosen the soil crust immediately after emergence.
© Forest & Kim Starr
What varieties of table beet to recommend? Apparently, in the first place, those that are more resistant to disease. For resistance to root root, for example, Egyptian flat, Leningradskaya rounded, Pushkin flat 1-2-seed are distinguished. Relatively resistant to cercosporosis Leningradskaya rounded, Donskaya ploskaya 367, Kubanskaya borshchivaya 43. The varieties Odnorostkovaya, Sibirskaya ploskaya, Podzimnyaya A-474 and Bordeaux 237 have good keeping quality.