Grapes. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Fruit And Berry. History. Legends. Giving. A Photo

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Grapes. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Fruit And Berry. History. Legends. Giving. A Photo
Grapes. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Fruit And Berry. History. Legends. Giving. A Photo

Video: Grapes. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Fruit And Berry. History. Legends. Giving. A Photo

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Video: The Budding, flowering and fruit set process of Grape Vines 2023, January
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“The path of our life is through grapes,” said the ancient Romans.

For not the first millennium, people have followed these paths.

By the middle of the 20th century, the vineyards of the world occupied an area of ​​more than 10 million hectares. One tenth was in our country. And what books are devoted to grapes! Many of them evoke general admiration for the solidity of volume and excellent printing performance. Only one "Ampelography of the USSR" (that is, the variety description of grapes) consists of 10 impressive volumes, and there are also multivolume ampelographs of Georgia, Armenia, Crimea, Moldova. And each of them was published so luxuriously that, as one of our botanists wrote, there is hardly another cultivated plant, each variety of which is depicted in paints in such detail, lovingly and artistically.

Grapes
Grapes

© H. Zell

Grapes are consumed by millions of people fresh, canned, in the form of juice and syrup, jam, wine. Thousands of combines and factories are engaged in its processing, hundreds of thousands of collective and state farm winegrowers. Thousands of students study special grape sciences - ampelography, ampelology. Agronomists, scientists conduct scientific research. And for all that, experts are convinced that grapes are among the poorly studied plants.

The family of grape plants includes 10 genera and about 600 species. Wild representatives of this large family are settled in forests, river valleys, mountain slopes of almost all countries of the temperate zone, subtropics and tropics. Here you can find wild species belonging to only three genera of the grape family: grapes, maiden grapes and grapes.

The first of the named genera includes the plants cultivated at present in any cultivated vineyard. 5000 grape varieties originated from only one species - cultural grapes, or, as it is also called, real grapes, or wine grapes. Unfortunately, the homeland of this generous species has not yet been established. Some scientists believe that the ancestor of cultural grapes is the forest grape, which still grows in the forests of Moldova, Crimea, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Others are inclined to believe that this is just a hybrid of its now extinct ancestors. One thing is indisputable: cultivated grapes originated in the Old World and numerous American wild species did not take any part in this. However, the American forest species gave rise to an independent branch of cultivated grape varieties.

Grapes
Grapes

© Graham

Thousands of varieties of one grape. Many legends, legends, proverbs, sayings have been created about them. There is an old Ukrainian saying: “Wine berry is wonderful food”. The grapes were sung by poets. Rudaki, Avicenna, Omar Khayyam, Shota Rustaveli, Sergei Yesenin, Rasul Gamzatov - whoever did not praise both wine and masters who grew grapes on earth.

Grape seeds were found in pile buildings in Switzerland; in the Middle East, it was cultivated 7-9 thousand years ago. In Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Hellas, Egypt, grapes have been cultivated since the beginning of the settlement on these lands. 3500 years ago Mesopotamia, Assyria, and a little later - Armenia were already famous for viticulture and winemaking.

Since ancient times, grapes have been divided into wine and table varieties. Grapes for wine in a number of countries are older than table grapes. But wine varieties were not always held in high esteem, sometimes they were even eradicated.

Islam turned out to be a particularly fierce and implacable enemy, as it is known that it strictly prohibits both winemaking and the use of wine. The cultivation of wine varieties was banned not only in the ancestral domains of adherents of Islam, but also in the territories where they managed to temporarily establish their power. Thus, the thriving winemaking in Sogdiana with the arrival of the Arabs fell into decay, and then completely disappeared along with the wine grapes. But every cloud has a silver lining. The destruction of many fine wine varieties has contributed to the creation of wonderful table grapes, including raisins (pitted) and raisins (pitted). The latter came in the 16th century to Greece, to Corinth, and gave rise to the famous Corinth.

Grapes
Grapes

© Josh McFadden

Viticulture and winemaking are widely reflected in the works of ancient art, they are often reminded of, for example, the numerous monuments of Egyptian culture in Thebes, Benny Hassan and other places. Wine amphorae were a favorite motif of ancient Egyptian artists. The process of making wine is described in detail on the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Ptahhotep, who lived 2500 years BC.

In the land of the pharaohs, there was even a peculiar custom that introduced non-drinkers to wine. Before the guests they held a wooden model depicting the deceased, with the inscription: "Look at me and hurry to enjoy the wine, for after death you will be the same as me."

Grapes and grape drink figure in almost every Greek myth. One of them details the adventurous life of the god of wine and winemaking, Dionysus, the son of Zeus. Young Dionysus happily wanders the earth, teaching people the art of growing grapes and turning them into sparkling wine. But the gods also have troubles. Gambling somehow surrounded by maenads, drunk Dionysus was attacked by the Thracian king Lycurgus. Fleeing, he threw himself into the sea and, as is often the case in ancient Greek myths, found refuge with the sea goddess Thetis.

Guido reni
Guido reni

Almighty Zeus hastened to help his son: having blinded Lycurgus, he tied him to a vine. From the bitter tears of the unfortunate Lycurgus, the legend says, the despicable cabbage grew, irreconcilably hostile since then with the favorite plant of Dionysus - the grape.

The adventures of the cheerful god do not end there. Another episode tells how, after recovering from a panic flight from Lycurgus, Dionysus turns the sea robbers who captured him into dolphins, and their ship into a fragrant floating vineyard. Dionysus gave a vine to the shepherd Ikarius, who honored him as a god, and so for the first time grapes appeared in Attica.

Many adventures preceded the death of Dionysus, who valiantly fought alongside Zeus against the titans. The goddess Athena took out a barely beating heart from Dionysus, defeated on the battlefield, and Zeus immediately breathed life into it. Since then, according to another Hellenic legend, the vine, subject to Dionysus, has acquired amazing vitality. Even shredded into small pieces, it easily takes root with each of its pieces. The blood of the long-suffering Dionysus poured into the fruits of the grapes, and people got used to extracting a noble divine drink from the grape - wine.

Many beautiful legends were told by the ancient Greeks about the origin of grapes. It turns out that there was already the god of wine and winemaking Dionysus, there were also bunches of grapes, but they grew on the branches of huge elms, since there was no vine yet. And then one day the generous Dionysus decided to give his favorite young man Ampel a weighty bunch of grapes. At the same time, he gave him the opportunity to take the gift himself, which was on a long and rather thin branch of a very tall elm tree. Trying to take possession of the gift, the unfortunate young man fell from a tree and crashed to death. For a long time the dejected god mourned his death and, deciding to perpetuate his favorite, turned his flexible body into a wonderful flexible liana with grapes. And from the soul of Ampel, Dionysus created a new star Vineyard, placing it in the sky in the constellation Virgo. Astronomers naturallyadhere to a slightly different view of the origin of the stars, but each of them will confirm the existence of the star Vinodemiatrix (Vineyard), and on occasion will show it in the sky or on a star map.

Grapes
Grapes

© Eulenjäger

The name of the poor youth has also remained immortalized in the history of grape sciences. Dionysus called the miraculous plant "ampelos", and from it the names of the sciences ampelology and ampelography were borrowed.

Many legends and legends about the properties of grapes and their origin were laid by Georgians and Uzbeks, Slavs and Moldavians. But still, they do not give a reliable idea of ​​the homeland of the sun berry. This has already been taken up by the science of botany, which has so far managed to definitely establish three centers of origin of the grape varieties now cultivated. The most significant center is Euro-Asian, the share of Chinese and North American is much smaller.

Grapes are one of the most ancient flowering plants, which in the process of evolution have adapted simultaneously to three types of pollination: self-pollination, pollination by wind and insects. Even the forms of grapes have been established, in which both pollination and fertilization occurs without opening the flower petals. These types of grapes are classified by botany as cleistogamous, that is, closed-breeding plants.

Grapes
Grapes

© Kelly Nigro

As you know, the grape vine has a peculiar device - antennae, with which it is attached to the supports. Back in the 13th century, the German scientist Albert the Great established that antennae are nothing more than altered grape inflorescences, that they are formed on the stem strictly opposite to the leaves and, as a rule, only in the upper part of the shoot. 700 years later, the famous Soviet botanist P. A. Baranov was able to explain the very nature of the plant. Initially, the scientist claims, the grapes were not liana, did not have tendrils and grew well in open places. But with the humidification of the climate, the ancestors of the grapes, finding themselves in the forest, adapted to the new conditions, gradually turned into a liana and armed themselves with tenacious tendrils.

In the forest, grapes were first noticed by humans, although they were not as tasty as the current cultivated varieties. Over time, the grapes have changed significantly: a person restored to some extent its previous growth conditions, transferred it from the forest to open sunny places. Now it is cultivated in the form of standard plants - trees, and in the form of bushes, and on trellises, and in the form of long vines on gazebos, houses and other structures. All this took the thousands of years of work of millions of people. Yes, and omnipotent nature did not stand aside.

In the spread of grapes and the multiplication of the number of its varieties, a lot was done by the ancient European civilization, in particular, Rome, which adopted the culture of grapes from Ancient Greece. At first, wine, as Pliny wrote, was a very scarce drink, and Romulus, the founder of Rome, was forced to replace it with milk in sacrifices, but after a few centuries Italy became the richest country in grapes. The Roman state, especially Ravenna, had so many vineyards that Hannibal fed the tired horses of his large army not with water, but with excellent Roman wine. The poet Virgil also testifies to the flourishing of the grape industry.

Grapes
Grapes

From Rome, viticulture spread to the south of France and far into Spain. The grapevine was brought to Eastern Europe by ancient Greek settlers through the Crimea and the Black Sea region. In Kherson, even a marble slab from the monument to one of the first Crimean winegrowers, Agasiklus, has been preserved.

Herodotus, who visited Scythia in the 5th century BC, wrote that the inhabitants of the lower reaches of the Dnieper - the Borysthenites - are successfully cultivating grapes. The ancient history of grape cultivation, which was especially widespread in Kievan Rus, can also be traced in more northern regions.

Much later, attempts were noted to grow grapes in the latitude of Moscow; in the 17th century, the first grape garden was laid here by order of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. He energetically developed the rather timid initiative of his father, Peter I, under whom they began to draw vines from France and Hungary. Now, not to mention the huge areas occupied by grapes, there are several thousand grape varieties in circulation, of which about 1200 are of domestic selection.

The wild forest ancestors of the magnificent berry are not forgotten either. They are carefully cultivated by gardeners in squares and parks, and amateurs - on balconies and around gazebos.

Grapes
Grapes

© Wolfgang Lendl

With the closest relationship, wild and cultivated relatives of grapes, of course, have different biographies and their fates are formed in different ways. If the wild species that now adorn our homes are relatively undemanding to soil and care, then cultivated varieties are perhaps the most laborious of all fruit varieties: it is not easy to grow grapes. What is just the annual pruning of the vine! Left to themselves, vines can reach a length of 5 meters, and some varieties in just one year - 20 meters. By skillfully shortening the vines, the growers regulate the development of the plant, directing its main effort towards creating the maximum yield.

People owe the discovery of pruning to a curious incident. Somehow a starving donkey carefully plucked a part of the grape bushes, which, to the great surprise of the owner, then gave especially a lot of fruits. It is argued that the Greeks once even erected an impressive monument to the unwitting discoverer of a wonderful technique.

What has the legendary vine not experienced in its long and glorious century! Knowledgeable people predict a future for her that will surpass the most fantastic hopes of scientists and winegrowers.

Used on materials:

S.I.Ivchenko - Book about trees

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