Grapes Or Grapes Of Pleasure

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Grapes Or Grapes Of Pleasure
Grapes Or Grapes Of Pleasure

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Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: The Pencil teaches Pencilmate a lesson -in- THE GRAPES OF MATH 2023, January
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Grapes are the fruit of life. Its nutritional, dietary and medicinal properties are well known. Grape berries contain easily digestible sugars - glucose and fructose, organic acids - tartaric, malic, citric, oxalic, glucarbonic, etc. In addition to organic products, berry juice contains up to 1.5% of minerals - potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, aluminum, iodine, bromine, boron and many macro- and microelements. Grape fruits are rich in vitamins A (carotene), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), C (ascorbic acid). The harmonious combination of organic and mineral substances determines the pleasant taste and aroma of fresh berries and grape-processed products - juices and wines, compotes and marinades.

Grape bush
Grape bush

Grape, Latin - Vitis.

The genus of plants of the family Grape, as well as the fruits of such plants, in their mature form, are sweet berries.

The shoots of the grapes are called the vine. The seed of the grape produces a small shoot in the first year after germination. From the buds in the axils of its leaves, elongated, well-developed shoots grow the next year, and then, next year, each bud of this shoot gives more frail shoots, which by autumn freeze to its lower bud, so that only one lower one remains from such an shoot. internode - shortened shoot.

The flowers are small, collected in inflorescences. Fruits are spherical or ovoid berries, collected in more or less loose (rarely dense) bunches. The color of the berries varies greatly depending on the variety (yellow, greenish, dark blue, purple, black, etc.).

Grapes
Grapes

Features of growing grapes

The vine is sun-loving and grows freely in areas sheltered from the wind and warm places. Some gardeners successfully grow grape varieties with a short growing season in the Moscow region. Varieties with black fruits require more heat than varieties with light fruits. Therefore, in cooler areas, mainly the latter are grown, although there are several hardy varieties with black fruits.

Grapes
Grapes

Soil conditions and location of grapes

The vine is tolerant of different soils under two prerequisites: the soil layer with good drainage should be deep, and the pH should be 6.5-7.0. Carbonates are not very suitable for her because of the danger of chlorosis. The choice of a place for planting grapes is extremely important, as it must be protected from the wind and completely exposed to the sun. In warmer areas, the grapes grow well at high altitudes. Best suited for him is a slope facing south or southwest. In colder areas, grapes can be grown against a wall or fence facing south. Avoid planting in cold air stagnant areas.

Grapes
Grapes

Preparing the soil for planting grapes

If there is a risk of oversaturation of the soil with moisture, drainage must be laid. 2-3 weeks before planting, prepare the soil by digging in two tiers. Remove high acidity of the soil by adding lime at the rate of 200 g per 1 m2. If the soil is poor, add rotted manure or compost (one wheelbarrow per 2 square meters of land) and complex mineral fertilizer. The grapes require a horizontal wire support system. If the vine is grown against a wall, place the wire at a distance of 25-30 cm from one another. For a vine in an open place, drive in 60 cm wooden posts 2 m long into the ground with an interval of 2.5-3.5 m. Reinforce the extreme posts with supports. One wire is stretched 40 cm above the ground, and above it, every 30 cm, two wires (so that they intersect at each pillar). Insert a rail into the wire at each future planting site.

Grapes
Grapes

Planting grapes

You can plant the vine from October to March. However, these terms are applicable only for the southern regions, where the soil does not freeze in winter. In other areas, the best planting time is spring (before bud break). Planting with cuttings is carried out during budding at a soil temperature at a root depth of at least 10-11 ° C. Leave a weak vine (no more than 0.5 mm in diameter) for the winter in a cold greenhouse and plant it in the ground when the threat of frost has passed … Plant a vine near a wall or solid fence at a distance of 1.2 m from one another and 40 cm from the wall, in an open place - at a distance of 1.2-1.5 m from one another in rows with an interval of 1.5-2 m. Check that the grafting site, if the vine is grafted, is above the soil level. Tie the vine to a support. Water and mulch with rotted manure or compost.

Grapes
Grapes

Top dressing and watering grape vines

Apply a complex mineral fertilizer. In the spring, mulch with a layer of rotted compost 2.5-3.5 cm thick. The vine is sensitive to a lack of magnesium in the soil. Spray 250 g of magnesium sulfate diluted in 10 liters of water. Repeat after two weeks. Throughout the growing season, feed the table grape plants with liquid mineral fertilizer once a week until the berries begin to ripen. A vine grown against a wall needs regular watering.

Grapes
Grapes

Harvesting

Even when the grapes are completely colored, they are still immature, as they take time to accumulate sugars. This period ranges from 4-5 weeks for early varieties to 8-10 weeks for later varieties. Touching the berries destroys their wax bloom, and therefore cut off the bunches of grapes with a pruner and a twig.

Grapes
Grapes

Pruning

When pruning grapes, you should, if possible, try so that the shoots left for fruiting are:

  1. No damage (hail, friction), no signs of disease (gray rot, death of shoots), well matured to the maximum length.
  2. Shoots should be of medium thickness, 6-12 mm in diameter (this applies to adult bushes, in young bushes, naturally, the vine is thinner). Too thin shoots with a small volume of wood contain less storage substances. Too thick shoots for the most part have long internodes, a wide core and poorly developed fruit buds, it is difficult to bend and break easily.

If possible, protect perennial shoots (sleeves, stems, shoulders) from large injuries during pruning, since these wounds do not float in grapes.

If you want to achieve a high quality harvest and long-term productivity of grape bushes, then leave no more than 8-12 eyes per 1 m2 of space occupied by an adult bush. Under normal conditions, there will be no mistakes when pruning fruitful shoots without counting the eyes so that there is room for them in the trellis. Those. for cordon or for fan formation (if you tie the shoots horizontally on the lower wire) - no overlap with the fruiting arrows of other sleeves and neighboring bushes. With the loss or poor development of individual bushes, you can compensate for the loss of yield by leaving more eyes on the neighboring strong bushes, without any decrease in the quality of the harvest.

Grapes
Grapes

Pruning after frost damage (with uncovered culture)

In case of damage from winter frosts, it is necessary to distinguish between damage to eyes and damage to wood. If the eyes are damaged, the scale of which is determined by opening them with a sharp knife (blade), some compensation can be achieved, leaving more eyes when trimming. However, it is not recommended to leave too many eyes, as this greatly increases the volume of green operations due to the formation of shoots from numerous lateral and dormant buds. If the winter frosts destroyed the skeleton of the grape bush, including the sleeves (part of the trunk), then you can still try to save the young plantings by cutting off the aerial part of the bush. With the formation of usually vigorous topside shoots, it is possible to create a new skeleton of the bush, as in young plantings.

Grape pruning technique

For pruning grapes, use a sharp and comfortable grape pruner to leave a clean cut. Older wood should be trimmed as square as possible (less wound area) and not too close to the base of the fruitful shoot or shoulder. Annual shoots are cut strictly above the lower eye (1-3 cm higher).

Grapes
Grapes

Diseases and pests

For the correct diagnosis of the disease, it is necessary to study the complex of signs in the dynamics of their manifestation, because similar symptoms can be caused by a variety of diseases.

According to the duration of the action, diseases of grapes are divided into chronic and seasonal.

The causative agents of chronic diseases (esca, excoriasis, eutipiasis, bacteriosis, viruses) are inaccessible to the action of commonly used pesticides when processing vineyards and can be in a latent (latent) state for a long period. The infection spreads during the vegetative propagation of grapes with tools and processing tools, insect carriers, less often pollen and seeds.

The occurrence of seasonal diseases (mildew, oidium, gray mold, anthracnose, rubella, white rot) is determined annually by the state of the wintering number of infections, which is largely associated with the weather conditions of the previous growing season and can be predicted.

Mildew (downy mildew)- Develops during the growing season of grapes and affects all green parts of the bush (leaves, shoots, inflorescences, berries). Primary infection usually occurs with prolonged, heavy rain, wetting the soil and leaves (the minimum air temperature at night is not lower than +13). When infected with mildew, oily spots of various shapes form on the leaves. When rain or dew falls on the underside of the leaves, mildew spots are covered with a white bloom of mycelium. Infection of new plants or organs of grapes occurs on the same night on which a white bloom forms on the spots with mildew. The leaf tissue dries up and crumbles (necrotizes) at the site of the spots, and with severe infection, the leaves fall off. Inflorescences and green berries turn brown and dry out or rot. Shoots are stunted and do not ripen well. Yield losses reach 75% or more. With prolonged rains, fogs,dew the disease develops rapidly.

The causative agent of the disease is a microscopic fungus. In autumn, overwintering oospores develop on leaves affected by mildew, which have a thick shell and are capable of withstanding significant frosts. They keep well during the winter both on the surface and under the soil layer. In spring, oospores germinate in moist soil and form zoospores. The zoospore, moving in a drop of water, penetrates the leaf stomata and gives rise to the mycelium of the parasite. The mycelium inside the tissue is hidden (incubation period) and is inaccessible to fungicides. The incubation period lasts 4-13 days, depending on the temperature, after which spots form on the affected leaves. Infection occurs only during rain, dew or fog, because mycelium grows only in a drop of water. In areas where high temperatures prevail in summer and where frequent rain, dew or fog falls,the mildew develops strongly and produces great devastation.

Control measures: Create conditions for airing the bushes. Preventive treatments with Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes (two before flowering). Can be treated with the following drugs: Amistar, Efal, Mikal, Delan, Stroby, Ditan-M45, Novozir, Penkoceb, Utan, Acrobat, Ridomil, Ridomil-gold, Sandofan, Kuproksat, Kartotsid, Copper oxychloride, Agiba-Peak, Oxykhom, Poliram, Folpan, Avixil

Oidium (powdery mildew) - Affects all green parts of the bush, especially dangerous development on inflorescences and young ovary. The primary lesion appears even before flowering on the shoots formed from buds infected since last year. These shoots, together with the leaves, are covered with a white or gray powdery coating and serve as a source of further spread of the disease. On the leaves, the fungus develops on the upper side (with a very strong infection, it can develop on both sides), while they turn brown and dry out. Affected shoots develop poorly and freeze in winter.

In affected grapes, the skin breaks under the pressure of the growing pulp, and the seeds become visible. A characteristic sign of the defeat of the plant by oidium is the unpleasant smell of rotten fish. The disease leads to a significant decrease in yield, poor sugar accumulation, and poor quality wine is obtained from diseased berries.

Strong development of oidium occurs in nature at a temperature of 19-24 degrees and at high humidity without precipitation. The incubation period lasts 5-7 days. Crop losses can reach 70-80%.

Control measures: Create conditions for ventilation of the bushes. To destroy the primary infection of oidium, the first treatments are carried out in the places of foci with the formation of 2-3 leaves on the shoots. Then processing is done before flowering and immediately after flowering. Further, the development of the disease is monitored and, if necessary, more treatments are carried out. Recommended drugs: Amistar, Efal, Mikal, Fundazol, Vectra, Rovral, Strobi, Kartotsid, Topaz, Cumulus, Colloidal sulfur, Tiovit-Jet, Atemi S, Falcon, Euparen multi, Privent, Saprol, Impact

Grapes
Grapes

Everyone's favorite grapes will be able to delight you and your loved ones with their beauty and aroma, if you follow the above tips for growing it!

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