Juniper Is Soft Needles. Care, Reproduction, Cultivation. Types, Varieties. Photo

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Juniper Is Soft Needles. Care, Reproduction, Cultivation. Types, Varieties. Photo
Juniper Is Soft Needles. Care, Reproduction, Cultivation. Types, Varieties. Photo
Video: Juniper Is Soft Needles. Care, Reproduction, Cultivation. Types, Varieties. Photo
Video: The Reproductive Anatomy of a Common Juniper 2023, February
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Juniper - evergreen, looks like a small cypress. This plant is long-lived. In favorable conditions, the juniper lives from 600 to 3000 years. Imagine, somewhere on Earth, there are still plants that hatched from seeds a thousand years before the birth of Christ. Juniper has been famous for its medicinal properties for a long time. Many diseases are treated with this plant: skin, tuberculosis, asthma. Juniper has a calming effect on the nervous system, relieves stress. And why? Because it contains a lot of essential oils with a resinous, tart, smoky aroma.

Juniper Cossack "Tamariscifolia" (Juniperus sabina 'Tamariscifolia')
Juniper Cossack "Tamariscifolia" (Juniperus sabina 'Tamariscifolia')

Content:

  • Juniper description
  • Growing junipers
  • Juniper planting
  • Juniper care
  • Reproduction of junipers
  • Types and varieties of juniper
  • Diseases and pests of juniper

Juniper description

Juniper, Latin name - Juniperus. It is a genus of evergreen coniferous shrubs and trees of the Cypress family (Cupressaceae). Also known as Veres. The Türkic name of various species of large tree-like junipers, which has passed into scientific literature, is juniper.

Juniper leaves are ringed or opposite. The ringed leaves each ring has three needle-like isolated leaves, the opposite leaves are scaly, adherent to the branch and on the back, mostly with an oily gland.

Plants are monoecious or dioecious. A male juniper cone is placed on top of a short lateral twig. It is spherical or elongated and consists of several thyroid or scaly stamens arranged in pairs, opposite or three-membered rings. On the underside of the stamen there are 3 to 6 almost spherical anthers. Female "bumps" appear at the top of the short lateral branch.

The plant is drought-resistant and light-requiring. Lives for a long time, up to 600 years. It is badly renewed in nature. Distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with the exception of one species - East African Juniper (Juniperus procera), which is common in Africa in the south up to 18 ° S latitude. In many semi-desert areas: in the west of the United States, in Mexico, central and southwestern Asia, it dominates in wooded areas.

Juniper medium "Gold Coast" (Juniperus x. Media 'Gold Coast')
Juniper medium "Gold Coast" (Juniperus x. Media 'Gold Coast')

Growing junipers

  • Light - direct sunlight;
  • Soil moisture - moderately moist;
  • Air humidity - moderately humid;
  • Soil - fertile, average fertility, drained, soil mix;
  • Reproduction - cuttings, seeds.

Soft (in most species) needles of various colors, delicate aroma, undemanding to growing conditions - these are the reasons why gardeners and designers are attracted to junipers.

Juniper planting

Junipers are planted in sunny places. In the shade, they can grow shapeless and loose and lose all their decorative virtues. Only common juniper is able to withstand some shading.

The distance between plants should be from 0.5 m for medium-sized and short ones to 1.5-2 m for tall forms. Before planting, all container plants must be soaked in water by holding the earthen ball for about 2 hours in a container with water.

The depth of the planting hole depends on the size of the earthen coma and the root system of the plant. Usually, junipers are planted in a hole, the size of which is 2-3 times the size of a coma. For large bushes - 70 cm deep.

At the bottom of the pit, it is imperative to make a drainage layer 15-20 cm thick. And fill the juniper roots with a soil mixture consisting of peat, turf and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Large plants are planted so that the root collar is 5-10 cm above the edges of the planting pit. In young plants, it should be at ground level.

The optimum acidity of the soil is from 4.5 to 7 pH, depending on the type and variety. For the Cossack juniper, liming is useful - before planting on heavy soils, dolomite flour or fluff lime (80–100 g per hole 50x50x60 cm) is added.

Junipers are undemanding to the soil. All they need is to apply nitroammofoska (30-40 g / m²) or "Kemira-universal" (20 g per 10 l of water) in April-May.

Juniper horizontal "Hughes" (Juniperus horizontalis 'Hughes')
Juniper horizontal "Hughes" (Juniperus horizontalis 'Hughes')

Juniper care

Junipers are watered only in dry summers, and even then infrequently - 2-3 times per season. Watering rate is 10-30 liters per adult plant. It can be sprayed once a week, certainly in the evening. Junipers ordinary and Chinese do not tolerate dry air. Juniper Virginia is drought-resistant, but grows best on soils of medium moisture.

Young plantings of junipers need loosening - shallow, after watering and weeding. Immediately after planting, the soil is mulched with peat, chips, pine bark or pine nut shells, the thickness of the mulch layer is 5-8 cm. Heat-loving crops are mulched for the winter, and in early spring the mulch must be raked off, as it can cause decay of the root collar.

Due to their slow growth, junipers are pruned very carefully. Mostly dry branches are removed at any time of the year. Only young plants are sheltered for the winter, and then only in the first year after planting.

You can propagate juniper by seeds and cuttings.

Juniper virginian "Skyrocket" (Juniperus virginiana 'Skyrocket')
Juniper virginian "Skyrocket" (Juniperus virginiana 'Skyrocket')

Reproduction of junipers

Junipers are dioecious plants that can be propagated by seed and vegetative means. Since it is almost impossible to obtain decorative forms of juniper from seeds, they are propagated only by cuttings.

The sex of the common juniper differs in the crown: in males it is narrow, columnar or ovoid, in females it is loose and spread. In April – May, yellow spikelets appear on male specimens of common juniper, and green cones appear on female specimens. Fruits are round cones, unusual for conifers, up to 0.8 cm in diameter, ripen in August-October. At first they are green, and as they mature, they become purple-black with a gray waxy bloom. The berries have a spicy aroma and a bitter taste. There are three seeds inside the fruit.

To grow a juniper bush from a seed, you need to stratify it. The best way is to plant seeds in autumn in boxes of soil. Then natural stratification - the boxes are taken outside and stored under the snow during the winter (130-150 days), and in May the overwintered seeds are sown in the beds. Common juniper seeds can be sown in spring, in May, in beds without stratification, but seedlings will appear only next year.

But decorative forms of juniper from seeds are almost impossible to obtain, so they are propagated vegetatively - by cuttings. To do this, from late April to mid-May, annual cuttings 10–12 cm long are cut from an adult plant that has reached the age of 8–10 years, and they are freed from needles by 3–5 cm from below. Cuttings must be cut with a "heel", that is, with a piece of old wood. The bark is carefully trimmed with scissors. Then for a day they are placed in a solution of "Heteroauxin" or any other growth stimulator.

Sand and peat are used in equal amounts for rooting. The cuttings are covered with foil and shaded. Instead of watering, it is better to spray. After 30-45 days, most cuttings develop well the root system. In late June and early July, rooted cuttings are planted in the beds, and they winter in the open field, covered with spruce branches. Growing rooted cuttings lasts 2-3 years, after which they are transplanted to a permanent place in the garden.

Types and varieties of juniper

Tall junipers with a pyramidal and columnar crown

  • Juniper virginiana 'Glauca' (Juniperus virginiana 'Glauca')
  • Juniper virginian "Skyrocket" (Juniperus virginiana 'Skyrocket')
  • Common juniper "Columnaris" (Juniperus communi s 'Columnaris')
  • Common juniper "Hibernica" (Juniperus communis 'Hibernica')
  • Juniper Chinese "Kaizuka" (Juniperus chinensis 'Kaizuka')
  • Rocky juniper "Springbank" (Juniperus scopulorum 'Springbank')

Medium-sized junipers

  • Juniper Cossack "Tamariscifolia" (Juniperus sabina 'Tamariscifolia')
  • Juniper Chinese "Blue Alps" (Juniperus chinensis 'Blue Alps')
  • Juniper medium "Hetzi" (Juniperus x media 'Hetzii')
  • Juniper Cossack "Erecta" (Juniperus sabina 'Erecta')
  • Juniper scaly "Holger" (Juniperus squamata 'Holger')

Stunted junipers

  • Juniper virginiana "Kobold" (Juniperus virginiana 'Kobold')
  • Juniper virginiana "Nana Compacta" (Juniperus virginiana 'Nana Compacta')

Dwarf juniper forms

  • Juniper horizontal "Blue Pygmey" (Juniperus horizontalis 'Blue Pygmea')
  • Juniper horizontal "Wiltonii" (Juniperus horizontalis 'Wiltonii')
  • Juniper horizontal "Glauka" (Juniperus horizontalis 'Glauca')
  • Juniper horizontal "Hughes" (Juniperus horizontalis 'Hughes')

With golden needles

  • Juniper virginiana "Aureospicata" (Juniperus virginiana 'Aureospicata')
  • Juniper medium "Gold Coast" (Juniperus x. Media 'Gold Coast')
  • Juniper medium "Old Gold" (Juniperus x. Media 'Old Gold')

With gray or blue needles

  • Rocky juniper "Blue Arrow" (Juniperus scopulorum 'Blue Arrow')
  • Juniper medium "Blauw" (Juniperus x. Media 'Blaauw')
  • Juniper scaly "Blue Carpet" (Juniperus squamata 'Blue Carpet')
  • Juniper scaly "Blue Star" (Juniperus squamata 'Blue Star')
Juniper virginiana "Regal" (Juniperus virginiana 'Regal')
Juniper virginiana "Regal" (Juniperus virginiana 'Regal')

Diseases and pests of juniper

The most common juniper disease is rust. Of the pests, the greatest threat is posed by spider mites, juniper miner moths, aphids and juniper scale insects.

Against aphids, twice spray "Fitoverm" (2 g per 1 liter of water) with an interval of 10-14 days.

The miner moth is afraid of "Decis" (2.5 g per 10 l), which is also sprayed on the plant twice and also after 10-14 days.

Against the spider mite, use the drug "Karate" (50 g per 10 l), against the scabbard - karbofos (70 g per 10 l of water).

To stop the rust, the plant will have to be sprayed four times with an interval of 10 days with a solution of arceride (50 g per 10 l of water).

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