Table of contents:
- 1. Preparing seedlings for planting
- 2. When to plant tomato seedlings
- 3. How to properly plant tomato seedlings
- 4. What scheme of planting tomatoes to choose
- 5. How to protect young tomato plantings from recurrent frosts
Depending on the varietal group, the age of seedlings ready for planting in open ground is: for early tomatoes - 45-50 days, average ripening times - 55-60, and later dates - at least 70 days. When planting seedlings at a younger age, the period of its adaptation to new conditions is significantly lengthened, the bushes develop poorly and do not well resist damage by diseases and pests. But success in obtaining a high-quality crop of tomatoes also depends on the careful implementation of the basic rules for planting seedlings in open ground.
1. Preparing seedlings for planting
At least 5-6 days before planting (if the seedlings grew in an apartment), it is necessary to harden it (especially early tomatoes).
Before planting tomato seedlings, it is useful to treat with any preparation that will reduce the stress effect of changing environmental conditions and help the plants to take root ("Zircon", "Epin", "HB-101" and others).
It is important to process these products in full accordance with the instructions for the preparation.
2. When to plant tomato seedlings
Regardless of the region, planting tomato seedlings in open ground is carried out when the soil in an 8-10 cm layer warms up to + 10 … + 12 ° C (soil temperature measurements are taken for several days) and the reality of recurrent frosts is minimized.
In regions of temperate climates, it is better to plant tomato seedlings in the so-called warm beds, or warm the soil in advance with hot water. To do this, 1-1.5 hours before planting seedlings, 1-2 liters of hot water are poured into each hole and the bed is temporarily covered with any covering material. Only then are the seedlings planted.
The following data, based on the many years of experience of gardeners in different regions of Russia, will help to roughly navigate the dates of planting tomato seedlings in open ground.
In the southern regions:
- early tomatoes are usually planted from 25.04 to 10.05;
- tomatoes of medium and late ripening - from 10.05 to 15.05.
In the Central black earth regions:
- early tomatoes - from 25.05 to 10.06;
- seedlings of tomatoes of medium and late ripening periods - from 20.05 to 25.05 and from 1.06 to 10.06 (respectively).
Middle zone of Russia:
- early tomatoes - from 1.06 to 10.06;
- seedlings of medium and late ripening - from 5.06 to 15.06.
Ural and Siberian regions:
- seedlings of early tomatoes - from 5.06 to 10.06;
- medium and late varieties - from 5.06 to 15.06.
Regions of the Far East:
- early tomatoes - 1.05 to 25.05 (under cover);
- seedlings of medium and late varieties - from 10.06 to 25.06.
3. How to properly plant tomato seedlings
Tomato seedlings must be planted in compliance with the following requirements:
If tomato seedlings are grown in individual peat-humus or other pots, only a pot or earthen lump is deepened into the soil hole and covered with earth. Stem - not covered with soil. The appearance of new leaves testifies to engraftment. After 2 weeks, the first hilling is carried out to the height of the stem.
If seedlings of tomatoes with an open root system, planting is carried out vertically, without root bends, in a previously prepared and abundantly watered hole. The plant installed in the center of the hole is carefully squeezed and mulched.
You can plant two plants in one hole, placing them along the row (it is more convenient to take care of the plants).
If tomato seedlings are overgrown, it is more convenient to plant them obliquely along the row, so that during subsequent treatments not to damage the root system.
After planting in the first 2-3 days, the seedlings can "lie". It `s naturally. You don't have to do anything.
The first post-plant watering is carried out no earlier than after 10-12 days (tomatoes cannot stand high humidity). But in case of very hot and dry weather, the first watering can and should be done earlier.
4. What scheme of planting tomatoes to choose
To grow a good harvest of tomatoes, it is important to choose the right seedling planting scheme.
In a summer cottage, where beds in a culture rotation or a separate wedge are allocated for culture, the following seedling planting schemes can be used.
For example, I plant seedlings of early tomatoes in double rows or simply in an ordinary way. With an ordinary scheme, so that the bushes do not shade each other (conditions are created for the development of fungal diseases) and do not thicken the plantings (it is more difficult to care for individual bushes in a row) I leave the distance between the bushes 45-50 cm, and between the rows 60-70 cm.
With the scheme of double rows between the ribbons, the distance is at least 70 cm (for tall ones - up to 1 m), and in the ribbon between the rows - 50-60 cm, in the row between the bushes - 45-60 cm, depending on the varietal group.
Immediately after disembarkation, I place arcs on which I attach the cover materials used in temperature and weather deviations from the norm. Sprinkle the row spacing with sawdust, which helps to keep the fruits from contamination.
Medium ripening tomatoes and hybrids
In connection with the formation of taller bushes, I place the seedlings in a row every 50-65 cm. I leave at least 60-70 cm between rows. Near the bushes I set pegs at the height of the future plant for a garter (about 80-90 cm).
Late maturing and indeterminate varieties
I plant seedlings of tomatoes of this group in an ordinary way. I leave at least 70-80 cm in the row between the bushes and 1-1.5 m between the rows.Tomatoes grow up to 2 or more meters, so immediately after planting I pull 2-3 rows of wire or thick twine on the stakes (to form a trellis). I form the bushes into 2 stems and constantly monitor the timely garter.
In cool regions, this scheme allows, with the approach of low temperatures at the end of summer, to cover the aisles with straw, carefully remove the plants from the trellises and spread them along the row. Establish arcs with covering material. Lying varieties of tomatoes (“Northern Miracle”, “Northern Beauty”, “Borodino F1”, etc.) will continue the formation and ripening of fruits on their native bush, which means that you will get a harvest for fresh fruit use much longer.
5. How to protect young tomato plantings from recurrent frosts
If a cold snap is expected at night and in the morning, and tomato seedlings have already been planted, then temporary shelters are used until stable positive temperatures (spunbond, lutrasil, etc.).
If the planted tomato seedlings are frozen, the stems and leaves are cut to a healthy tissue, and the remaining ones are sprayed with warm solutions of a low concentration of boron, Epin, iodine, Zircon. This technique (if the roots have not suffered) well stimulates growth processes, and with the loss of an early harvest, the total will be quite high.
Spraying with Epin and Zircon antistress solutions can be repeated several times after 8-10 days. After 3-4 days, you need to fertilize with urea, "Kemira") and after 5-7 days, repeat the fertilization with full fertilizer (nitrophobic or any other), but very carefully and in low doses.
If the freezing of the aboveground mass is insignificant (the leaves did not turn black, but, as it were, wilted), watering over the leaves through a shallow diffuser with slightly warm water (literally at room temperature) has a positive effect. This technique promotes the gradual thawing of a slightly frozen bush.
Tomatoes die when the temperature drops in the range from + 3 … + 1 ° С to -1 ° С. To protect the plants from prolonged cold snaps, they are heated with smoky fires, the bushes are covered with straw, dry sawdust. For small plantings, the bushes are covered with cardboard boxes, plastic containers or covering material.