Reproduction Of Decorative And Fruit Crops By Layering. Benefits, Examples Of Plants. Schemes

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Reproduction Of Decorative And Fruit Crops By Layering. Benefits, Examples Of Plants. Schemes
Reproduction Of Decorative And Fruit Crops By Layering. Benefits, Examples Of Plants. Schemes
Video: Reproduction Of Decorative And Fruit Crops By Layering. Benefits, Examples Of Plants. Schemes
Video: Air Layering Propagation Made Easy 2023, February
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Quite often, gardeners want to get their favorite plants at no extra cost. The first thing that comes to mind in such cases is cuttings. A reproduction technique that allows, in a fairly short time, to obtain a large number of young plants, identical (genetically) to the mother plant. What if you are a beginner or a lazy gardener? Or do you come to the summer cottage only on weekends, and even then every other time, and still want to relax there? Then the undertaking with cuttings may not work out. And often, if you need very little material, the game is simply not worth the candle. Why not give nature the opportunity to do almost all the work for us - to propagate our favorite plants by layering?

Reproduction of ornamental and fruit crops by layering
Reproduction of ornamental and fruit crops by layering

Content:

  • Benefits of plant propagation by layering over cuttings
  • Propagation by horizontal layers
  • Propagation by vertical layers
  • Reproduction of plants by arcuate layers
  • Reproduction by apical layers
  • Propagation by air layers
  • Examples of plants that can be propagated by one or another layering

Benefits of plant propagation by layering over cuttings

The reasons why a gardener needs to propagate a plant can be very different:

  • I want to plant several more of the same plants or even create a hedge or a living wall (in the case of vines);
  • fear of losing a single plant in case of adverse conditions;
  • the desire to transplant a large bush to another place, but due to its large size, this event looks dubious;
  • the need to replace an aged plant, etc.

But grafting, although not a very difficult science, in some cases requires special preparation: a substrate (for example, clean sand), moisture, greenhouses with ventilation and the possibility of shading, containers, the use of phytohormones, and of course, some experience for cutting and preparation cuttings. And most importantly - supervision: humidification, airing, shading. So that the cuttings do not dry out, do not sop, do not catch some kind of fungal disease …

People who have a lot of experience in grafting or are doing it professionally, perhaps, say: "That's me too, problems!"

Of course, there are plants that are very easy to cut (root quickly even in water and also take root well). For example, cinquefoil, weigela, action. And you will have to tinker with others, but success is still not guaranteed.

This, oddly enough, is the Japanese quince (which reproduces well in itself by root suckers), tanning skumpia, conifers and even some types of spire. The survival rate of cuttings is only 30-50%.

Sad, huh? In addition, any cuttings will require supervision in any case, and their rooting time is from 10-14 (in the fastest) to 60-120 days.

And the layers sometimes even turn out by themselves, if the branches lean too close in the ground. Therefore, before starting propagation by layering, check if you have any ready-made rooted shoots?

Or instead, use existing root suckers, like those of a self-rooted lilac or quince. Moreover, they must be removed in any case, so as not to weaken the mother plant.

Rooting of cuttings usually begins in the spring and takes place throughout the summer while the growing season continues. At the end of the day, you can simply leave the branches to root until next year.

Layers are separated in spring or autumn at the usual time for planting and transplanting shrubs.

Layers are horizontal, vertical, arched, apical and even airy

Figure: 1. Plant propagation by layering. a) vertical; b) horizontal; c) rooted horizontal layers
Figure: 1. Plant propagation by layering. a) vertical; b) horizontal; c) rooted horizontal layers

Propagation by horizontal layers

Usually, from ⅓ to ⅔ of all shoots are allowed for layering, if you need to get more material. For horizontal layering, only young shoots are suitable (this year or, in extreme cases, the past).

The mother plant is carefully loosened and small (up to 5 cm deep) grooves are made around. Branches are laid in them, after removing all the leaves, except for the top of the shoot, which is left above the ground. The branches are fixed in the ground with metal pins. The grooves are filled with humus or other light fertile soil and watered.

If you have high humidity on the site, then instead of a groove, you can make a mound of humus mixed with the ground above the pinned branch (Fig. 1, B).

As new shoots grow on the layer, it is additionally covered with earth with humus several times, this contributes to better root formation.

To increase the number of plants obtained by layering, or in the case of vines, you can remove the apical bud of the shoot, and slightly drag the shoot in several places with a wire or nylon rope immediately under each developed pair of leaves. Banding of the bark and cuts on the stem are also used, but these are still technologies for advanced users, and we will talk about them next time.

As it takes root, the shoot is raked and cut in several places and young plants are planted. This process can be stretched a little in time so that the root system of the layers develops better, first cut the shoot, and transplant it to a permanent place only after a while.

Figure: 2. Reproduction by horizontal layers. As it takes root, the shoot is raked and cut in several places, young plants are planted
Figure: 2. Reproduction by horizontal layers. As it takes root, the shoot is raked and cut in several places, young plants are planted

Propagation by vertical layers

Reproduction by vertical layers is used if:

  • you need to rejuvenate the old bush;
  • the plant was frozen over and had to be cut to a stump;
  • you need to get layering from a plant with poorly bending stems;
  • need rootstocks for trees.

To do this, you can try in July to fall asleep with humus, mixed with garden soil, up to 15 cm high, in the middle of a bush cut into a stump. This method is good for young plants or plants that are not afraid of burying the root collar and tend to take root quickly. Because it is impossible to keep some bushes for a long time, especially old and frozen ones, in this form, since there is a high probability of developing root collar rot (Fig. 1, A).

After the shoots begin to take root, they are covered with earth several times. The formed shoots with roots are planted in the fall, and the bush is unpacked for the winter to the ground, so that dormant buds awaken on it.

Reproduction of plants by arcuate layers

Arcuate cuttings are used for plants with not very flexible stems, or if you want to get a more developed plant at once. In this case, only one plant is obtained from each cut. The technology is the same as for horizontal layers, but in this case, the shoot is bent in an arc and pinned only in one place into a hole with humus. The end of the shoot is left in the air, tying it to a peg to get a more or less straight seedling.

Leaves are also removed only in the place that is intended for rooting. You can also overtighten it slightly to stimulate root formation by limiting the supply from the mother shrub slightly or by ringing the bark and making an incision.

A pebble is inserted into the incision so that it does not close. The use of phytogromone will also not be superfluous. Rooting can also be carried out in a technical pot of the appropriate size, dug into the ground and filled with humus. This will facilitate the process of transplanting the layering.

Figure: 3. Reproduction by arcuate layering
Figure: 3. Reproduction by arcuate layering

Reproduction by apical layers

The apical layers are used for lianas or plants of the genus Raspberry (Rubus): blackberries or raspberries, fragrant raspberries, black, etc. You can often see that they have taken root themselves. But this process can be stimulated.

In the spring, you need to select several powerful young shoots. As they grow, pinch their top several times, thereby stimulating the formation of side shoots. By the middle of summer, lay their ends in holes with humus mixed with sand, and secure with pins. In the fall, you will have some new plants to transplant to a new location.

True, the roots of such shoots will not be very strong, so they will have to be planted in holes with light, nutritious soil from a mixture of humus, garden soil, peat and sand, and for some time closely monitor the soil moisture.

Figure: 4. Reproduction by apical layers. a) Sprinkle the top of the lash with soil; b) The top of the lash stops growing and takes root; c) We separate the young bush from the mother plant
Figure: 4. Reproduction by apical layers. a) Sprinkle the top of the lash with soil; b) The top of the lash stops growing and takes root; c) We separate the young bush from the mother plant

Propagation by air layers

Air layers are most often used for trees and indoor plants. In China, this technology has existed for about 400 thousand years. This method was often used when creating bonsai, in order to get a dwarf tree with a spreading crown in a short time from a branched lateral branch of a tree.

Figure: 5. Reproduction by air layering
Figure: 5. Reproduction by air layering

Examples of plants that can be propagated by one or another layering

Horizontal and arcuate layering reproduce: currants, including decorative, gooseberries, grapes - fruit, Amur and maiden, chokeberry, yoshta, clonal rootstocks of all fruit crops, hazel, junipers, yews, spruce, fir, forsythia, wisteria, woodworm all spiraea, honeysuckle (Tatar, shiny and curly), mock orange, action, weigel, lilac, barberry, lemongrass, actinidia, magonia, hydrangea, cinquefoil, clematis, colquitia, privet, cotoneaster.

Almost all plants except conifers reproduce by vertical layers.

The top ones are plants of the genus Raspberry.

Airy - for any plants that are problematic to bend to the ground, or when you want to immediately get a fruiting plant, for example, a lemon.

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