Raspberries. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Agrotechnics. Fruit-berry. Garden Plants. A Photo

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Raspberries. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Agrotechnics. Fruit-berry. Garden Plants. A Photo
Raspberries. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Agrotechnics. Fruit-berry. Garden Plants. A Photo

Video: Raspberries. Care, Cultivation, Reproduction. Agrotechnics. Fruit-berry. Garden Plants. A Photo

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The main goal of any gardener is to get a good harvest of high-quality, tasty fruits or berries. For this, each crop needs careful timely care, compliance with the requirements for growing conditions and agricultural technology. From early spring to late autumn, the gardener works on his site. But so that the work is not in vain, you need to know how to properly care for plants. Today we'll talk about how to get a big harvest from a raspberry plantation …

Caring for a raspberry plantation consists of watering, weeding, loosening the soil, applying fertilizers, fighting diseases and pests, and tying shoots to the trellis.

Raspberry (Raspberry)
Raspberry (Raspberry)

The formation of a soil crust and the appearance of weeds dramatically reduces the growth of raspberries, therefore, constant timely weeding and loosening are necessary. The first spring loosening is carried out as early as possible. Timely processing provides air access to the roots, moisture retains in the soil longer and favorable and convenient conditions for the development of beneficial microorganisms are created. The row spacing is loosened to a depth of about 10-15 cm, and in rows - by 5-8 cm. Loosening and weeding should be completed before bud break, the delay with these agricultural practices significantly reduces the yield of raspberries. Subsequent treatments are carried out as the soil crust forms and weeds appear, in just a season - 4-6 loosening. The latter is performed with a turnover of the layer in late autumn, at the end of plant growth. At the same time, pests living on the surfacefall into the deep layers of the soil and die, while pests wintering deep in the soil, on the contrary, end up on the soil surface and die from winter frosts. It is impossible to huddle the plants high for the winter, since the buds from which new shoots develop are laid high above the soil surface, and new plants are very weak next year. When mulching the plantation, the need for loosening is eliminated.

What determines the productivity of raspberries?

Firstly, from timely and sufficient moisture supply, especially in the south, where it is simply impossible to obtain high yields without artificial irrigation. The most common mistake when watering raspberries is that gardeners water them a little every day. Such watering can be considered refreshing, since moisture wets only the top layer of the soil, without penetrating into the root zone. It is better to carry out more rare, but abundant watering so that the root layer (25-35 cm) is well soaked. The number of waterings is set depending on weather conditions, water reserves in the soil and critical periods of raspberry growth. Watering is very important before flowering and during the growth and ripening of berries. During the harvesting period, watering is carried out immediately after picking berries, so that the earth can dry out by the next harvest. Irrigation rate is 30-40 l / m2.In late autumn, to increase the moisture reserves before wintering, abundant watering is carried out at the rate of 50-60 l / m2. The more carefully this watering is performed, the better the shoots will overwinter.

Raspberry (Raspberry)
Raspberry (Raspberry)

© Aiwok

It must be remembered that waterlogging can cause no less damage to raspberries than drought. Its danger lies not only in the fact that air cannot flow to the roots, but also in the fact that the soil in this case becomes colder, since the sun's heat is spent not on heating it, but on the evaporation of moisture. This can greatly delay plant development, especially in the spring.

Therefore, the moisture content in the soil should be constantly monitored and stopped during rainy, cool periods.

Watering is carried out in several ways. Sprinkling is widely used on garden plots. Most often they are watered directly from a hose or various irrigation systems are installed. With such methods, the water consumption is unjustifiably high, since not only a number of plants are watered, but also the aisles. More economical irrigation irrigation, along furrows. Earthen rollers 10-15 cm high are scooped up around the rows of raspberries, so that the plants are in a groove, which is poured, simply by putting a hose into it. When watering directly from wells, without heating the water, the earth is greatly cooled, which impairs the development and fruiting of raspberries. In addition, with sprinkling and irrigation ditches, it is difficult to achieve uniform soil moisture. The most promising is drip irrigation, in which it is possible to strictly dose the supply of water and fertilizers to the roots, the water enters the root zone heated,the soil is wetted evenly over all rows.

Mulching plantations reduces the need for irrigation by 3-4 times.

Raspberry (Raspberry)
Raspberry (Raspberry)

© Serena

The productivity of raspberries also depends on the fertility of the soil. When applying pre-planting fertilizer rates in the first two years, you can do without top dressing. However, as the yield increases, raspberries take out more and more nutrients from the soil. A huge amount of nutrients is carried out as a result of leaching, as well as with removed weeds, excess annual offspring, etc. All these losses must be replenished. In addition, raspberries spend a lot of nutrients in the formation of a large number of root suckers and replacement shoots. Therefore, starting from the third year of operation, the plantation needs regular feeding. Only then can you count on a high yield of large berries.

Before entering fruiting, plants are fed only with nitrogen fertilizers. In the spring, before soil cultivation, ammonium nitrate is applied - 15-20 g / m2, under fruiting plantations - nitroammofoska - 30-50 g / m2 or 50 g of superphosphate, 15 g of ammonium nitrate and 20-30 g of potassium fertilizers. After harvesting, 50-80 g of nitroammophoska or 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 60 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium fertilizers are applied per 1 m2. At the end of the growing season, starting from the third year, organic fertilizers are applied - 3-4 kg / m2, scattering them under the bushes.

Raspberry (Raspberry)
Raspberry (Raspberry)

Raspberries form a large number of replacement shoots and root shoots. If you leave all the grown shoots, they will soon occupy all the free space on the plantation. It is impossible to care for thickened plantings, moreover, in such areas the soil is quickly depleted, and the yield is greatly reduced. The number of shoots must be normalized. The maximum yield can be obtained with a row width of about 50 cm (or 12-15 shoots per linear meter, or 6-7 shoots per bush). In May, when young shoots grow up to 20-25 cm in length, 10-20 shoots are left in the bush, and in the spring of next year, the final normalization is carried out, cutting out weak and damaged shoots at the very base, without leaving a hemp. Fruiting raspberry shoots die off and must be removed. If this is not done immediately after fruiting,dying shoots will take away some of the nutrition from the young. It is better to burn cut out shoots, as pathogens and pests can be on them. Since the tips of raspberry stems are unproductive, it is advised to shorten them by 10-15 cm in the spring. Summer pinching is also used to stimulate growth - in June, young shoots are pinched at a height of 90-100 cm, stimulating the regrowth of lateral shoots. By autumn, they have time to finish growing and prepare for winter. On such a shoot, 2-3 times more fruit buds are laid than on an unpinched one, respectively, and its yield is 2-3 times higher.To stimulate growth, summer pinching is also used - in June, young shoots are pinched at a height of 90-100 cm, stimulating the regrowth of lateral shoots. By the fall, they have time to finish growing and prepare for winter. On such a shoot, 2-3 times more fruit buds are laid than on an unpinched one, respectively, and its yield is 2-3 times higher.To stimulate growth, summer pinching is also used - in June, young shoots are pinched at a height of 90-100 cm, stimulating the regrowth of lateral shoots. By the fall, they have time to finish growing and prepare for winter. On such a shoot, 2-3 times more fruit buds are laid than on an unpinched one, respectively, and its yield is 2-3 times higher.

To prevent the shoots from lodging and breaking under the weight of the berries, in the spring, when carrying out normalizing pruning, they are tied to trellises. To arrange trellises along the rows, every 5-8 m, pillars with a height of about 2 m are installed, 2-3 rows of wire are pulled between them, to which the shoots are tied, evenly distributing them every 7-10 cm.You can do without a garter: on poles at a height of 130-150 cm pull two rows of wire at a distance of 10 cm from each other. The stems are passed between them, and so that the wire does not diverge, it is pulled together with paper clips. A T-shaped trellis is also used. The wire is pulled on it at a distance of 1 m from one another. Some of the shoots are tied on one side, some on the other - this is a two-sided inclined garter. Fruiting shoots are obtained tilted towards the row spacing,and young shoots grow in the center of the row and do not interfere with the development of fruiting ones.

Raspberry (Raspberry)
Raspberry (Raspberry)

© ndrwfgg

It is important to harvest on time, since overripe raspberries lose transportability and become tasteless. For consumption on the spot, the berry is harvested fully ripe, removing it from the fruit plant. For long distance transportation - slightly immature. Recently, berries harvested with fruit are very popular in the markets. The price for such berries is much higher than for berries without fruit.

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