Table of contents:
- Choosing a place and planting a pear
- Pear planting rules
- Pear care
- Protecting pears from pests and diseases
- Pruning pear
- Pear varieties for different regions of Russia
Video: We Grow A Pear: Planting, Care, Pruning, Varieties. Photo
The pear as a horticultural crop is in the top five horticultural fruit trees. Pears are not just delicious fruits, but they also have a wonderful (special) property. Allergy sufferers can safely eat them both fresh and processed. The perfect combination of grainy pulp with a pleasant aroma gives the pears an exquisite taste. The amazing qualities of the pear fruit are revealed gradually. The entire aromatic and flavoring bouquet of the fruit appears only after ripening and "maturing". Pears are called a tasty medicine for the urinary system. It is the only crop that contains arbutin. A substance required to treat the bladder and kidneys. Pear fruits contain a large list of trace elements and substances, the combination of which counteracts the deposition of salts in the liver and kidneys.Chlorogenic acids strengthen the capillaries and help remove bile from the body.
In general, a pear is the crop that should be grown in every country house. It is not difficult to grow it. The pear is not capricious, although it has features that must be taken into account when selecting varieties, growing and formative pruning. Recently bred varieties and hybrids of pears have made it possible to promote the area of cultivation in the northern regions of Russia.
- Choosing a place and planting a pear
- Pear planting rules
- Pear care
- Protecting pears from pests and diseases
- Pruning pear
- Pear varieties for different regions of Russia
Choosing a place and planting a pear
The pear has several features. The culture belongs to the light-loving. It is tolerant of increased moisture content in the root area, but does not tolerate prolonged damp fogs. A few damp days and the pear gets sick with fungal and bacterial diseases. Therefore, in mixed country gardens, it is better to plant it in the outer rows, in the most illuminated places, accessible to the winds (but not drafts).
When planting in lowlands, places with a high standing of groundwater, in drafts, pear trees develop poorly and quickly die. In areas occupied by a garden, it is rational to allocate a place for a pear on the southern, western or southwestern side. The pear is a cross-pollinated crop, so usually 2-3 trees of different varieties are planted.
Pear soil requirements
Like other crops, the pear grows normally and develops on fertile lands with good moisture and air permeability. The clay layer does not affect the development of the pear, which requires some moisture retention at the base of the root system. If the soils are physically dense, but depleted in nutrients, then a mixture is prepared from the upper layers of the earth when digging a planting pit, adding humus or compost for loosening, and mineral fat.
Planting period of pear seedlings
Depending on the region, the pear is planted in autumn or spring. Spring planting is preferable in the northern regions and central Russia with cold winter temperatures. Planting of pears begins in April, when warm weather sets in without return frosts.
In the southern and other regions, with snowy winters and relatively long warm autumn, pear seedlings are best planted in the autumn. A sultry spring in warm regions often oppresses the seedling, causes the aboveground part to dry out and die. The optimal period for planting seedlings in the south is the end of September, the first half of October. With a long warm period, pear seedlings have time to take root and adapt to new living conditions. The culture does not like transplants, so the seedlings are planted immediately in a permanent place, especially 3 - 4 year olds.
Preparing the soil for planting pears
The area for a pear orchard or individual plantings must be prepared in advance. For digging, compost or humus is introduced up to 10 kg / sq. m and up to 100 g of nitrophosphate or 50-60 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium salt. If the soil is acidic, add dolomite flour or 2 cups of ash.
Preparation of planting holes
For the spring planting of pear seedlings, the planting pit is prepared in the fall. It is dug out quite capaciously - 70x70 cm and up to a meter deep. On the bottom of the pit on light soils, a 10 cm layer of clay is laid to retain irrigation water or precipitation. A 10-15-20 cm layer of compost or humus (not manure) is placed on top. The layers are covered with a prepared potting mixture and left until spring.
For the autumn planting of pears, the planting pit is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting the seedling. In the same way, a pillow is prepared at the bottom of the planting pit, the dimensions of which correspond to the volume of the root system. In the center of the pit, a wooden support is installed, to which the pear seedling will be tied after planting. Planting a seedling in prepared pits is carried out as usual.
Preparing the potting mix
The soil mixture for filling the hole when planting pear seedlings is prepared from the upper most fertile soil layer, which is mixed with humus, compost or high-moor peat, 50-60 g of nitrophoska or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are added to a bucket of this mixture, 30 and 20 g, respectively, and about 100-150 g of wood ash.
Pear seedling preparation
For planting, it is better to buy 1-2 year old seedlings. When buying, you need to pay attention to the quality of the pear grafting and the condition of the seedling itself. The bark should be smooth and uniform. The pear seedling itself is elastic, not dry. The root system is alive - on the cut it is light, moist, shades characteristic of the variety. The day before planting, the roots of the seedling are dipped into a bucket with a solution of root or other root stimulant. It is also added to the water, which is poured into the planting pit.
Before planting, the central and lateral long roots are cut by 10-12 cm. If there were leaves on the stem, they are cut off, and the side branches are cut off. A ready-made pear seedling represents a shoot 75-85 cm high without side shoots.
Pear planting rules
The roots of the prepared pear seedling are spread over a hill of soil mixture (in a pit) and sprinkled with earth. The stem of the seedling is shaken or slightly trampled in the pit so that there are no air voids. Having covered 2/3 of the hole, a bucket of settled water is poured (so that it is not excessively cold). After absorbing water, continue filling the planting pit to the top. Be sure to monitor that the root collar of the pear seedling is 3-4-5 cm higher than the soil. The root collar is located above the first roots and differs in the color of the bark on the stem.
If the pear seedling is grafted, then the grafting site is located above the root collar (for beginner gardeners). After finishing planting, the soil is lightly tamped with hands, a roller 3-5 cm high is prepared in a circle with a diameter of 40-50 cm, where another 1-2 buckets of water are poured. After soaking, the soil around the trunk is mulched, not reaching the central shoot of 8-10 cm. At the end of planting work, a young pear seedling is tied to a support through a figure eight. The entire warm period of autumn or, with spring planting, the entire growing season, the soil is mulched after watering. The mulch should not envelop the trunk of the pear: rotting of the young trunk may begin.
Under the crown of a young pear seedling and subsequently under an adult tree, it is necessary to constantly keep the soil free of weeds. The best neighbor for a pear is the apple tree. It is undesirable to plant rowan trees next to the pear, as they are affected by the same types of pests.
Pears, even winter-hardy ones, planted in regions with prolonged frosts, at a young age need winter shelters. The trunk of a young tree is wrapped in burlap or other materials pretreated with anti-mouse drugs (diesel fuel, dust, birch tar). Straw mixed with stems of blackroot, wormwood, tansy, black elder, red, grass, mint and others that scare away mice is used as a heater. The lower end of the insulation is buried 3-4 cm into the soil and in winter, freshly fallen snow is trampled around.
In the first year, pears are watered once a week. Enough 1-2 buckets per plant. In subsequent years, the water rate is increased, and the irrigation time is reduced to 1-2 per month. 1-2 grooves are dug around the tree, which are filled with water from a hose. It is preferable to water adult pears by sprinkling. After watering, loosening and mulching are mandatory. The plant needs oxygen and a moist, crust-free soil surface.
The pear does not like high amounts of nitrogen. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are applied annually in small doses in the first 2-4 years when the leaves are blooming. In the future, nitrogen fertilization is carried out only with obvious nitrogen starvation, when the tree is lagging behind in growth, the annual increments are insignificant, the leaves are clarified (the exception is the varietal color of the pear), the leaf plastic is not sufficiently developed.
For pear fertilizing, organic matter is applied once every 3-4-5 years, depending on the fertility of the soil. Mineral fertilizing, including micronutrient fertilizers, is necessary for the culture annually due to the large removal of nutrients by the crop.
It is most rational not to scatter organic and mineral fertilizers on the soil surface, but to apply them into shallow trenches dug around the tree crown. In the year of introducing organic matter, a phosphorus-potassium mixture is first introduced into the trench, respectively, 40 and 20 or 60 and 30 g per running meter, depending on the age of the pear, mix it with the soil so as not to burn the roots, then cover it with humus or compost on top (0, 5 buckets) and cover with a layer of soil. In other years, you can limit yourself to applying a full complex fertilizer with a minimum nitrogen content.
Gardeners often use nitrophoska or kemira, which also contains a number of trace elements. Instead of microelements, at the beginning of the growth phase of fruits, 1-2-3 glasses of wood ash can be added under the tree under the crown circumference for loosening. For the autumn digging, a complete mineral fertilizer is applied, you can add humus or use individual recommendations for a specific crop variety.
It is good to use green manure green manure in garden plantings. Siderata can be sown between rows and mowed or left until spring for digging.
Protecting pears from pests and diseases
Pears, like other pome fruit crops, are affected by fungal, bacterial and viral diseases and pests - sucking and gnawing. Moreover, diseases affect separately pear leaves and fruits.
To harvest a full-fledged crop, crop protection must begin in early spring, using all recommended agrotechnical measures, and carried out before harvesting. Preventive protection measures play a huge role in maintaining the health of the pear, and therefore in obtaining a high-quality harvest.
Preventive and agrochemical protection measures include: maintaining a site without weeds, timely fertilizing, watering, processing trees. Timely cleaning of volunteers and leaf litter. All leaves are taken outside the garden area and used: healthy ones - for laying on compost, for digging, and the sick ones burn or put them in a separate compost pit for decay, pouring or spilling solutions against diseases in layers.
When trimming, all waste should be taken out and incinerated. Trees after complete leaf fall, treat with copper or iron sulfate (2-3%) or 3% Bordeaux liquid. Repeat the treatment in spring until the kidneys wake up from winter rest. Timely and high-quality implementation of preventive measures reduces the likelihood of diseases or damage to trees by pests up to 70%.
Types of pear diseases and protection measures
The pear is affected by diseases common to other pome crops. The most common and harmful are:
- scab (leaves and fruits),
- moniliosis (leaves and fruits),
- black cancer (leaves and fruits),
- stem rot (cytosporosis),
- bacterial burn,
- powdery mildew,
- leaf rust,
- white spot (septoria),
- milky shine.
Of the protection measures, the most safe in private estates is the processing of horticultural crops with biological products. They can be used for treatments during the entire growing season, from leafing to harvest, and some biological products are used to process fruits during winter storage to prolong their preservation.
Some hurry gardeners use chemicals. Yes, using chemicals, 2 or 3 treatments are enough and the disease will be defeated, but … If chemicals are used incorrectly or inaccurately, you can get poisoning and damage to internal organs both for the handler and family members, cause the death of pets and useful insects.
Therefore, it is practical and safe to use the following biological products against diseases in tank mixtures: trichodermin (glyocladin), phytolavin, gamair (bactericide), planriz, pentophage-C, phytosporin-M, pharmacod, alirin-B, gaupsin. The latter drug has a double effect. It is a good fungicide and insecticide. All of these biological products interact well in tank mixtures and are broad-spectrum drugs, destroying up to 4-9 types of diseases. They destroy, in particular, fungal, bacterial and viral infections.
The use of biological products to protect pears from pests
The main pests of pears are:
- green aphid,
- leaf beetle (pear honeydew),
- pear tick
- leaf roll and others.
To effectively protect a pear from pests, it is enough to have 2 biological products in a garden medicine cabinet - actofit (acarin) and bitoxibacillin. These 2 biological products destroy almost all of the above-named pests. Biological products fitoverm, verticillin, lepidocid are also effective. Bioinsecticides and biofungicides can be used in tank mixes. Mixtures can reduce the number of treatments and increase their efficiency.
Using biological products it is necessary:
- strictly adhere to the recommendations when preparing working solutions; when spraying, adhesives (soap, etc.) should be added to the solution,
- carry out treatments only in warm weather (air temperature is not lower than +16.. + 18 ° С) biological products are effective up to +32 ° С,
- processing should be carried out after 7-12 days, unless otherwise recommended,
- the effect of the biological product is manifested on days 3-6 under optimal conditions; if precipitation has passed, abundant dew falls, the treatments must be repeated.
Pear pruning is one of the main techniques for obtaining a high yield of good quality. There are 3 types of trimming:
- sanitary support,
Formative pear pruning
Formative pruning is used in the first years of growth and development of the seedling. It aims to create a crown. Pears form high yields, but with an incorrectly formed crown, skeletal branches can break off, the tree will bend or develop one-sided. There are quite a few types of forming pruning in pear gardening - palmette, column, pyramid and others. In order to properly form the crown, it is better to invite a specialist. With self-formative pruning, the most accessible and easiest types are usually used:
- whorled-tiered or sparse-tiered.
When forming the crown of a pear, several rules must be strictly observed:
- the main skeletal branches should be directed evenly in different directions,
- the angle of divergence of the skeletal branch (first tier) from the stem must be obtuse and be at least 90-120 degrees,
- the optimal number of skeletal branches during tiered formation is 3-4 in the first and 2-3 in the second,
- branches of the second tier should always be positioned so that they grow in the free space of the branches of the first tier so as not to shade it.
Non-tiered pear crown formation
The next year, after planting, in the bud swelling phase, all shoots are cut off on the central stem to a height of 40-45 cm. This is a bole. The branches of the crown will be located above. A well-developed eye is left at the top of the stem. This will be the lowest first tier skeletal branch. From this bud, 25-30 cm are measured and the next bud for the second skeletal branch is found. It is necessary that this bud is located in a spiral shape on the other side of the central shoot and, as it were, balances the future load of branches with fruits.
If the height of the pear seedling allows, you can arrange in a spiral and the third bud - the third skeletal branch and leave the continuation shoot. He is the leader and ensures the growth of the culture. So that the tree is not too tall (preferably no more than 3 m), over time, the central shoot is shortened by 20-25-35 cm and the nearest well-developed bud or branch is left in the lead. With this method, the pear stops growing in height.
With this crown formation, all branches between the main skeletal branches are cut into a ring. Form 2-3 shoots of the second order. Adhering to the same rules - uniform load of the tree from different sides. In subsequent years, they perform sanitary, thinning and rejuvenating pear pruning.
Whorled-tiered pear crown formation
1st year after planting
In the spring, in the bud swelling phase, a pear stem with a height of 40-45 cm is formed. All lateral shoots on the stem are cut into a ring.
Then measure on the central shoot up from the stem 70-90 cm for the first tier. In this space, 3-4 of the most developed pear buds are noted, located every 15-25 cm on opposite sides of the central stem (after 90-120 degrees). These branches are cut 1 / 2-1 / 3 so that they are about the same length. The remaining intermediate branches are removed to the ring. Some gardeners cut short and leave them on the fruitful link.
After 15-20 cm above the third bud of the first tier, the central shoot of the pear is cut off, which serves to continue the growth of the tree.
2nd year after planting
The formation of the first tier of the pear crown is completed. The central stem and skeletal branches are not touched. The growth of the central stem between the skeletal branches of the first tier is removed on a ring. Lateral shoots on the central trunk above the first tier are shortened.
3rd year after planting
In the spring, in the bud swelling phase, approximately 40-45 cm are measured from the upper skeletal branch of the first tier and all pear branches are cut into a ring.
From the blossoming buds, 2 buds are selected higher along the central shoot, located 20-25 cm from each other on different sides. By their location on the central shoot, they should not coincide with the branches of the first tier, so as not to shade them in summer. The branches of the second tier of pears are placed in intervals in relation to the skeletal branches of the first tier.
All branches between the skeletal branches of the second tier are also removed or shortened, as in the formation of the first tier. Skeletal branches are cut by 1/3, leveling in length. The central stem is shortened by 15-20 cm.
4th year after planting
The central stem of the pear is shortened to a side branch to weaken the tree's upward growth. Pruning is carried out at a level of 40-45 cm from the upper skeletal branch of the second tier. Shorten all skeletal branches by 1 / 3-1 / 4 and some branches that grow between tiers. The rest of the growth in the tiers, on the trunk and thickening tiers, is removed on the ring.
5-6 years after planting
By this time, the height of the pear reaches 2.5-3.5 m. Above the upper skeletal branch, the central conductor must be cut so that the tree stops growing upwards.
In the formed crown, the branches of the 2nd order should be at a distance of 90-100 cm from the central trunk and 50-60-70 cm from each other.
With normal growth of adult trees, thinning of the crown is carried out after 5-6 years (if necessary, the branch is cut into a ring) and limiting pruning of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches of the pear. Growth and branches shorter than 25-30 cm are not cut or shortened, they are left for fruiting.
In order for the tree to form correctly, it is necessary to create a strong crown, on the skeletal branches of which annual growth and fruit links will develop. To do this, at the beginning of summer (July 10-20), pears are tied, without tightening, a strong twine to the middle of 1-2 year old skeletal branches, they are bent downwards and tied to the central trunk. The skeletal branch should form a horizontal line and not bend into an arc. The next year, the same procedure is done with the skeletal branches of the second tier. In the tied state, the branches are until lignification.
The twine is removed, and the pear branches remain in a horizontal position. Some gardeners tie the lower end of the string to heavy objects at the base of the trunk (bricks, cauldrons, etc.). With this method of bending, care must be taken to maintain the horizontal arrangement of the branches. Some gardeners cut branches with a small angle of deflection annually on the outer bud. The skeletal branches of the second tier of a pear subordinate to the length of the branches of the first tier (left shorter).
Sanitary Pear Pruning
Pruning is carried out annually after leaf fall and in early spring. The main goal is to remove thickening, growing inward crowns and diseased branches. Regulate the growth of skeletal branches. With spring pruning, the annual growth of the previous year is shortened.
Anti-aging pear pruning
Rejuvenating pruning of pears is carried out when the tree is heavily thickened, the annual growth is greatly reduced. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches of the culture on both tiers are barely covered with overgrown branches and stand bare. During this period, the crown is strongly lightened, removing some skeletal branches. The central trunk of the pear is shortened to a side branch, which allows redistributing nutrients to the longline branches and overgrown branches. Pruning and thinning contributes to a more intensive supply of nutrients to the fruit-forming branches, which contributes to an increase in fruit set and an improvement in their quality indicators.
Pear varieties for different regions of Russia
The varietal variety of pears of the selection of recent years has made it possible to promote the culture even in the northern regions with frosty winters. The success of growing and obtaining good yields of excellent quality depends on correctly selected regional varieties and crop hybrids. For the northern regions, it is necessary to select frost-resistant varieties of pears with an early ripening of fruits.
For the northern regions, frost-resistant varieties of pears are most common: "Kafedralnaya", Severyanka, Fields, Lada, Otradnenskaya.
In the Moscow region and other regions of central Russia, good harvests are formed by pear varieties: "Lada", "Bugristaya", "Chizhovskaya", "Tenderness", "Moskvichka", "Skazochnaya". Muscovites especially distinguish the Skazochnaya variety for its large-fruited and keeping quality, good taste and transport qualities. The Chizhovskaya pear variety is self-fertile, does not require a partner for pollination, is resistant to fungal diseases and begins to bear fruit early. Good harvests are formed by pear varieties "Prosto Maria", "August Dew" and others.
In the southern regions, the varietal variety of pears is much greater than the northern ones. Here, varieties are grown that form the harvest from July to late autumn (October). The best for dacha cultivation gardeners consider early ripe pear varieties "Ilyinka", "Lastochka", "Melting". Of the late winter varieties, the Dicolor pear variety is necessarily grown, it ripens in October and is stored until January. The fruits are large, bright, juicy. High-quality harvests are obtained from pear varieties "Summer Duchess" and "Lyubimitsa Klappa", "Rosie Red Bartlet" and others.