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Video: Cloning Of Garden Strawberry (strawberry)
In one of my articles, I tried to persuade the readers of Botanichka to take growing grapes more seriously. On duty, he lived for a long time in Georgia and I got the impression that it is more convenient for men to deal with grapes and grape wine. But women are more engaged in strawberries. This is a laborious and troublesome business, a lot of technological intricacies of cultivation need to be clearly understood in order for the work of caring for strawberries to pay off with a good harvest. Therefore, despite a sufficient number of good articles in Botanichka about strawberries, I decided to do my bit to make it easier and more productive for women to work on strawberry beds, so that their work would not be wasted. I will formulate a few rules that seem to me the most important in the business of growing strawberries.
First of all
It is recommended that amateur gardeners and farmers purchase elite planting material from specialized farms every 3-4 years and plant their own seedlings only 2-3 times. Observations show that in most cases strawberries are grown carelessly. For example, from a mustache from your own or a neighbor's plot, without thinking about how many years the strawberries grew there and, most likely, managed to degenerate, collect for many years all the diseases that are characteristic of this berry or mix with inseminated (essentially wild) plants … It seems advisable to buy at least a dozen new elite seedlings from specialized farms; they can then be propagated vegetatively to the required amount within two to three years.
In order to obtain high yields of berries of garden strawberries, it is necessary to carry out a clonal selection of the most productive bushes and further propagate them vegetatively, that is, with a mustache. As the readers of Botanichka already know, a clone is a family grown from one vegetatively propagated plant. The essence of clonal selection is to mark healthy bushes with the highest yield every year during strawberry fruiting and then take seedlings from them (whiskers or horns) for new plantings. Let us recall that the horns are strawberry shoots that have grown from young lateral roots; they are planted together with the cut off side root. This method is used in cases where strawberries give little mustache (for example, remontant). When selecting fruitful bushes, you can make sure that the plants of garden strawberries are of the same variety, being in the same growing conditions,with the same care, they give different yields. For example, some gardeners claim that, under equal conditions, one bush of the Festivalnaya variety gives 100 g of berries from a bush, and another 500 g, and even up to 700 g. If such bushes are grown by clonal selection, then not 200 can be obtained from one hundred square meters. -300 kg of berries, and 800-1000 kg. (!) and thus significantly increase the yield of garden strawberries in the coming years.
Strawberry bushes usually give a lot of whiskers after flowering, in the nodes of which small rosettes of leaves are formed - 2-3 or more on each shoot (whisker). The developed rosette feeds on the mother bush before rooting. The sockets located closer to it are always stronger, better developed, take root earlier and at first receive more power than those at the end of the mustache. Being pinned to the ground or hitting on a loose soil surface, the rosettes take root very quickly and give independent plants. The first 2-3 outlets always produce high quality strawberry seedlings with a well-developed root system. In mid-August, well-rooted sockets are separated and planted in a permanent place. Many amateur gardeners use for this purpose beds with varietal strawberries on a site that, in order to avoid clogging with other varieties,including degenerated ones, should not come into contact with the main plantings.
You should pay close attention to the horns - shortened annual shoots. Each formed horn has an apical bud (heart), a rosette of 3 - 7 leaves, lateral axillary buds, and at the base of the growth - adventitious roots. Peduncles are formed from the apical and axillary buds of the upper leaves for the next year. Axillary leaf buds are often vegetative. New horns appear during the entire growing season, but they form most intensively before and after fruiting. Each new horn repeats the same development cycle as the previous one: in the first year it develops a shortened vegetative shoot, on which leaves are formed and axillary and flower buds are laid, in the second year it gives a flowering shoot. With the appearance of a new horn, fruit adventitious carob roots are formed at its base.If the rosette at the time of rooting has only one horn, by the fall a young plant may have 2 - 3 horns, a 2-year-old plant - 5-9, 3-4-year-old plants of some varieties develop up to 25 - 30 horns. The more horns, the more fruit formations; each apex of the horn, with some exceptions, bears one or more peduncles.
Each amateur gardener, growing strawberries, must remember: those strawberry plants that are grown from seedlings harvested on a young (1-3-year-old) mother plantation take root better and give higher yields. Seedlings taken from old (4-5-year-old) plants are less suitable for planting, they are more infested with pests, do not take root well, have low yields and are less stable during wintering. You can not take seedlings from young, not yet fruiting plants, because there is no confidence in their purity and high yield.
According to many experts, strawberry horns are better planting material than mustaches. And for remontant varieties - mustacheless or giving little mustache, this breeding method can be the main one. You need to choose healthy annual bushes, cut off all the flower stalks on them. Then, at the end of the growing season, the bush is dissected by hand into its constituent horns with a rosette of leaves and a rhizome. The lower part of the rhizome is cut with pruning shears, leaving only the upper annual growth with yellow and brown adventitious roots and a rosette of leaves. After these procedures, the resulting bushes are washed and stored in bundles until spring in a refrigerator or in a cellar at a temperature from 0 to minus 2 °.
And the last
After you and I understand the main very useful idea about growing strawberries, namely, not to breed it from your own bushes on the site for more than 4 years, but to buy new seedlings, we will bring to your attention, in order to stimulate the renewal of your plot with new varieties, one of these attractive varieties. We are talking about the strawberries of Chamora Turusi, remarkable for their large berries, commensurate with medium apples, the unique aroma of wild strawberries and high yield (with proper agricultural technology - 2.5 kg per bush).
It is believed that this variety was bred in Japan, it is relatively late ripening, in central Russia it ripens by June 25, and in the northern regions - by July 25. The maximum yield of Chamora gives in the 2nd year of cultivation, the weight of each berry is 80-130 grams. depending on growing conditions.
This strawberry forms powerful bushes, intensive growth is genetically laid in them. Planted in spring, they can appear in all their glory in two months. But it is undesirable to allow fruiting this year, since the root system is not yet fully formed. The most difficult thing is to find high-quality planting material grown from the first rosettes on the mustache. It is preferable to transplant strawberries without exposing the root system in order to shorten the survival period as much as possible. Given the intensive growth of strawberries, it is impossible to thicken the plantings, the recommended scheme is 40 x 60 cm.
It is clear that the beds for planting should be prepared in advance by adding organic matter and mineral fertilizers. One must be very careful with nitrogen fertilizers so as not to thicken the bushes and not damage fruiting. Some gardeners recommend making bumpers (up to 25 cm) along the edges of the beds so that you can cover the strawberries at the beginning of the growing season. The greatest need for moisture in strawberries before flowering, during flowering and during the growth and filling of berries, as well as after the completion of fruiting, when the period of laying fruit formations for the next year's harvest begins. When berries ripen, excessive watering is undesirable, as it can provoke the development of rot and other diseases, in addition, the taste of berries deteriorates from excess moisture.
The variety multiplies easily, an adult plant produces many mustaches and powerful strong rosettes with a good root system. The early maturity of Chamora Turusi is surprising: if you plant a new bed with rosettes that have overwintered on the uterine plantation at the end of April, then almost all of them will take over, begin to grow actively, and in June they will begin to bear fruit. Many gardeners know that rarely any strawberry is capable of producing a crop in the year of planting, except for remontant, but Chamora Turusi, seemingly not being such, demonstrates its attractive qualities here too.