Table of contents:
- Agrotechnical measures to protect eggplants from diseases
- Preparing the soil for planting eggplant seedlings in open ground
- Planting eggplant seedlings
- Diseases of eggplant during the growing season
- Biological methods of protecting eggplants from diseases
- Chemical methods of protecting eggplant from disease
- Protecting eggplant from pests
- Traditional methods of protecting eggplants from diseases and pests
Video: Protection Of Eggplants From Diseases And Pests. Biological, Chemical And Folk Methods. Photo
Eggplants, like other vegetable garden crops, are susceptible to disease and pests. By following all the recommendations for growing crops in the open field, you can minimize the number of treatments for plants from damage by diseases and pests. And using biological preparations for protection in a private household, you can get environmentally friendly products.
Agrotechnical measures to protect eggplants from diseases
The main measure that reduces the intensity of the defeat of eggplants by diseases of a fungal nature is the spatial isolation of the culture, that is, cultivation in a culture rotation with a return to its original place no earlier than 3-5 years.
It is necessary to arrange eggplants only according to the recommended predecessors: legumes, melons, carrots, cucumbers, onions, early cabbage and others.
Plant only healthy eggplant seedlings without signs of disease or pest damage.
Avoid thickened planting of plants, exclude excessive application of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers.
Planting and sowing eggplants should be carried out only with zoned varieties, which are better resistant not to a single disease, but to a group of diseases.
Preparing the soil for planting eggplant seedlings in open ground
Since autumn, the soil is filled with humus, mature compost with the addition of mineral phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. For 1 sq. m, 5-6 kg of organic matter, a glass of wood ash, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium fertilizer are applied on soils of medium fertility. If the soil is depleted, double the fertilization rate. On dense soils, the rate of organic fertilization is at least 1 bucket of mature humus. To increase the water and air permeability of the soil, autumn sowing and green manure planting have been successfully used recently. The soil is dug up onto a full bayonet of a shovel. With late deep digging, part of the family nests of the bear is destroyed.
Destruction of the bear
In spring, the area under the eggplants is leveled with a rake, which allows you to remove the soil crust and slow down the evaporation of moisture. With the onset of stable warm weather and the warming up of the earth in the 10-15 cm root layer up to +14.. + 15 ° C or 1-2 weeks before planting seedlings in open ground, measures are taken to destroy the bear. Medvedki harm almost all crops, so you can simultaneously process the entire garden plot.
Preparation of bait against the bear
Unfortunately, the most effective method for destroying the bear is chemical. Therefore, when carrying out work, be careful, observe the sanitary conditions for maintaining health.
Depending on the size of the garden, cook until half cooked the required amount of any grain crop (wheat, rye, oats), any large-grained cereal products, half peas. Drain off excess water. Add 2-3 tablespoons of sunflower oil (preferably unrefined with aroma) and 1-2 ampoules of BI-58 or metaphos to the prepared base. You can use another pesticide with a pungent odor. Stir the mixture well (with double gloves or a flat stick).
Divide the garden field into squares, drawing shallow (2-4 cm) furrows with an acute angle of the hoe every 30-40-50 cm. Spill them with a little water. Moisten so that mostly the furrow is wet. Bears in dry soil run to moisture. After watering, add the prepared bait into the furrows and cover it with a rake with a layer of 2-3 cm. Medvedok affects the pesticide, they suffocate in the soil and all come out to the surface. Sometimes this agony lasts 3-4 days. After 2-4 hours, start harvesting the bear so that birds and domestic cats do not get poisoned. Timely application of the bait for 2-3 years can save the garden 80-90% of this pest.
Planting eggplant seedlings
Planting of seedlings in prepared soil is carried out when stable warm weather, characteristic of the region, occurs, with good heating of the soil in the 10-15 cm root layer (at least + 15 ° C). Ripe eggplant seedlings should have 5-7-9 leaves on a straight stem, 1-3 buds, a well-developed fibrous root system.
In the evening, home seedlings are poured in seedling containers with a slightly colored solution of potassium permanganate with a root or other root former. In the morning, before 10-11 o'clock or after 16 o'clock, the seedlings are planted in prepared holes. If the seedlings are bought on the market, they are soaked in the same solution for 3-4 hours, the root is dipped in a clay-humus mash and planted in the ground, after sprinkling with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Eggplants take root slowly during the first 1-2 weeks. Weakened by a transplant, they quickly lose moisture, especially on bright sunny days. Leaves lose their turgor, wither, plants may lose their first buds. During this period, it is better to cover the eggplants with a single-layer spandbond (other material), fixed on high stakes (30-40 cm) from the sun's burning rays. With the onset of active growth, the temporary shelter is removed.
Diseases of eggplant during the growing season
During the growing season, the culture suffers from damage by a number of diseases, among which the most harmful are root and root rot, tracheomycosis (fusarium, verticillosis, late blight), leaf mosaic, stolbur. Fungal and bacterial rot affects the root system of the eggplant, resulting in the death of the entire plant. In addition to root rot, the culture is affected by negative fungi, bacteria and viruses that cause diseases of the aboveground mass and eggplant fruits. There are several methods to fight diseases on eggplants, using which the soil and the aboveground part of the culture are treated:
- biochemical preparations harmless to plants, humans, animals and beneficial insects (bees),
- chemicals that quickly destroy diseases. But they negatively affect human health and the quality of products, in which residues of chemical compounds accumulate,
- folk remedies, in the form of decoctions and infusions of plants with fungicidal and insecticidal properties.
Biological methods of protecting eggplants from diseases
In order to grow environmentally friendly products in the country, it is advisable to avoid the use of chemicals. Currently, private gardeners have the opportunity to cultivate crops using protective products made on the basis of natural materials (fungal and bacterial effective microflora). They are called EM drugs. They act on the pathogenic microflora in the soil and on green plants as antagonists, destroying the pathogen that causes the disease.
The externally unreasonable wilting of the aboveground mass of eggplants may indicate the defeat of the roots of the culture by fungal rot of various etiologies. To cleanse the soil from pathogenic pathogens, biological products are used made on the basis of effective fungal microflora (trichodermin, ampelomycin, coniotirin) and bacterial biofungicides (phytosporin-M, alirin-B, gamair, gaupsin, planriz, glyocladin, binoram, bactophyte). To reduce the number of treatments, it is possible to prepare tank mixes from several biological products.
When applied together, tank solutions enhance their effect on pathogenic microflora. Biofungicides on a fungal basis penetrate into the mycelium of a pathogenic fungus and destroy it, and on a bacterial one they “work” as antibiotics. For soil disinfection, you can use the dry Emochka-Bokashi preparation or working solutions of other EM preparations, including those based on the Baikal EM-1 concentrate.
System of soil treatment with biological products
Unlike chemical products, biological products will not destroy the disease when applied once. They require a longer systematic use, especially after rains or damp weather. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of treatments, it is better to use biological products in the form of tank mixtures, which will protect plants from several diseases at the same time.
The following tank mixtures can be prepared for tillage:
- trichodermin + ampelomycin + glyocladin + binoram;
- glyocladin + binoram;
- trichodermin + bactophyte;
- planriz + koniotirin and others.
Too frequent treatments do not always lead to a positive result. For biological products to work better, the processing of plants begins at an early date. The first soil treatment with a tank mixture or a separate biological product is carried out 10-12 days after planting seedlings in open ground.
Plant biological treatment system
With an obvious disease of plants (discarding of buds, yellowing or twisting of leaves, chlorosis of leaves, powdery mildew, etc.), they switch to therapeutic treatments with solutions of biological products. During the entire growing season, plants are sprayed with solutions of phytosporin, gamair, alirin, bactophyte, binoram and others after 7-10 days. In the phase of budding and the second harvest of fruits, trace elements are added to the solutions. You can add alirin, gamair or phytosporin to the tank mix prepared for spraying the soil and spray the plants with a complex mixture. This technique will increase the effectiveness of treatments. If there are remedies for protection against fungal and bacterial lesions, then drugs against viral diseases (mosaic, etc.) have not yet been developed. Affected plants are removed from the field and burned.
When working with biofungicides, it is necessary to clearly define the disease and process the plants according to the recommendations for the use of this particular biological product. If the disease is incorrectly diagnosed, the drug will not work. If you are unsure of a clear definition of the disease, treat the plants with a multi-pathogen tank mixture.
Chemical methods of protecting eggplant from disease
At summer cottages and private households, it is not recommended to use chemicals for processing vegetable garden crops and horticultural plantings. Chemical preparations have a long decomposition period, the residues of compounds have a negative effect on the human body, animals, birds and beneficial insects. Experts recommend that when using chemicals, stop processing a month before the harvest ripens and use as recommended.
Chemical preparations are not all compatible with each other, some have a depressing property only against a certain pathogen, which is the basis for the use of different drugs, which means that the number of treatments increases many times over. Recently, new chemicals have been shown to be highly effective at very low doses and a reduced waiting time (3-10 to 12-20 days). It is necessary to work with chemicals very carefully and carefully, not to get carried away with increasing dosages during dilution, to use personal protective equipment, protecting the respiratory organs, eyes and skin from poison.
System of treating plants with pesticides
Against a complex of diseases (gray rot, late blight, bacterial spotting, black leg), Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, cuproxat, Abiga-Peak, tsikhom, hom and others are used on eggplants. According to the developed system of plant treatment, protective measures begin 3-4 weeks after the emergence of seedlings and continue 2-3 weeks after planting the seedlings in the ground. Treatments continue at intervals of 7 to 14 days, depending on weather conditions.
Protecting eggplant from pests
The most dangerous pests of eggplant are aphids and the Colorado potato beetle. Aphids are a sucking small insect that can destroy an eggplant planting in a few days. They accumulate the aboveground plant organs (stems, leaves, flowers) and literally suck out all the plant juices. During the growing season, the Colorado potato beetle forms several generations, destroying up to 80% of the crop. By carrying out treatments against these pests, the spider mite will be destroyed at the same time. The sucking pest causes significant damage to plants.
Biological methods of protecting eggplants from pests
Biological products that protect crops from pests are called bioinsecticides. They are developed on the basis of groups of effective fungi (avermectins), bacteria and a group of soil entomopathogenic nematodes.
Bacterial-based bioinsecticides effectively destroy larvae of gnawing and sucking pests. The most common biological products are bitoxibacillin, lepidocid, fitoverm, basamil. The drugs are good because they can process not only vegetable crops, but also fruit and berry plantings. They are also successfully used in greenhouses.
No less important for pest control are fungal-based bioinsecticides - actofit, which can be used to treat plants even during harvesting. Mycoafidin, aversectin-C, avertin-N are biologics of more targeted action. They are most effective at killing pests in the early stages of development. Metarizin and pecilomycin purposefully destroy nematodes, which is especially important for eggplants during the period of growing seedlings and in the first weeks of cultivation in permanent protected and open ground.
Be careful! Bioinsecticides based on EO fungi are effective only in a humid environment at a temperature of about + 25 ° C. Spraying with these preparations is best done after watering, in the morning or after 4 pm. They are capricious when stored. When freezing and under the influence of direct sunlight, they lose their insecticidal properties. Insecticides can be used in tank mixes with biofungicides. A drug compatibility test is required. Doses and processing times should be performed according to the instructions, otherwise the effect is sharply reduced.
The use of chemicals to protect eggplant from pests
Against sucking and gnawing pests, eggplants are treated with Confidor Extra, Aktara, Decis-Pro, Vertimek, Inta-Vir Aktellik and others. Given their harmfulness, treatments are stopped before flowering. If the drug is applied in a timely manner, then 1-2 sprays are enough. The first is carried out with single injuries as a preventive measure and the second after 2 weeks. In case of epiphytotic damage to plants, spraying is carried out every 10 days with one of the named drugs or a tank mixture. Remember! All treatments with chemicals are completed before the onset of mass flowering of the culture.
Traditional methods of protecting eggplants from diseases and pests
Traditional methods of protecting eggplants from diseases and pests are mainly reduced to the preparation of decoctions and infusions from herbs and spraying them with diseased and damaged crops. It is necessary to immediately stipulate that the 1st spraying is not enough, and multiple spraying is not as harmless as it seems. Indeed, in essence, the use of decoctions of poisonous herbs is also a chemical effect on the pathogen and, at the same time, not a very desirable effect on human health. For example: pollination with tobacco dust, spraying with hemlock broth and the same wormwood or potato tops, which were sprayed with chemicals from a number of pests during the growing season.
- Some gardeners advise against aphids and spider mites to prepare decoctions of wormwood, chamomile, yarrow and spray the plants with them.
- Infusion of autumn walnut leaves effectively destroys aphids. In autumn, stuff a metal barrel 2/3 with walnut leaves, pour boiling water to the top and close it tightly with a lid. During the autumn-winter-spring period, the leaves are infused. It turns out a concentrate. A working solution is prepared from it. Dissolve 1-2 liters in 8-10 liters of water and spray the plants. First, you need to spray one plant and observe the reaction of the culture to the application of the solution for 3-4 hours. If the oppression of the plant does not manifest itself, then spraying can be carried out.
- Pollination with ash or spraying with ash infusion helps against aphids. For 10 liters of water, take 1.0-1.5 glasses of ash. Insist during the day, filter and spray the plants. Green or laundry soap is added to all solutions for better adhesion of the broth.
- According to the reviews of some gardeners, young larvae of the Colorado potato beetle and aphids are effectively destroyed when spraying with a complex broth. Pass through a meat grinder a glass of dandelion leaves, onions and chives. The mixture is poured into 10 liters of water with the addition of 1-2 tablespoons of soap. Insist 2-3 hours, filter and spray the plants. Spider mites, aphids and Colorado potato beetle larvae die with equal success at any stage of development.
There are many folk gatherings and decoctions of different compositions. The effect is different and each gardener can test the solutions on their own, selecting recipes for those that gave a noticeable effect when used. It should be noted that compliance with agrotechnical requirements with the timely implementation of the necessary measures will ensure a harvest with minimal use of any kind of protective equipment against diseases and pests.