Tulip. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction, Planting. Distillation For The Holidays. Diseases And Pests. Decorative Blooming. Garden Plants. Flowers. A Photo

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Tulip. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction, Planting. Distillation For The Holidays. Diseases And Pests. Decorative Blooming. Garden Plants. Flowers. A Photo
Tulip. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction, Planting. Distillation For The Holidays. Diseases And Pests. Decorative Blooming. Garden Plants. Flowers. A Photo

Video: Tulip. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction, Planting. Distillation For The Holidays. Diseases And Pests. Decorative Blooming. Garden Plants. Flowers. A Photo

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Video: Secret to Multiply Tulips 2023, February
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Blooming tulips - a picture of stunning beauty! In terms of brightness and variety of colors, none of the spring-flowering crops can be compared with them. A magnificent, truly carnival procession lasts about 1.5 months, and the memory of their bloom lasts for a whole year.

A bit of history

Since ancient times, the tulip has enjoyed great love among different peoples. The first information about him is associated with Persia. Many Persian poets sang this flower, and Hafiz wrote that even a rose cannot compare with the virgin beauty of a tulip. The tulip enjoyed even greater love among the Turks. In honor of him, even special holidays were organized in the gardens of the sultans.

Tulips came to Europe in 1554: first to Germany, where they decorated the gardens of the medieval rich. Then they gradually spread to different European countries, where wealthy tulip lovers began to collect collections, in which the number of varieties often reached half a thousand.

But nowhere did the passion for tulips reach such proportions as in

Tulip
Tulip

© Michael Wolf

Holland. Here it took on the character of a real madness that engulfed all sectors of society. Houses, livestock, arable land, and whole fortunes were given for the bulbs of new varieties. All this lasted until the government realized that the fascination with beautiful plants was turning into large-scale speculation that threatened the country's economy, and with its power stopped it. Whole books have been written about the "tulip boom", which are very interesting to read now, but at that time it was almost a national disaster.

Tulips, like many plants, came to Russia during the time of Peter I, they were brought from Holland. Now, probably, there is not a single person in Russia, not even a tiny baby, who would not know what kind of plant is a tulip, how it looks. But over the past decades, many new wonderful varieties have appeared, which our summer residents do not even know about, We will introduce you to them a little later, and now we will reveal all the secrets of growing these spring flowers on summer cottages.

As you know, in order to please a plant, you need to know its features. This is what we'll talk about now.

The bulb is the beginning of all beginnings

The tulip bulb is a modified shoot. Its bottom is a strongly shortened stem, and its scales are modified leaves. Onion scales are storing and covering. The first ones are internal, juicy, light (there can be 4-6 of them), nutrients are deposited in them. The dry, leathery outer scales are the coverts; they protect the bulb from damage.

At the bottom of the bulb (along its edges) there is a slight thickening - a root ridge, in it are the rudiments of future roots. And in the central part, a peduncle with leaves is formed, which ends with a flower. Daughter bulbs are laid in the axils of the covering and storing scales.

After flowering, when the growth of the aerial part stops, the scales of the mother bulb dry out completely, forming a whole nest of new bulbs. In the largest, located in the center, there may be 4-5 scales, and by the time of excavation, the rudiments of all leaves, grandchild bulbs have already formed and the first tubercles of the next year's flower have been laid.

Tulip bulbs
Tulip bulbs

© Mariluna

So, from all of the above, the following conclusions can be drawn. Despite the fact that the tulip is a perennial plant, its bulbs are renewed annually. Instead of the planted one, a whole nest of new ones appears with the largest in the center.

The number of bulbs formed in the nest depends on the variety, and on the soil and climatic conditions, and on the care of the plants, and on the planting time.

The best time to dig up tulips is when the leaves begin to turn yellow and lodge (still green). Trial digging of the bulbs at this time shows that they are still white, with separate spots. In no case should you wait until the leaves are completely dry. At this moment, the nest disintegrates, the bulbs fall out of the common shell, and you can lose them in the ground. Dig up tulips at a time when you can take the plant by the stem and pull out the entire bulb nest.

After approximately 7-10 days digging bulbs dried under cover in a draft at a temperature of 24-30 ° C. The sooner they dry, the less likely they are affected by fungal diseases, since the upper protective scales will tightly cover the bulb and prevent infections from penetrating.

After drying until mid-September, the bulbs should be stored in a well-ventilated area around 17 ° C. The relative humidity of the air is desirable 60-70%.

Where, when and how to plant?

Like all spring flowers, tulips have a fairly short period of budding and flowering. This rapid development leaves a definite imprint on its soil requirements. It should be highly fertile, contain a large amount of nutrients in a form accessible to plants, have a favorable reaction of the environment and good physical properties (sufficient air permeability and moisture capacity).

Sandy loam or light loamy, well cultivated soil meets these requirements. The acidity (pH value) for tulips can be between 6.5 and 7.5. Liming is mandatory at pH levels below 5.7. If the soil is not light enough, sand and peat should be added. It must be dug to a depth of at least 30 cm.

Tulip
Tulip

© Korzun Andrey

When preparing the soil for planting, the following doses of fertilizers per 1 m2 should be applied in about a month: compost, humus or non-acidic peat 10-15 kg, chalk or slaked lime up to 200 g, wood ash up to 200 g, complete mineral fertilizer from 40 to 100 g It should be remembered that 350 g of carbonic lime per 1 m2 raises the pH by 1. Fresh manure should not be used either before planting, or in top dressing, or for mulching. This can lead to root burns and fungal diseases.

To prevent fungal and bacterial diseases, tulips should return to their original planting site no earlier than 5 years later. It is best to plant them in a sunny area protected from strong winds. There should be no stagnation of water, otherwise it can lead to diseases such as typhoidosis and gray rot. The occurrence of groundwater in the area where tulips will be grown should be no higher than 70 cm.

Tulips are planted from the second decade of September, when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm will be 8-10 ° C. The bulbs should root well before frost. It takes 30-45 days for the roots to develop well. If the planting took place later, the tulips must be insulated with mulch to a height of 10-15 cm.

Tulips are planted at a depth equal to three times the height of the bulb, counting from the bottom. Large ones are planted at a distance of 5-9 cm from each other, small ones - 4-5 cm.

We take care of the rules

In the spring (immediately after germination), the soil around the tulips is loosened to open air access to the roots and reduce moisture evaporation. Moreover, loosening must be carried out after each watering, top dressing or heavy rain.

During the growing season, tulips are fed 3-4 times with mineral fertilizers. The first feeding is carried out in the snow in dry form with nitrogen: 30-50 g / m2. The second - when mass shoots appear: 30-50 g of complete mineral fertilizer, dissolved in water, or with watering after dry application (2-3 buckets / m2). The third - during the budding period, in composition it is similar to the second. The fourth dressing is given after flowering, but no later than 2 weeks later: 30-40 g of any phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.

Tulip
Tulip

© Zanchetta Fabio

It is best to use an instant fertilizer for tulips with microelements (aquarine, crystallin, solution, nitroammofoska). But you cannot feed with fertilizer with a high chlorine content, which is very harmful to these plants.

During the growing season, during budding and flowering, tulips need a lot of water. Therefore, watering should be regular and abundant, especially in dry springs. Moisture should penetrate to the depth of the roots, and not just wet the ground. Insufficient watering only does harm, as it leads to the formation of a crust. According to the rules, at least 10 liters of water must be poured onto 1 m2. Moreover, it should not be very cold. Watering and feeding tulips should be done carefully so that the liquid does not get on the leaves.

During the flowering of tulips, experienced florists carry out varietal and phyto-cleaning. Variety cleaning is to remove all impurities in the event that the plantings on your site were carried out with pure-grade single-color planting material and you want to keep it clean. In this case, admixture plants are dug out with a clod of earth and planted in another place. If they are carefully transplanted with watering, they will survive well.

Phyto-cleaning consists in identifying and urgently removing diseased plants from plantings, including those infected with variegated leaves. Such plants are dug up by the roots and immediately destroyed (thrown into a pit with bleach or burned).

Tulip variegation is extremely dangerous, since this viral disease is very quickly transmitted with plant sap and is incurable. The disease manifests itself in a change in the color of the flower and leaves. It is especially easy to notice during the budding and flowering period. On monochromatic petals, a yellow or white color appears in the form of irregular strokes and spots. In dark-colored flowers or in purple varieties, their own color is enhanced, that is, stripes or strokes appear darker than the rest of the petal. In tulips of 2-3 colors, the symmetry of the pattern is disturbed and all colors, except for one, gradually disappear. Sick plants weaken, stunted and gradually die.

In order to avoid the involuntary transfer of this dangerous disease, one must be very careful when cutting flowers for a bouquet: it is necessary to disinfect (disinfect) the tools (knife, pruner) with a 5% solution of potassium permanganate, alcohol or sterilize by fire.

Tulip bulbs
Tulip bulbs

Even when cutting tulips, leave the bottom 2 leaves to ensure proper bulb development. The removal of flowers alone, without leaves and peduncles (decapitation), also contributes to the production of large bulbs. This technique is very effective if carried out in a timely manner.

The fact is that within 8-10 days of flowering, the tulip opens in the morning and closes in the evening. So decapitation should be carried out on the last or penultimate day of flowering, when the flower can no longer close and is ready to crumble. The point of the technique is to firstly prevent the petals from shedding, as this can cause an outbreak of gray rot on the leaves by allowing the bulb to fully grow (and it grows most intensively during the flowering period). Secondly, this technique prevents further setting of seeds in the seed pods, then from the leaves the nutrients will go only to the bulb.

The tulip bulbs should be dug up annually. Only babies can be left for 2 years when they are planted separately. If adult bulbs are left without digging, in the 2-3rd year they will go very deep into the ground, and you will never be able to dig them out cleanly from there, they will constantly litter your pure color tulip plantings.

Great in spring and winter

Due to the huge variety of tulip varieties in size, shape, flower color, plant height and flowering time, they can be very widely used for garden decoration.

Short tulips (Kaufman, Greigy and their hybrids) can be planted in the foreground of mixborders and on alpine slides, rock gardens and low curbs. To decorate verandas and balconies, they can be planted in boxes and containers.

Medium-sized tulips are magnificent in all types of flower beds, in group plantings on lawns, in the middle ground of mixborders, mixed with other crops blooming in spring - muscari, daffodils, hazel grouses, hyacinths, anemones, primroses.

Tulip
Tulip

© John O'Neill

Tall tulips (Darwin hybrids, lily flowers) are very good for large groups on the lawn and for cutting.

Tulips have one more advantage: their flowering can be enjoyed not only in spring, but also in winter. To do this, you need to master the forcing of plants in the off-season. In principle, forcing tulips is not difficult, but it requires compliance with certain conditions, especially temperature.

For distillation, only large, heavy bulbs are selected: diameter from 3.5 cm, weight from 25 g. within 30 days at a temperature of 18-20 ° C.

Then, for 13-22 weeks (depending on the variety) they are stored at a temperature of 5-9 ° C. Then, under the influence of low positive temperatures, physiologically active substances are formed in the bulbs, which stimulate the growth of the flower stem. If this period is insufficient or the temperature is too high, then the stems of the plants grow very short during forcing, and the flowers either hide in the leaves, or underdeveloped buds are formed.

Now let's talk about forcing tulips by different dates. The most difficult - early - for Christmas or New Year. Not all tulip varieties are suitable for her. Therefore, only those that require a fairly short cooling period can be used. For example, such varieties: Epricot Beauty - salmon pink (15 weeks cooling); Christmas Marvel - cherry pink (15 weeks) Dix Favorite - dark red (16 weeks).

For early forcing, the bulbs are dug up a week earlier. After cleaning, choose the largest ones and dry them at a temperature of 24-25 ° C for two weeks. Then it is heated at 34 ° C for 4 days, kept at 18-20 ° C for 25 days and at 17 ° C for 15 days. Then the bulbs are placed in paper bags and from September 1 to October 1, stored at a temperature of 5-9 ° C in the refrigerator.

In October, the bulbs are planted in boxes, pots or bowls filled with potting soil. In composition, it can be very different, the main thing is that the earth is moisture-absorbing, breathable, with a pH of 6.5-6.8. Even sand can be used. The containers are 2/3 filled with soil and the bulbs are planted at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from each other, slightly pressing into it. Then they fall asleep with earth to the very top, which opens after the obligatory abundant watering. The containers are placed in plastic bags and stored in a basement or refrigerator at a temperature of 5-9 ° C. At this time, the rooting of the bulbs takes place. Water the plants as needed, that is, preventing the soil from drying out.

As soon as the sprouts reach a height of 5-6 cm, the plants are transferred to a bright room (from about December 7). First, for 2 days they are kept at a temperature of 15 ° C, then it is increased to 18-20 ° C. If daylight is not enough, additional lighting is needed. Water as needed. After 3 weeks, tulips bloom.

Forcing by March 8 is simpler. Most varieties from the Triumph and Darwin hybrids groups are suitable for this. The bulbs are dug up at the usual time and stored at the following temperatures: 28-30 days at 20 ° C, then reduced to 17, and from September 1 to October 1 they are kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of 5-9 ° C.

Tulip
Tulip

© Dezidor

They are planted in the substrate also on October 1. In a basement or refrigerator at a temperature of 5-9 ° C they are kept for 18-20 weeks. In early February, when the sprouts reach 5-6 cm, containers with bulbs are placed in a bright room with a temperature of 18-20 ° C, where they bloom on March 2-4.

We can suggest another way. The bulbs planted at the usual time in boxes are left in the open ground of the garden in trenches (40 cm deep), having laid spruce branches under them. With the onset of frost, the boxes are covered with dry peat or dry sawdust, and on top with roofing felt or frames. It is brought into the room 4 weeks before the desired flowering period. And when they bloom, your room will be filled with the bright colors of the May flower garden, reminding you that the carnival procession of tulips is a holiday that is always with you.

Materials used:

Ippolitova N. Ya

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