Table of contents:
- What is harmful - a butterfly or a caterpillar?
- Danger of apple moth for trees
- Apple moth control methods
Video: Apple Moth - How To Deal With A Pest? Photo
Apple moth is also called apple moth. This is a notched-winged leafworm, or, as our grandmothers call it, a leafy twirl. Silver-white butterflies, small in size with a span of only two centimeters of their fragile wings. The pest very successfully attacks fruit trees in most of the territory of our country. Plants are usually so badly affected that their normal development simply stops. The apple tree (if we are talking about it) immediately drops, if not all, then almost 90% of the ovary, and what is most unpleasant - generative buds, that is, those that should bloom and give a crop next year. Our article on methods of dealing with apple moth.
- What is harmful - a butterfly or a caterpillar?
- Danger of apple moth for trees
- Apple moth control methods
What is harmful - a butterfly or a caterpillar?
Of course, the apple moth butterfly indirectly harms by laying eggs, but it is the caterpillar that inflicts tangible harm, which, in addition to apple trees, with pleasure, literally destroys the harvest of chaenomeles (Japanese quince) and pears. The caterpillar is yellow in color and has a couple of rows of pitch black dots. Her body reaches a length of only one and a half centimeters, and it is protected from the return cold by a completely reliable shield.
As soon as it gets warmer and the return cold becomes not afraid of the caterpillar of the apple moth, it deftly frees itself from this shield and begins to "mine" the leaf blades. It actively absorbs the leaf mass, forming a kind of nest or webbing around the place of its deployment. In this nest, just like at home, the caterpillar of the apple moth feeds on the green mass, and as soon as it ends, it moves on and so leaf by leaf hordes of caterpillars can destroy all the green mass on these plants.
The most interesting thing is that one caterpillar of the apple moth feeds practically without interruption for forty days in a row. Even one caterpillar sapling will leave a two-three-year-old apple tree without leaves during this time, and with a hundred caterpillars - an absolutely adult tree.
Well-fed caterpillars pupate in their nests, then turn into apple moth butterflies, and only 10-12 days after transforming into a butterfly, they will be ready to make a new ovipositor, sometimes consisting of a record number of eggs - up to seven dozen.
To protect them from birds, they are covered with a sticky mass, this is a special compound released exclusively by apple moth. In the future, if the caterpillars hatch, but they have nothing to eat, then they will hide under this sticky mass and will wait there all winter. Usually the butterfly lays its eggs on the bark of the thinnest branches of the tree.
Danger of apple moth for trees
It is large, the strongest damage to plants occurs, which ultimately leads to the fact that the tree stands completely naked and at the same time is also entangled in cobwebs. In this case, photosynthesis is completely excluded, there are no leaves, the root system is actually also suppressed.
Naturally, plants completely stop absorbing carbon dioxide and evolving oxygen, lose up to 90% of their immunity and can easily freeze out in winter. Especially often those plants that the apple moth attacks in a row for several seasons freeze out, gradually weakening their immunity and, as a result, reducing it to virtually zero.
The stages of attack by apple moth can be any. The pest can attack when the tree is still a young seedling, when it is a seedling, a large adult tree, and even a mother plant in a nursery.
In general, the apple moth is a very dangerous pest and must be dealt with.
Apple moth control methods
Biologicals and insecticides against apple moth
Let's start with a description of the algorithm for treatments with biological products and insecticides. So, let's take an apple tree as an example: usually these plants finish blooming closer to mid-May (although, depending on which spring). During this period, the caterpillars of the apple moth are weakened as much as possible and can be exposed to literally any pesticide. Then there is no need to hesitate, you need to start fighting them.
But before "pouring" the plants with chemistry, it is necessary to conduct a survey, and only if you find massive accumulations of caterpillars of the apple moth (very voracious, as we found out), then you can start processing.
But it is not even so difficult to destroy the insects themselves and their larvae, as to exterminate the ovipositor of the apple moth. Usually, for this, up to three treatments are carried out with drugs (which include paraffin), such as, for example, "Dimilin" (but if the ovipositor is small, then you can limit yourself to a couple of treatments).
There are also biological compounds - these are "Lepidotsid", "Iskra-bio", "Bitoxibacillin". The drug "Entobacterin-3" was tested on the author's own experience. In a bucket of water, you need to dissolve 100 g of this drug and treat the infected plants as soon as the air warms up to 16-17 degrees above zero.
The undoubted advantage of biological preparations is that, as we know, they are completely safe in relation to people, and treatments can be carried out, in fact, an unlimited amount up to the complete extermination of the pest. In this case, this is quite important, because the period of death of the caterpillar of the apple moth is sometimes up to a week after treatment. However, this is also a minus - not everyone has the patience to wait for the death of such a dangerous insect for almost a week after processing.
Therefore, especially impatient people use permitted insecticides, but in strict accordance with the instructions on the package, such as Actellik, Kinmiks, Inta-Vir and others, and if the caterpillars of the apple moth simply “eat up” the tree, then you can “hit "On them" Phosphamide "and" Bazudin ".
Also, in case of mass destruction of a large number of trees, Fozalon is used. Why is Fozalon good? It has a kind of more gentle effect on the green crown, and does not leave chemical burn marks on the leaf blades. This preparation can easily replace organochlorine compounds, while up to 75% of the caterpillars of the apple moth will be exterminated.
Top dressing parallel to drug treatments
Simultaneously with treatments for apple moth or alternating treatments, it is possible and necessary to feed plants, giving them strength, increasing immunity. Usually they use nitroammophoska, dissolved in water in the amount of a tablespoon per bucket, it is brought under each tree up to five years old for 2-3 liters and over five years of age - 5-6 liters each, one bucket is enough either for a couple of adult plants or for four - five young.
If there is no nitroammophoska, then you can dilute one and a half tablespoons of carbamide in a bucket of water and with this solution process the projection of the crown (leaves), that is, carry out the so-called foliar feeding. Immediately after this, the soil must be watered, pouring a bucket of water under a plant under the age of five, and two under an older plant.
Do not increase the dosage - just change the drug to another, no less strong, again strictly observing the dosage and processing time. As for apple moth butterflies, they usually do not become addictive, and they are destroyed by a single treatment during their flight. As for the caterpillars, sometimes it is necessary to carry out up to five or six treatments in order to completely lime them.
What if without chemistry?
Insecticides are undoubtedly effective, but their high toxicity has not been canceled either. Take at least "Actellik", they are allowed to carry out the treatment only once a year, this drug is so toxic. What to do? There is always a way out, for example, you can fight the apple moth using the so-called mechanical method. The method itself is simple, but, of course, requires certain costs and efforts and time.
To do this, you need to take a scraper and, walking through the garden, remove all the shields planted with apple moth under which the ovipositor is reliably hidden and burn them. It takes more time than effort.
Further, in early spring and in September, the caterpillars of the apple moth can be tried to be washed off the trees and leaves from the hose, creating the most powerful pressure of water and simply crushing them on the ground.
You can also collect (rather shear) all affected foliage with apple moth caterpillars, which is possible, of course, on young, not tall trees, or using ladders and ladders if you have only one or two trees in your garden. This is effective during the beginning of active flowering of the plant and after its completion. All collected material must be burned, preferably outside the site in a small dug groove.
Sometimes it helps to cope with the apple moth application during the period of bud opening on the shoots and the central trunk of a dispersed solution of almost any of the mineral oils.
An effective method of fighting and using traps. Naturally, it is pheromone traps with a sticky base that are placed on the site, on which butterflies stick (these are mainly male individuals of the apple moth flying towards the aroma of supposedly females).
Light catchers for ultraviolet radiation have a certain degree of efficiency. Moths actively fly into the light of such catchers, and in front of the "flashlight" there is a thinnest network, which is under voltage, which accumulates during the day from the solar battery. A small discharge is enough to kill an apple moth butterfly of any sex.
If you don't want to spend extra money, then you can make a trap such as a bait yourself. To do this, you need waterproof cardboard and a piece of plywood. The board must be painted yellow - this is a signal for the butterfly, and then just smear it with glue for mice, which does not dry. Apple moth butterflies fly to the signal, stick and die.
You can also make or buy a hunting belt, they need to wrap a tree trunk, it is better to take a sticky one, both a caterpillar and a gaping butterfly can stick to it.
Natural enemies of the apple moth
The apple moth also has natural enemies that live in the garden - these are mainly insects: tahini flies, wasps - they parasitize on moth caterpillars, that is, they lay their eggs on them. But it is almost impossible to find such "wonderful" parasites due to the use of insecticides in the garden.
Birds are also not bad enemies of the apple moth, for them it is like a feast, but the birds are shy and eat up quite quickly. Therefore, in order to attract them to the garden and calm them down, hang at least birdhouses, one hundred square meters, no more, otherwise there will be a struggle for territory.
Folk methods of dealing with apple moth
We will choose the most effective folk measures to combat apple moth. So, hot pepper, straight from the garden. The pods must be cut into the smallest parts, wearing glasses and rubber gloves, then pour a liter of water and boil this explosive mixture for an hour. Next, let it brew for a day in a tightly closed container. After that, the resulting broth must be well filtered, trying not to get into their eyes and pour it into any containers, but better glass, so that you can see what is inside. Further, these containers must be tightly closed and put in the refrigerator, gluing any deterrent label (God forbid the child swallows, there will be a squeal …).
To prepare a working solution, you need to take half a liter of pepper concentrate and add half a piece of laundry soap as an adhesive. And treat plants with this miracle remedy.
The second option is makhorka, it needs to be insisted in an amount of 100 g in a bucket of water for a week, stirring occasionally, and then treat the affected plants.
Look, dare and try, maybe the truth is folk remedies will be more effective than insecticides. And share your experience with us in the comments to the article.