Eggplants - Cultivation And Varieties

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Eggplants - Cultivation And Varieties
Eggplants - Cultivation And Varieties

Video: Eggplants - Cultivation And Varieties

Video: Eggplants - Cultivation And Varieties
Video: A Visual Guide to 8 Glorious Varieties of Eggplant 2023, April

It turns out that eggplant is a perennial, and we grow it as an annual. The fruit of an eggplant can be a berry of various colors and shapes. And not just a blue cylinder: pear-shaped, spherical, serpentine with white or greenish dense pulp, without bitterness. The color of the skin of the fruit varies from dark brown with a reddish tint, brown with a grayish tint to yellow or grayish green.


The exoticism of the vegetable is due to the fact that it comes from India. In Latin, its name literally means "nightshade with apple". Nightshade among the ancient Romans was considered a gift of the sun god - Salt - (salted, sunflower). The ancient Greeks considered eggplant a poisonous plant and called it "the apple of madness", believing that the one who ate it would lose his mind … And we now know that eggplant … insanely delicious!

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a species of perennial herbaceous plants of the Solanum genus, a vegetable crop. It is also known as badrijan (rarely bubrijan), and in the southern regions of Russia, eggplants are called blue.


  • Growing eggplants
  • Eggplant planting care
  • Eggplant varieties

Growing eggplants

We place eggplants after the best predecessors, they are melons, cabbage, onions, root crops. We return the eggplants to their original place not earlier than in 2-3 years. If you keep them in the same place permanently, the plants suffer from fungal and viral diseases. We plant in an open, well-lit place.

After harvesting the previous crop, we immediately clear the soil of plant residues, fill it with humus at the rate of 80-100 kg, superphosphate - 400-450 g, potassium salt - 100-150 g per 10 m².

We dig the site to a depth of 25-28 cm in the fall. In early spring, as soon as the soil dries up, we carry out harrowing. Already in April, we apply nitrogen fertilizer (urea) in a dose of 300 g per 10 m² with embedding at a depth of 6-8 cm.

Practice shows that sowing with large sorted seeds increases productivity. How do you sort the seeds? To do this, pour 5 liters of water into a bucket, put 60 g of table salt there. When the salt dissolves, fill in the seeds, then stir them for 1-2 minutes, then stand for 3-5 minutes. Then we drain the floating seeds with the solution, wash the remaining ones with clean water five to six times. After washing, lay out large, full-weight seeds on a canvas and dry.

Before sowing, it is advisable to determine the germination of seeds. For this purpose, on a shallow plate covered with filter paper, lay out 50 or 100 seeds, slightly moisten the paper and place on a windowsill in a heated room. When the seeds hatch (after 5-7 days), we calculate the germination rate as a percentage. This helps to avoid sparse seedlings.

Eggplant gardeners are grown mainly through seedlings. It is obtained in greenhouses with a layer of manure of 50-60 cm. Sowing seeds in greenhouses is carried out in early March, that is, 55-60 days before planting seedlings in a permanent place. Before sowing, the wooden parts of the greenhouse are treated with a 10% solution of bleach or a thick solution of freshly slaked lime.

Soil composition: turf soil mixed with humus in a 2: 1 ratio. Greenhouse soil is poured over manure with a layer of 15-16 cm. Before sowing, the soil is flavored with superphosphate at the rate of 250 g per greenhouse frame (1.5 m²). Under the frame, 8-10 g of seeds are sown with embedding to a depth of 1-2 cm. For a plot of 10 m², it is enough to grow 100 seedlings. The temperature regime during the period of seed germination is maintained within the range of 25-30 ° C. With the emergence of seedlings, the temperature during the first 6 days is reduced to 14-16 ° C. Then the temperature is adjusted: during the day, they maintain 16-26 ° C at 10-14 ° C at night.

Gardeners know that the eggplant root system is difficult to recover and, torn apart during transplantation, lags behind in growth. Therefore, it is better to grow seedlings in humus-earthen pots. For the pots, a nutrient mixture is prepared from 8 parts of humus, 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of mullein with the addition of about 10 g of urea, 40-50 g of superphosphate and 4-5 g of potassium salt per bucket. The size of the pots is 6x6 cm.

8-4 days before sowing, the pots are tightly placed in a warm greenhouse with a soil thickness of 5-6 cm. If the pots are dry, then they are moistened and 8-4 seeds are placed in each. From above, the seeds are sprinkled with earth in a layer of 1-2 cm.

Watering seedlings in greenhouses as needed, usually done in the morning and at the same time airing the greenhouse. In cloudy cold weather, watering is prohibited.

Seedlings need feeding. To do this, take 50 g of superphosphate, 20 g of ammonium sulfate and 16 g of potassium salt on a bucket of water. From organic feeds, mullein, bird droppings or slurry are used. Bird droppings and mullein are pre-fermented in a tub (6-8 days). The fermented liquid is diluted with water: a solution of bird droppings 15-20 times (for young plants in the phase of the first true leaf) or 10-15 times (for seedlings with 4-5 leaves). The mullein solution is diluted with water by 3-5, and slurry by 2-3 times.

Organic and mineral dressings alternate. The first feeding (with organic fertilizers) is carried out 10-15 days after germination, the second - 10 days after the first fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. After feeding, the seedlings are lightly watered with clean water to wash off the droplets of the solution from it.

10-15 days before planting, the seedlings are hardened: watering is reduced, the frame is removed (first, only for a day, and then, depending on the air temperature, for a whole day). 5-10 days before planting in a permanent place, the plants are sprayed with a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate (50 g per 10 l of water) to protect the plants from fungal diseases.

Seedlings of eggplants by the time of planting in a permanent place should have 5-6 true leaves, a thick stem and a well-developed root system.

On the eve of disembarkation, seedlings in a greenhouse are watered abundantly with water. They start planting seedlings when the probability of frost disappears, that is, at the end of the first or at the beginning of the second decade of May (for Crimea). A delay in planting seedlings even by 7-10 days leads to a decrease in yield.

Seedlings grown without pots are chosen, keeping a clod of earth. They are planted to a depth of 7-8 cm, 1.5 cm deeper than the root collar. The row spacing is 60-70 cm, the intervals between plants in a row are 20-25 cm. If the lump of earth on the roots is fragile, then when selecting seedlings, the roots are immersed in a mullein with clay. Note again: potted seedlings take root faster, give a higher yield, and they are harvested 20-25 days earlier.

Seedling eggplant
Seedling eggplant

Eggplant planting care

We plant eggplant seedlings in wet soil in cloudy weather or in the afternoon. So the plants take root better. We squeeze the ground near the roots well and water it immediately. After 3-4 days, in place of the fallen seedlings, we plant a new one and carry out the second watering (200 liters, watering and fertilizing rates are given for 10 m²).

The total number of waterings during the summer is 9-10, in 7-9 days. After each watering, we loosen the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm, at the same time we remove the weeds. The first feeding is carried out 15-20 days after planting the seedlings (urea 100-150 g). We give the second dressing three weeks after the first (superphosphate solution 150 g and urea 100 g). We close the fertilizers with a heron to a depth of 8-10 cm and water immediately. At the beginning of fruiting, feeding with a fresh mullein (6-8 kg) together with irrigation water is effective. After 15-20 days, feeding with fresh mullein can be repeated.

Eggplant plants can be attacked by the Colorado potato beetle. Against this malicious pest, we use a solution of chlorophos of 0.3% concentration (30 g of the drug per 10 liters of water). The signal for use is the hatching of beetle larvae.

Eggplant seedling
Eggplant seedling

Eggplant varieties

The best varieties of eggplants: Delicacy, Gribovsky-752, Dwarf early-921, Donskoy, Long purple, Bulgarian. The dark purple color of the skin is present in the eastern group of early varieties (varieties: Delikates, Dwarf early, Vostochny).

In the western group of varieties, the shape of the fruit is flattened, spherical, oval, ovoid, shortened pear-shaped, cylindrical (varieties: Crimean, Donskoy).

For growing under a film in the middle lane, early ripening early varieties are used: Delikates 163, Dwarf early 6, etc. Of the mid-ripening and productive, Universal 6, Simferopol 105, etc. are suitable.

The best time for cleaning is dry, cool weather before the first frost. Even slight frost damage makes the eggplant unusable.


High-yielding mid-season. The period from germination to harvest is 115-130 days. The plant is compact, 40-60 cm high. Fruits are short-pear-shaped, weighing 300-450 g, with dense white flesh without bitterness. The color in technical ripeness is blue-violet, in biological it is brown-brown. The keeping quality and transportability are excellent. Universal use


Attractive fruit in deep purple color. The period from germination to harvesting of the first crop is 120-130 days. Semi-sprawling bush, 85-90 cm high outdoors. Fruits are cylindrical, 20-25 cm long. The fruit retains its commercial qualities for a long time

Eggplant "Long purple"
Eggplant "Long purple"
Eggplant "Bagheera"
Eggplant "Bagheera"
Eggplant "Black beauty"
Eggplant "Black beauty"


Early ripening hybrid eggplant selection "Gavrish". The plants are vigorous. Flowers are solitary, about 5 cm in diameter. Fruit weighing 250-300 g, oval, dark purple. The pulp is of medium density, white with a green tint, without bitterness. The hybrid is well suited for growing in greenhouses


A very early variety of eggplant for growing in film greenhouses and open field. Plants 1.8 m high. A large number of fruits


Early maturing (110-115 days) variety of eggplant selection "VNIISSOK". Productivity in a film greenhouse is 5-7 kg / m. Plant of semi-determinant type, stems with anthocyanin coloration. The fruit is pear-shaped or shortened-pear-shaped, purple in color, weighing 200 g. Thorns are weak

Long purple

A very early variety of eggplant. The plant is fast growing, compact with short internodes, 40-55 cm high. Fruits are long, glossy, weighing 200-300 g

Don Quixote

Early maturing (100-120 days) variety of eggplant selection Pallas' for glazed and film greenhouses. Plants are medium-sized. Fruits are dark purple 35-45x5-6 cm in size, weighing 300-400 g


Hybrid eggplant selection "Gavrish" with a ripening period of 110-115 days. For all types of protected ground structures. The plant is medium-sized, in glazed greenhouses 270-330 cm, in film greenhouses 70-80 cm. Fruits are dark purple, elongated (18-25 cm), weighing 250-309 g, without voids. The pulp is white, dense, without bitterness, with a small number of seeds and high taste. Zoned in 1998 in the Central, Central Chernozem and Ural regions. Productivity 14.7 kg / m


An ultra-early ripening variety of eggplant with elongated cylindrical fruits, inky purple in color and weighing 200-225 g


Mid-early (120-130 days) hybrid eggplant for glazed and heated film greenhouses selection Manul. The plants are vigorous. Fruits of a deep purple color, saber-shaped, measuring 21-28 x7-10 cm and weighing 300-500 g

Black handsome

Early ripe (78 days) variety of Danish selection of eggplant. The plant is 50-60 cm high. Fruits are beautiful, firm, regular cylindrical shape, weighing 200-250 g

Black Moon

Medium-early fruitful, unpretentious eggplant variety. Fruits are round in shape with a diameter of 15-20 cm. It sets fruit well at low temperatures


A mid-season (109-149 days) variety of eggplant bred by Donetsk OBS, a compact plant, 46-56 cm high. Fruits are cylindrical, dark purple, 14-18 cm long, weighing 100-165 g. The pulp is green, dense, without bitterness. Productivity up to 8 kg. The variety is valued for its amicable ripening and compact arrangement of fruits in the lower part of the plant


Early ripe, technical ripeness occurs 95-115 days after full germination. The plant is closed, of medium height. The leaf is medium-sized, green, notched, smooth, without thorns. The calyx is weakly spiny. The fruit is of medium length, pear-shaped, glossy, dark purple in technical ripeness. The pulp is white without bitterness. Fruit weight 240-280 g

Black beauty

An early high-yielding eggplant variety. Fruits are violet-black, weighing 700-900 g with tender and tasty pulp. The variety sets fruit well in unfavorable conditions. Gives an excellent harvest in film shelters, even in an area with a short summer season


An early variety of eggplant bred by the "Pridnestrovian Research Institute of Agriculture". The period from germination to the first harvest is 115-119 days. The plant is sprawling, 45-70 cm high. Fruits are dark purple, shiny, pear-shaped and straight in shape, weighing 165-185 g. The pulp is whitish-green, dense without bitterness. Resistant to verticillium and spider mites. Designed for canning and cooking. Zoned in Moldova


Medium early (120-130 days) variety of eggplant for all types of greenhouses selection Manul. The plants are vigorous. Fruits are lilac-white in color with a pointed end, 40-45 x 6-6.5 cm in size and weighing 300-450 g


The plant is 170-190 cm high, semi-spreading, medium-leafy, slightly thorny. The leaf is large, green, the edge of the leaf is even, without thorns. The fruit is 25-30 cm long, cylindrical, glossy, violet at technical ripeness. The pulp is white, firm, without bitterness


Dutch eggplant hybrid. Zoned in 1998 in the Central, Central Black Earth and Ural regions for winter-spring and extended turnover of winter greenhouses. Technical ripeness occurs 91 days after full germination. The plant is compact, 1.6-1.8 m high. The fruit is elongated, pear-shaped, slightly curved, dark purple, weighing 300-400 g


Early maturing, high-yielding, unpretentious eggplant variety. The fruit is black-purple, 20-30 cm, 5-8 cm in diameter, weighing 150-200 g. The pulp is tender, without bitterness

Sancho Panso

Mid-season (130-140 days) variety of eggplant selection Pallas' cat for all types of greenhouses. Plants are medium-sized. Fruits are round, 12x14 cm in size, weighing 600-700 g of deep purple color

Early maturing

An early-ripening variety of eggplant bred by the West Siberian Vegetable Experimental Station. The period from germination to technical ripeness is 112-139 days. The bush is low, compact, standard. The fruit is elongated pear-shaped, weighing 130 g, without bitterness. The pulp is white. Productivity 4-6 kg / m2


Very early hybrid eggplant of Dutch selection. The plant is powerful, fruitful. The fruit is dark purple, weighing up to 1 kg, 15-20 cm long. Differs in early set at low temperatures


Early ripe (112-118 days) cultivar. The yield in film greenhouses is 5.5-8.5 kg / m. The plant is of an indeterminate type. Fruits are cylindrical and oblong-pear-shaped, dark purple in color, glossy, weighing 215 g, weak thorns

Czech early

High-yielding eggplant variety. The plant is compact, medium-sized. Fruits are ovoid, dark purple in color, shiny, smooth. The pulp is firm, greenish-white, without bitterness. The yield is 4-5 kg / m


The plant is 150-180 cm high, semi-spreading, medium-leafy, with regular and even fruit formation. The leaf is large, green prickly, with smooth edges. Fruit weight 238-350 g oval, 12-14 cm in length. Productivity 12.8-19.7 kg / m. The value of the hybrid: early maturity, high yield and marketability, excellent taste of the product

Leafy salad eggplant

Heat-loving plant. The leaves are large, undisturbed, edible. White fruits weighing about 150 g, it is recommended to soak in salt water before use

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