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Video: Bearded Irises - A Bright Parade. Care, Cultivation. Kinds. Flowers. Photo
With the arrival of summer comes the kingdom of the first summer flowers - irises. These flowers delight us most often with their flowering during summer thunderstorms, after which an iridescent colored glow appears in the sky. The legends of many nations of the world are dedicated to iris, and they pay tribute to its beautiful flowers. These flowers, from pure white to bright black, reflect all the colors of the rainbow.
The flowers owe their name to botany - taxonomy Karl Linnaeus, who gave such a name to irises in honor of the ancient Greek goddess of the rainbow - Irida. She was the daughter of Tavmant and the Oekanis of Electra.
The ancient Greeks, like the Romans, considered Iris a mediator between gods and people, which, like a rainbow, being born after rain, connects heaven and earth. The ancient Greeks called a rainbow iris, and therefore a flower similar to a rainbow in color began to be called an iris, considering the flowers to be fragments of a rainbow that fell to the ground.
- Description of iris
- Types of irises
- Features of growing irises
- Diseases and pests of irises
Description of iris
The modern flora numbers about 300 species of iris, but bearded irises are the most popular among gardeners, about 35,000 varieties have been created. Small-flowered Siberian and Japanese irises are also grown in ornamental gardening.
Bearded irises have a "beard" on the lower petals - a strip of delicate villi, often contrasting with the color of the flower. The flower is "two-story", six petals are arranged in two tiers: three with a dome rise upward, and three gently lower the ends down. In terms of color and richness of shades, irises compete with the rainbow, besides, they also combine colors.
A large group of species and varieties of Bearded Iris belongs to the subgenus Iris, to the Iris section.
The section represents the most complex and interesting group. Rhizome of clearly visible annual thickenings - links, slightly deepened into the soil or creeping along its surface, expanding to the sides and forming a loose thicket. The links can be quite thick and bare, the basal leaves are wide. The flower is large, brightly colored.
The species of the section are characterized by the presence on the outer perianth lobes of a beard of numerous hairs, from light yellow to dark orange in color, often white and purple. All representatives of the section are highly decorative.
The type species of the genus - German iris (Iris germanica.) Was described by K. Linnaeus in 1753. It is very rare in nature. In the gardens, as a rule, hybrids of German iris, pale iris, and are grown. variegated and others. Therefore, it is more correct to call them varieties of hybrid iris (Iris hybrida hort.).
Types of irises
Iris whitish - Iris albicans
It comes from the Arabian Peninsula, where from time immemorial it has been common in the culture of the Arabs as a perennial for backyard flower gardens and cemeteries. From the Arabs came to the Spaniards and spread widely in the Mediterranean countries. It is one of the founders of I. hybrida hort medium-sized varieties.
Close to I. germanica. It differs in a shorter peduncle, wide basal leaves, somewhat curling in length by the end of the growing season, and in the shape of the outer perianth lobes: on a living flower, they seem to be pointed because of the ends of their plates rolled inward (a specific feature). The color of the flowers is predominantly white, however, one of the forms of this species has crimson-purple flowers.
Iris Alberta - Iris albertii
Central Asian species. Distributed in the Tien Shan. In the foothills of the Zailiyskiy Alatau, Alayskiy and Fergana ridges it reaches an altitude of 1700-2000 m above sea level. m and above. Endem (i.e., relatively small areas are characteristic of the species).
Practically not found in culture. The leaves are broadly obvious, purple-violet at the base. Peduncle up to 60 cm tall, branched in the upper part. The flowers are purple, less often white, odorless, in the amount of 3-5. Blooms in May and early June; bears fruit in August. The box is cylindrical, without noticeable ribs. The seeds are dark brown.
Winter-hardy. Recommended for rocky slides and mixborders.
Iris leafless - Iris aphylla
European look. Widely distributed in the European part of Russia: Volga-Don region, Trans-Volga region. Outside Russia - in Central and Eastern Europe. It grows predominantly in bushes, along forest edges, on forest glades, on loamy or stony soils. Leaves completely shedding by winter, appearing later than peduncles in spring. Hence the name of the species - leafless.
It is included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation as a vulnerable, endangered species. Protected in wildlife preserves of the Moscow, Rostov and Saratov regions. Introduced in Moscow, Stavropol, St. Petersburg, Chita. Shows consistent results outside the range.
A perennial plant with a thin rhizome up to 2 cm thick. Leaves are linear-xiphoid, up to 45 cm long, often crescent-curved, narrowed at the ends into a sharp point. By winter, the leaves die off, for which the species was named leafless. Peduncle branching from the base, up to 50 cm in height, usually bears 3-5 flowers of bright purple color, up to 7 cm in diameter.
The bases of the flowers are covered with strongly swollen, leathery leaves of the envelope. The perianth is regular, with a small tube and a six-part limb. On the outer, slightly curved lobes, there are white, yellow or lilac "beards" of numerous hairs. It blooms in late spring - early summer. The fruit is a cylindrical capsule. Winter-hardy.
Within the range, it gives a large number of forms that differ in the size of the leaves, the peculiarities of branching of peduncles, the size and color of the bolls. In Moldova, there are forms with boxes of bright reddish-purple color.
Iris Astrakhan - Iris astrachanica
Occurs along the slopes of ravines, on dry plateaus among desert-steppe forbs in the eastern regions of Stavropol, Kalmykia, areas between the Volga and the Urals, adjacent to the Caspian Sea.
The species is evolutionarily young, probably of hybridogenic origin (I. pumilaxl. Scariosaxl. Timofejewii). It differs from I. scariosa in the structure of the exine of the pollen grain (the latter in I. scariosa is cellular, in I. astrachanica it is warty) and in the number of chromosomes in the cells. Blooms in early spring; bears fruit in early summer. Distinguished by increased vitality, polychromy, or many-colored flowers, it is interesting as a dwarf border iris, as well as a material for selection.
Iris forked, or horned - Iris furcata
Caucasian species, represented by sparse populations of a small northern part of its range in the Russian North Caucasus. It grows in the foothills on the slopes of different exposure, illumination and soil moisture. On dry mountain terraces open to the sun, on grassy slopes, in a forest belt up to 2200 m. Plants with a single-flowered peduncle are found, often mistaken for I. pumila plants.
As a result of later flowering, I. furcata usually does not produce interspecific hybrids in areas of co-growth with I. pumila. It is included in the Red Book of the Stavropol Territory as rare. None of the reserves are protected. Introduced in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Stavropol. Shows consistent results outside the range.
Good for hybridization (as a paternal form) with other types of bearded irises, as well as their varieties, as it consistently conveys characteristics.
In the foothills of the North Caucasus, the most typical forms of I. furcata are found, which in root cells contain 2 times less chromosomes than I. aphylla plants (2n = 48) from the forest-steppe regions of the European part of Russia. In Transcaucasia, plants of the type intermediate between I. furcata and I. aphylla are more often observed.
German Iris - Iris germanica
Described in Germany in the 19th century. culturally. It is rare in nature. 3. T. Artyushenko was found in Transcarpathia, in the vicinity of Vinogradovo, on Black Mountain.
The leaves are broadly obvious, glaucous - 35-40 (50) cm long., 20-30 mm wide. Peduncle branched, equal to or longer than leaves - 40-100 cm long. The flowers are large, bluish-purple, with a strong pleasant aroma, with a yellowish or light bluish beard. The capsule is oblong-oval. Seeds are dark brown, finely wrinkled. Blossoms in June; bears fruit in August.
Iris glaucous - Iris glaucescens
The species is represented by a few populations found in Russia at the border of the range. In Russia, it grows in the south of Western Siberia. Outside Russia - in Central Asia (Kazakhstan), Mongolia (northwest), in China (northwest). It grows in wormwood-turf-grass steppes, on alkaline sands, dry stony and gravelly slopes. It is included in the regional Red Data Books of the Omsk Region as a species, apparently extinct, and in the Altai Territory as rare. None of the reserves or zakazniks of federal and republican status are protected.
The species is insufficiently studied outside the growing area. It was introduced into the introduction several times in Barnaul, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg (hibernates without shelter), Ufa (transfer of sod, rhizomes, seeds), but it turned out to be difficult for cultivation. Under cultural conditions, it often loses out, suffers from waterlogging of the soil. Growing in dry, elevated areas is recommended.
The species is very decorative in terms of its polychrome appearance and the beautiful shape of the sickle-curved leaves. It can be used as an early spring perennial for rocky hills. I did not participate in the selection.
Iris pale - Iris pallida
Grows wildly in the south of Western Europe (Alps).
The leaves are xiphoid, gray due to a wax coating, up to 60 cm long. Peduncle up to 80 cm tall, branching in the upper part. The flowers are large, almost sessile, fragrant, pale blue. The leaves are filmy. Blooms in June. Bears fruit in August.
Afraid of waterlogging. Its dried rhizomes are called violet root. In the middle lane it winters without shelter. The fruit is an oblong, triangular capsule with numerous flattened seeds. In culture since 1827.
Cultivated forms have recently been successfully displaced from the industrial plantations of Italy and. Florentine, as they give a greater yield of the "violet root". It was repeatedly introduced from Italy and France to the essential oil farms of the Crimea and Moldova. It is one of the main ancestors of the cultivated irises of the tall bearded group.
During hybridization, it steadily conveys the following signs: the structure of the wrapper, a pleasant aroma of flowers, a high unbranched peduncle. In the northern and northwestern regions of the European part of Russia, it easily falls out in culture, since it is afraid of excessively moist acidic soils, it needs shelter for the winter.
Iris dwarf - Iris pumila
Dry sod grass and feather-grass-wormwood steppes, stony, often calcareous slopes, sands and salt licks (var.aequiloba Ledeb.) Of the warm temperate and northern subtropical zones from Central Europe to the southern spurs of the Ural ridge (in the east of the range to) is found along the Tobolay River. … Predominantly steppe geophyte, a component of fescue-feather grass steppes, however, many populations often enter solonetzic depressions - "pods", where they become components of semi-desert vegetation.
It is included in the Red Data Books of the Russian Federation and the Rostov Region as a vulnerable, endangered species. Four populations are located on the territory of reserves (Astrakhansky, Galichya Gora, Zhigulevsky, Khopersky).
Iris leathery - Iris scariosa
Endemic European-Caucasian (Caspian) species. The main part of the range is located in the northwestern and western parts of the Caspian lowland (Astrakhan region, Kalmykia) and in the Eastern Ciscaucasia. The northern border reaches about. Elton, to the east it descends to the lower reaches of the river. Volga and r. Kumas; the southern one runs along the Nogai steppe; the western one - along the eastern spurs of Ergeni and Prikalausky heights. It grows on saline soils along slopes, on dry plateaus, among desert-steppe forbs, sometimes comes to sands.
It is included in the Red Data Books of the Russian Federation, Stavropol Territory and Rostov Region as a vulnerable, endangered species. One of the populations is under the protection of the Astrakhan Nature Reserve.
Iris variegated - Iris variegata
On dry rocky slopes, among bushes, in light forests, in forest clearings, along the edges of oak forests in the south of the warm-temperate zone of Central Europe, the Balkans, southern and southwestern Moldova (absent in the lists of the flora of Moldova) and in Izmail district of Odessa region.
Leaves broadly or linearly xiphoid, 25-40 cm long., 15-20 mm wide., Straight or slightly crescent-curved, with a noticeable longitudinal ribbing in the middle of the blade, equal to or below the peduncle. Peduncle 45-50 (60) cm long., Short-branched in the upper part.
The flowers are large, 3-5 cm in diameter, without aroma, mostly bicolor: the outer perianth lobes with a network of reddish-brownish veins, merging at the end of the plate into one common maroon spot; the inner lobes are bright or pale golden yellow. The capsule is oblong. Seeds are light or dark brown, finely wrinkled. Blooms in late May - early June. Bears fruit in August.
Iris florentine - Iris florentina
Bearded species of hybrid origin. Peduncle branched, up to 70 cm tall, bears 5-7 white fragrant flowers with a bluish tinge. The leaves are gray, large xiphoid. Blooms in late May. Does not give seeds, reproduces only vegetatively. Not hardy enough. In culture since the 15th century.
Features of growing irises
Location: well- lit, wind-protected areas. Plants can also be planted in semi-shady places, but varietal irises are light-requiring.
Soil: light or medium in texture, sufficiently fertile, cultivated to a depth of at least 20 cm and well drained, pH 6.5-7.5. On organic-rich soils, plants develop a strong vegetative mass to the detriment of flowering. In addition, they do not have time to finish growing in autumn and suffer from fungal diseases. When preparing sandy loam and loamy soils for 1 m², it is recommended to add 8-10 kg of humus, 10 g of nitrogen and 15-20 g of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
Care: in early spring, the soil is loosened to a depth of 5-8 cm and a liquid phosphorus-potassium supplement is applied (10-12 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m²). Since the rhizomes are located close to the soil surface, it is better not to apply dry dressings. The first nitrogen dressing (10 g / m²) is carried out after the beginning of intensive growth of leaves, the second (10 g / m²) with the addition of 10-15 g of phosphorus and 20 g of potash fertilizers per 1 m² - after 10-12 days. During the flowering period and immediately after its end, the plants are fed with phosphorus (15-20 g / m²) and potash (20-25 g / m²) fertilizers.
On marginal soils during the second wave of root system growth (the second decade of August), along with phosphorus fertilizers per 1 m² (25-30 g of superphosphate) and potassium (15-18 g of potassium sulfate), nitrogen fertilizers (8-10 g of ammonium nitrate) are applied. The last feeding with phosphorus (15-20 g) and potash (10-15 g) fertilizers is carried out in late September - early October. This top dressing promotes better formation and differentiation of generative buds, as well as deeper winter dormancy, due to which plants better tolerate unfavorable winter conditions and suffer less from fungal and bacterial diseases.
After flowering, the flowering shoots are removed. Throughout the growing season, weeding and loosening of the soil are carried out. In autumn, the leaves are cut at a height of up to 10 cm. New varieties, especially of American breeding, are mulched with peat, humus, covered with leaves and spruce branches for the winter. In one place they can grow up to 5 years.
Diseases and pests of irises
Irises can be affected by rust, heterosporia, gray rot, bulbous iris fusarium, wet rot, line mosaic virus, aphids, gladiolus thrips, slugs, onion hoverfly, root onion mite, strawberry, stem and gall nematodes.