Pumpkin Is A Sunny Berry. Growing, Planting, Care, Varieties. Photo

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Pumpkin Is A Sunny Berry. Growing, Planting, Care, Varieties. Photo
Pumpkin Is A Sunny Berry. Growing, Planting, Care, Varieties. Photo

Video: Pumpkin Is A Sunny Berry. Growing, Planting, Care, Varieties. Photo

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Despite all the charm of this sunny berry, not all gardeners grow pumpkin. And in vain! An excellent dietary product that does not require large agronomic efforts when growing. Known for its widespread use in traditional medicine. The medicinal properties of the culture are recognized by the official pharmacology. Ornamental plant. The opportunity not only to decorate your site, but also to occupy empty land.

Pumpkin has been known as a culture for over 8000 years. First at home (Mexico), and later on all warm continents. Since the 16th century, pumpkin has gained popularity in Western Europe, and then in Russia. Forming pumpkin fruits weighing up to 250 kg under optimal conditions, it surprises peasants with unprecedented yields of individual fruits weighing 15-50 kg even in temperate and warm regions of Russia.

Pumpkin
Pumpkin

The chemical composition of pumpkin

Pumpkins of this vegetable culture contain up to 11% sugars and up to 6-20% starch. The pulp is rich in vitamins, including "B1", "B2", "B5", "C", "E", "PP", "K" is rich in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and trace elements, including copper, cobalt, zinc and others. The list of useful substances contained in fruits includes pectin, fiber, proteins, enzymes. Especially useful are seeds that contain 40-48% fatty oil, which includes glycerides of organic acids, including linolenic, oleic, palmitic, stearic. In the seeds, especially after heat treatment, the aroma of essential oil and resinous substances is clearly manifested. They contain phytosterols, cucurbitol, carotenoids and other beneficial substances. Pumpkin flowers are also known to be rich in nutrients. They are medicinal and used for food.They quickly restore the loss of strength, especially in the spring with a decrease in immunity, a lack of vitamins.

Pumpkin use

Fruits and seeds of pumpkin have a lot of useful medicinal properties. Pumpkin pulp is an irreplaceable product for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The pumpkin diet is recommended by ophthalmologists to patients with certain vision problems. Pumpkin is one of the irreplaceable dietary products used for metabolic disorders of various etiologies, obesity. The seeds, due to their high zinc content, are classified as a natural aphrodisiac with rejuvenating properties. Natural compounds, vitamins, flavonoids, slow down the aging of the body, have a positive effect on male libido. By the way! In terms of zinc content, which is necessary for men to increase testosterone levels, and for adults and children of a healthy thyroid gland, which is responsible for the body's immunity, pumpkin seeds are in second place after oysters.Doctors recommend eating 50-60 pumpkin seeds a day. For women - the basis of natural cosmetics when using anti-aging, cleansing masks, toners, creams, refreshing emulsions, compositions for removing freckles and age spots. Champion in iron content, pumpkin pulp is recommended for the treatment of anemia. Excellent anthelminthic agent.

Butternut squash
Butternut squash

The medicinal properties of pumpkin and the versatility of its use in folk and official medicine are countless. But, pumpkin is also an excellent gastronomic product: the base of pumpkin porridge, filler for pies, baked in ovens, in fresh vitamin salads, in the form of pumpkin juice. Pumpkin is an integral part of a huge number of national dishes.

Types and types of pumpkin

Of the 5 cultivated types of pumpkin, mainly three are grown: large-fruited, nutmeg and hardy. In appearance, they can be easily distinguished by the structure of the stalk.

  • In large-fruited, the stalk is round-cylindrical. The fruits are gigantic. In shape, they can be flat-round, rounded-flattened, round of different colors, bumpy. They are characterized by a high (up to 15%) sugar content. Its varieties are cold-resistant, and the seeds germinate at +12.. + 14 * С.
  • Recently, nutmeg varieties have been in high demand. In the butternut squash, the stalk resembles the Eiffel Tower. It is noticeably widened by the part adjacent to the pumpkin. It is characterized by elongated fruits, sometimes slightly ribbed. In technical ripeness, green. In biological yellow and yellow-brown. The seed chamber of a small compact size is located on one side of the pumpkin. It is characterized by the highest content of carotene and vitamins. The varieties are thermophilic, the seeds germinate at +14.. + 16 * С.
  • The hardy species is distinguished by the presence of scars on the peduncle. Deep grooves are clearly visible between the scars. From hard-bore gardeners, food varieties are well known: squash, zucchini, zucchini. Used in food in a green form.

Gardeners most often grow bush and nutmeg pumpkins on their plots. Of the hard-bore, in the southern regions, they are widely used for squash and much less often for squash. Lovers of the exotic breed a decorative pumpkin, the fruits of which are distinguished by intricate shapes and are very colorful in color.

Growing pumpkin

Pumpkin is an annual plant with creeping stems. With the help of antennae, it is able to rise above the ground along supports. Flowers are yellow, large, dioecious. Cross pollination. Vegetable fruits from 0.5 to 20-30 kg. Some giants, according to media reports, reach 280 kg, and a student from Bavaria has grown a pumpkin weighing more than 550 kg, setting a European record.

Garden pumpkin
Garden pumpkin

Environmental requirement

Pumpkin is a heat-loving plant. For sowing, the soil needs to be heated up to + 15 * C, the formation of fruits begins at +15.. + 17 * C. Easily tolerates 25-30 degrees heat. During the growing season, forms a large aboveground part. Scourges can reach 5-7 m. To provide themselves with moisture, additional roots develop on the pumpkin whips. Pumpkin loves the sun, but calmly tolerates shading (shade-tolerant).

Predecessors

When cultivating pumpkin seeds in a culture rotation, the best previous crops are potatoes, cabbage, early tomatoes. Pumpkin is sown late in open ground, so a free site in early spring can be occupied with early ripening crops - radishes, salads, onions for greens, etc. trellises. Clinging to the supports, the pumpkin will ennoble the site, covering farm buildings and other inconveniences with decorative greenery.

Soil preparation and sowing pumpkin in a crop rotation

Developing a large leaf area, pumpkin is demanding on the supply of nutrients. Therefore, having outlined a plot for a pumpkin in the fall, it must be well seasoned with fertilizers. Pumpkin is especially responsive to organics. Since autumn, for digging, it is imperative to add humus, compost or humus at 1.5-2.0 buckets per sq. m and nitrophosphate at the rate of 50-60 g sq.m.

In open ground, pumpkin is sown after May 10-15, but it is more practical (by region) when the soil in a 10 cm layer warms up to +14.. + 15 * С. Sowing is best done according to a square-nested scheme, leaving a distance of 50-60 cm in a row and aisles. Seeds are planted in a layer of 3-4 cm, 1-2 seeds each. After germination, weak plants are removed.

Soil preparation and sowing pumpkin outside of crop circulation

If the pumpkin is planted outside the crop rotation, then the soil can be left off in the fall. Before planting on separate plots with a diameter of 0.4-0.6 m, add 1/4 of a bucket of humus or mature compost, add 30 g of urea or nitrophosphate. Dig up the mixture by mixing with the soil, but it is better without turning the layer, pour 0.5 buckets of water. After soaking, plant 2 seeds at a distance of about 10-15 cm to a depth of 3-4 cm. Sometimes 2 seeds are sown in one hole, but after germination the weak plant is removed.

Pumpkin seedlings
Pumpkin seedlings

Preparing the soil and planting pumpkin seedlings

In regions with a short warm season, the pumpkin can be grown outdoors through seedlings. The tap root of pumpkin seeds does not tolerate picks, therefore, seedlings are grown in peat-humus pots or other containers with a removable bottom so that when transplanted into open ground, they do not violate the integrity of the root system. Sowing seedlings in pots is carried out a month before planting in open ground (approximately from May 5-20). The pots are placed in a warm greenhouse or at home. Care is normal. The seedlings are transferred to open ground after the onset of constant warm weather (approximately in the first half of June). Sometimes seedlings are planted in open ground earlier. In this case, the plantings are covered with lutrasil or other material from possible frost or a sharp drop in temperature. Pumpkin is a thermophilic culture and does not tolerate frosts, even minor ones.

When planting seedlings in the ground, holes are prepared in advance at a distance of 70-90 cm in a row. The row spacing is not less than 1.0 m. The planting pattern can be different, but the density of 1-2 plants is 1.5-2.0 sq. m. In the harvested holes make 1/3 of a bucket of humus, 30 g of nitrophoska. The mixture is stirred, poured in 1-2 liters of warm water and a pot with seedlings (peat-peat) is heated in a soil slurry. If the container is different (plastic cups), cut the sidewall and carefully roll the seedling into the hole. The soil around the planted seedlings is mulched.

Pumpkin care

Caring for pumpkin in the open field consists in maintaining the site without weeds, constant loosening until the soil is completely covered with an aboveground mass of pumpkin, fertilizing and watering, protecting against pests and diseases. Formed, growing pumpkins should be isolated from the soil with litter (cardboard or other material).

Top dressing

  • The pumpkin is fed for the first time in the phase of 3-5 true leaves. Under the root, 5-7 are applied in bulk, on depleted soils - 10 g per bush of nitrophoska. On wet soil, fertilizer is sealed by loosening in a 5-7 cm layer. If the soil is dry, watering is carried out after fertilization.
  • The second feeding is carried out in the phase of the beginning of the formation of lashes. Under each bush, 10-15 g of nitrophoska is applied, depending on the fertility of the soil for irrigation.
  • Between dressings, you can add 2-3 glasses of wood ash per 1 sq. m area. On depleted soils, practicing gardeners recommend adding a mullein solution of 2 liters per bush at the beginning of the growing season and 3 liters each - in the phase of mass ripening of fruits. The solution is prepared at the rate of 1 part mullein to 9-10 parts of water.
Pumpkin
Pumpkin

Watering

A large above-ground vegetative mass and the formation of large fruit products require significant amounts of water. By the structure of the tissues, pumpkin does not retain moisture in the aboveground mass, but immediately evaporates through the leaves, creating a local greenhouse effect with high air humidity. Be careful! If watering is poor or the soil is dry, especially during the flowering period, pumpkins will stop forming female flowers. Watering is best done between rows, deeply soaking the soil. In the initial period of development, the soil is mulched so as not to lose moisture and not heat it up under the sun.

There is one peculiarity when watering. Pumpkin does not tolerate cold water. Therefore, it must not be watered from artesian wells or other cold springs. The temperature of the irrigation water must be at least + 20 * C. Before watering, remove the weeds that have risen above the pumpkin plantings.

Protection against diseases and pests

Among the pumpkin seeds, the most common are root rot, downy mildew and powdery mildew, rhizoctonia, late blight. To combat them in private plots, only biological preparations harmless to human and animal health should be used. It is best to prepare a tank mixture of biofungicides gamair + alirin-B. In a mixture they are effective against rot and dew growth. Among other biological products, phytosporin, glyocladin, extrasol, etc. are effective against the above diseases. But biological products will not bring the desired effect after a single use. Treatments with mixtures and individual biological products are effective when applied multiple times during the entire growing season. Spraying with a foggy solution is carried out every 10-12 days throughout the summer.

Of the pests, the following sucking pests cause noticeable damage - melon aphids, spider mites. From gnawing - larvae and caterpillars of the scoop, meadow moth, moths. From soil - wireworm and others. Bioinsecticides during repeated processing of plants and soil protect plants well, without harming humans and animals: virin-OS, planriz, bitoxybacillin, dendrobacillin lepidocid.

Pumpkin
Pumpkin

Doses, treatment methods are given on the packages or in the accompanying documentation. When buying biologics, be sure to check the expiration date. When using biological products, their effect lasts 10-12 days. This is the period after which the treatments must be repeated. Biological products cannot be stored together with chemical products. Living culture perishes in such a neighborhood.

Food Grades of Pumpkin

According to the duration of the growing season, pumpkins are divided into:

  • early ripe,
  • mid-season,
  • late ripening.

In early ripening varieties, the growing season from germination to obtaining fruits of biological ripeness lasts an average of 90-113 days. The sugar content ranges from 5 to 9%. The most common varieties are: Muscat, Butternat (also called nut, nutmeg), Healing, Smile, bush Gribovskaya-189, bush Orange, Rossiyanka.

In mid-season, the sugar content is higher - 7-13%. The duration of the growing season increases to 135-140 days. They have good keeping quality. Recommended varieties: Almond, Marble, Ambar, Vitamin, Aport, Freckle, Dachnaya, Merchant, Sweetie, Volzhskaya gray.

Late-ripening varieties are grown mainly in the southern regions. In central Russia, ripe pumpkins are harvested through seedlings. Late-ripening varieties manage to gain the highest percentage of sugar content (11-12%) with a growing season of 140-160 days. Varieties: Gribovskaya winter, Winter sweet, Zarya Vostoka, Prikubanskaya, Interception, Late vitamin, Pearl, Premiere.

Pumpkin
Pumpkin

Of the above varieties in central Russia, the most common varieties are Gribovskaya Zimnyaya, Vesnushka, Smile, Zhemchuzhina, Premiera, Rossiyanka.

The varietal variety of pumpkin allows you to choose the desired variety that has a sweet taste, good shelf life, resistant to diseases and pests and does not need processing. When choosing a variety, detailed characteristics can be found in the corresponding vegetable catalogs.

Cleaning and storing pumpkin

Pumpkin has a long shelf life without loss of taste. Some varieties can be stored for up to a year under optimal conditions. Large-fruited species belong to maturing varieties. Muscat, in the process of varietal breeding, have lost keeping quality. They are stored for no more than 2 months. When laying for storage, you need to take these qualities into account and be the first to use varieties with a short shelf life.

The rich color and dried lashes of culture testify to the time of harvesting. Cleaning is carried out in a dry warm season before the onset of frost. Frozen pumpkins that have received mechanical damage are used immediately for processing and winter storage. When removing the pumpkin, leave the stalk 6-8 cm so as not to violate the integrity of the fruit. If the weather is cloudy, rainy, place the harvested crop in a closed dry room, dry the fruits and only then put them in storage.

Pumpkin
Pumpkin

You can store products in different rooms (sheds, attics, in the kitchen, in the pantry). Storage conditions: temperature not lower than + 10 * С, dry place. The frozen product is perfectly stored. Sliced ​​pumpkin can be used gradually.

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