Table of contents:
- Top dressing
- Formation of plants
- Protection of plants from pests
- Plant protection against diseases
Video: Gardening Calendar For July
So July has come - a fertile summer time, filled not only with worries, but also with the pleasure of the work done. This month, of course, you will have to continue watering, and feeding, and weeding, however, the ripening harvest is not just a reward, but also an inspiration for further care of the garden and vegetable garden. Not only the end of summer and autumn, but also the next year's harvest will depend on how well we approach each necessary gardening event.
In early July, cherries are already leaving, raspberries are ripening in full, in some regions strawberries are still being harvested. From the middle of the month in the south they eat their own figs, apricots, peaches, nectarines, plums, gooseberries and currants. Closer to August, the first apples, grapes appear, sunflowers and certain varieties of melons ripen. On the way are young almonds and their own tomatoes. Despite the fact that the ripening times differ in different climatic zones, cucumbers, zucchini, winter garlic, onion sets, cauliflower, blueberries, and cherries are a common July joy for all gardeners.
In order to prolong the laying of the harvest and help the plants withstand the July heat, it is imperative to observe regular watering this month. If the air temperature is too high and the land dries out quickly, the amount of irrigation should be increased. But in no case should you arrange frequent surface watering - this provokes the formation of a shallow root system of plants, creates additional air humidity in the surface layer and contributes to the spread of fungal diseases, especially if the earth is charged with moisture at night.
During periods when the temperature is too high and the heat lasts for several days, a warm shower is a good help for plants. It can be made from a watering can with a rain nozzle or from a hose with a diffuser. This will slightly increase tissue turgor and lower their temperature.
We must not forget that it is recommended to water cucumbers with warm water (about 18-22 ° C) and only in the morning, since in July they are already trapped by pathogens that react to temperature changes, drying out, cooling and waterlogging of the soil. If you water garden strawberries at night, it is easy to provoke the development of gray rot. A different approach to watering requires different varieties of tomatoes: those that massively lay fruits in July need high soil moisture, those that have begun to ripen together - in moderate.
Insufficient watering is dangerous for peppers during this period - it can cause the development of apical rot and force the plants to shed part of the ovary. White cabbage with a lack of moisture in the soil and air forms small heads of cabbage. But melons and watermelons do not need to be watered in the second half of summer, otherwise the ovary will pick up excess moisture and will rot.
Needs water and garden. In a dry summer, fruit trees and berry bushes from a lack of moisture can shed some of the fruits and berries, lay insufficient fruit buds for the next year's harvest. But constantly keeping the root circle of trees in a wet state is also dangerous, especially for seedlings of 1-2 years old, since the roots of plants can rot from a lack of air in the soil. Old, well-formed orchards need to be watered only when the heat is very prolonged or when the crop is ripening - due to the developed root system, adult trees do not need private watering.
Some features of watering are observed in grapes. This culture desperately needs water before the buds appear, but then excessive watering can provoke shedding of inflorescences. Therefore, at the time of opening the buds, watering must be stopped and continued only at the end of flowering. It is also not recommended to water the grapes during the final ripening of the crop.
Gooseberries need moisture throughout their growing season. And only at the moment of full ripening of the fruit, when the berry becomes soft, watering can be stopped so that it picks up sugar.
Raspberries and currants in July need to be watered infrequently, but abundantly, so that the ground is soaked 30-50 cm deep.
Mandatory in July and weeding. This month, they are important not only for reasons of plant competition in terms of nutrition, light and moisture, but as a prevention against the development and spread of diseases and pests. The weed-free beds are more intensively ventilated, better visible, and easier to care for.
If weeds are not weeded for mulch, they are composted to become fertilizer.
In no case should you neglect top dressing in July. During this period, they are especially important, as they allow plants to strengthen, and therefore to resist pathogens and harmfulness of sucking insects. However, it must be remembered that nitrogen-containing fertilizers can be used only in the first two decades of July, since later they can cause harm, not allowing the wood of perennial crops to harden to the winter cold, and one-year crops to fully form the remaining crop.
Tomatoes must be fed at least twice during July. Mullein, chicken droppings, and a two-week infusion of weeds or nettles are suitable for this. It is definitely worth feeding the fruit-bearing garden strawberries and their remontant varieties - the former will help to plant the next year's harvest, and the latter will strengthen the yield of berries in the current season.
If you feed fruit trees in July, then do not forget that a five-day infusion of slurry and chicken droppings is applied to the wetted soil at the rate of one bucket per two meters of the groove along the edge of the crown projection.
In July, you can sow the vacated beds with siderates. This will save the earth from weathering, weeds, washing out of nutrients by rains, pull up the elements necessary for plants from the deep layers, improve air permeability and water absorption properties of the soil.
If you have a compost heap, do not forget to periodically pierce it with a pitchfork to improve aeration, and water from a watering can so that it does not dry out. In the rain, cover it with a film or a lid to prevent the formed mass from rotting.
Formation of plants
The formation of plants continues in July. Grassing tomatoes, pinching the apical buds of peppers, eggplants, Brussels sprouts, very tall cucumbers, zucchini and squash will allow the crops to form fruit qualitatively and give a full harvest.
In tomatoes, stepchildren break out before they reach 3-4 cm, and pinch the top when 7-8 brushes are formed on the plant. For other vegetables, punching is done immediately after the leaf has formed above the last of the necessary inflorescences. This allows plants not to waste nutrients for the growth and laying of new flowers, but to direct them to the already set fruits. The best time for the procedure is in the morning.
Melons are also formed. They pinch off the lash after every 3 leaves, leaving 1-3 fruits on the plant (in greenhouses), or after 6-7 leaves (in the open field), eventually removing the lashes on which no ovary has formed. They do the same with watermelons, only when grown in greenhouses, only 1 fruit is left, and 2-3 in the beds, and the lashes are pinched over the third leaf after the ovary. But this is in the middle lane, in the south, plants can not be formed, especially if the melons are sown with seeds two years ago (plants grown from such seed material already lay a sufficient number of female flowers).
In zones with a temperate climate, pumpkins are also pinched, leaving the main lash 1.3 m long and 2-3 lateral shoots 60-70 cm long. One fruit is preserved on each branch of the plant.
This month, it is necessary to thin out the roots again, remove the arrows from the garlic. Cut off the mustache of the strawberry that has fruited (repeating the procedure every 7-10 days), and root young rosettes for reproduction from well-proven bushes.
If there are a lot of fruits on the apple trees, you need to take care of them too. So that the branches do not break off under the weight of the pouring crop, you need to prop them up with spears. The same technique is carried out on currants and gooseberries.
Root shoots form in the plum in July - it must be removed. Birds love to feast on cherries and cherries during this period, you can protect yourself from their gluttony by hanging foil plates, white ribbons or covering the trees with a fine-mesh net.
In the last decade of the month, the time comes for summer budding.
Despite the fact that most of the plants in the beds have already formed, in July they continue to huddle tomatoes and cucumbers. This technique allows plants to form additional roots, which means, to strengthen and increase the best yield. Also, do not forget about tying these crops to supports - this will keep the fruits clean and provide better ventilation and lighting. Hilling in July and late planted or re-planted (south) potatoes.
Hilling should be done in the morning or in the evening, since inadvertently affected roots and stems of plants in the heat can react to this agricultural practice by wilting. It is even better if there is an opportunity to huddle vegetables after rain: this way the moisture will be preserved, and the soil will hold better in the ridges.
Protection of plants from pests
July. Summer is in full swing: trees and shrubs are at their peak, vegetables are already pleasing to the eye with their fruits, - it's time to be on your guard and begin to fight against plant pests. Even if now their destructive effect is not yet noticeable, time will pass and it may happen that the known measures to neutralize them will no longer be able to help.
The most harmful insects of July, which are worth paying attention to, are: plum, pear and apple moth, Colorado potato beetle, cabbage scoop caterpillar, onion fly larvae. During this period, moths, aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, mining moths, moths, leaf rollers, cherry fly, grape itch, as well as locusts and meadow moths become active during this period.
Be sure to pay attention to red currants and gooseberries in early July. During this period, they are often attacked not only by the gooseberry moth caterpillar, but also by the moth and sawfly. The first beetles of raspberry agrilus appear on the raspberry grove; on thickened plantings of tomatoes, squash and pumpkin, a whitefly invasion may begin. If you are at risk, do not wait for the bushes to be eaten, but process the plantings in advance.
Against the main list of the listed July pests, as well as against the spider mite, which attacks cucumbers at the beginning of the month, a biological product called phytoverm is a good remedy. Since it does not have toxicity, the fruits after its use can be eaten in two days. However, if the situation is not critical, you should pay attention to the many existing, proven over the years, folk remedies that allow, if not completely get rid of, then reduce the number of pests both in the beds and in the garden without any risk to health.
For example, ash. It is sprinkled on the ground in the fight against slugs and snails, cabbage crops are powdered to scare off cruciferous fleas, and Colorado potato beetle larvae are pollinated. Infusion of garlic (300 g per 2 liters of hot water, leave for a day, before spraying, dilute in 8 liters of water with the addition of 30 g of laundry soap) copes well with sawfly, cabbage moth, aphids, flea beetles, bedbugs and whitefly. Infusion of mustard (10 g of powder per 1 liter of water, insist for 2 days) helps against caterpillars, sawflies, suckers, carrot, onion, cabbage flies and soil pests.
Plant protection against diseases
The main diseases that develop in July in vegetable beds are late blight and powdery mildew. Most often at this time they attack potatoes and tomatoes, and can significantly affect the harvest. Therefore, it is better not to allow their mass development, but to take care to prevent diseases or try to suppress them at the first signs of manifestation.
One of the folk remedies for late blight is spraying with iodine. To do this, take 10 mg of a 5% drug and stir them in 10 liters of water. The treatments are repeated at intervals of three days. A good preventive measure is the removal of gradually dying lower leaves of tomatoes, which ensures the sanitary cleanliness of the plantings, better ventilation and the strength of the plants.
Against powdery mildew, which loves not only the listed crops, but also cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, as well as gooseberries, currants, grapes and can even appear on apple trees, dusting the wet leaves of plants with ash or spraying with an infusion of mustard powder (2 tbsp. spoons per 10 liters of warm water). To prevent the development of the disease, at each visit to the garden or beds, it is necessary to inspect the plantings for the manifestation of its first signs. If they are observed, you need to cut off the affected parts, remove weak plants, stop feeding with nitrogen-containing fertilizers and abandon watering for a while.
Stem rot also becomes a frequent guest of vegetable gardens at the end of July. It infects plants during periods of cold nights. Therefore, if the first signs of stem rot are on the face, immediately feed the affected cultures with calcium nitrate (at the rate of 2 tablespoons of the drug per bucket of water), and after removing plaque from the affected areas, dust them with ash.
The same should be done when apical rot of fruits appears, which can be observed in dry weather on peppers, eggplants and tomatoes. In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to feed the plantings of these crops with calcium and make sure that the soil under them does not dry out.
In July, it is necessary to carefully examine the beds with garden strawberries, and if they show fungal diseases (gray, white rot), spray them with 1% Bordeaux liquid, spotting - cut off and burn the leaves.
In the vineyard during this period, mildew may begin to develop, on stone fruits - clotting and coccomycosis, on raspberries - purple spot.