Table of contents:
Winter is divided into sub-seasons:
- First Winter - 25 days - from November 27;
- Indigenous winter - 55 days - from December 22;
- The turning point of winter - 31 days - from 15 February.
The folk calendar defines winter from frost, and the end - drop by drop, taking as a basis the phenomena of wildlife. For this reason, the onset of winter is determined by different periods of time. In some calendars, the following names are indicated: Pre-winter, Deaf-winter, Prevesia.
January is named after the ancient Roman god of time Janus. The old Russian name - chilled, prosinets - from the word to clarify. In Ukrainian, January is sichen, in Belarusian - jelly.
The coldest month of the year: the average monthly temperature in the Moscow region is minus 10.3 ° C with fluctuations from minus 51 ° C (1940) to plus 8 ° C (2007).
It is interesting that, for example, in 1882 the average monthly temperature in the Moscow region was also abnormally high - plus 4 ° C.
January is the coldest month of the year, the roof of winter. "God bless us from warm January" - they said in Russia. This is understandable - warmth and little snow, which means there will not be a bountiful harvest in summer. But cold January in a row is almost never repeated. If January last year was warm, then January this year will be cold.
In January, daylight hours arrive at 1.5 hours - from 7:00 on December 22 to 8.5 hours on January 30.
In December, the day died completely, and in January it rose again
Folk proverbs and signs of January
- In January, the sun is for summer, winter is for frost.
- In January, the snow will puff up - bread will arrive.
- January is dry - the peasant is rich.
- Gray January is a misfortune for breads.
- If January is cold, July will be dry and hot: don't wait for mushrooms until autumn.
- If it's March in January, be afraid in March January.
- If in January there are frequent snowfalls and blizzards, then in July there are frequent rains.
- There are many long and frequent icicles hanging in January - the harvest will be good.
- If in January the echo goes far, the frost grows stronger.
- Soon dawn is breaking - there will certainly be snow.
- The sun in a circle - to the snow, in mittens - to the cold
- The moon shines brightly at night or the sky without a moon is strewn with bright stars - tomorrow will be a clear frosty day.
- Fluffy frost - to the bucket (clear day).
- Pillars ("the sun with ears", "the sun") - to severe frosts.
- The forest is bursting - the frost will stand for a long time.
- Thunder in winter - to strong winds.
- In the right ear it rings - to warmth, in the left - to cold.
- A pillar of smoke - to frost.
- Firewood burns with a bang - to frost.
- Strong thrust in the oven - for frost, weak - for damp weather, red fire - for frost, white - for thaw.
- The wind hums in the chimney - to frost.
- The cat sits down to the frost in the stove.
- The cat buries its face - to frost or bad weather.
- The cat is scraping the floor - into the wind, into a blizzard.
- A cat in a ball - in the cold.
- The cat is fast asleep - to warmth.
- The cat lies belly up - to warmth.
- The dog rolls - to the rain and snow.
- The dog walks in the snow - to a blizzard.
- In winter, the horse lays down - to the warmth.
- The horse snores - to the blizzard.
- The hare keeps near housing - to frost.
- The chicken flies around the hut - to the frost.
- When the rooster sings at the wrong time at night, in severe frosts, the cold will moderate.
- The goose stands on one leg - to frost.
- Geese flap their wings - to frost, rinse - to warmth.
- The bullfinch chirps under the window - to the thaw.
- Sparrows amicably collect down and feathers near chicken coops, insulate their shelters - in a few days severe frosts will come.
- Ravens and jackdaws hover in the air - in front of the snow, sit on the snow - to thaw, sit on the tops of trees - to frost, and if on the lower branches - to a bucket.
- The woodpecker starts knocking early in January - by early spring.
- Crows croak in a flock - to frost.
Detailed folk calendar for January
January 1 - New Year - turn by spring. Day of Ilya Muromets. In Russia, the New Year until 1492 began on March 1; from 1492 to 1700 - from September 1, and from 1700 by the Decree of Peter the Great it starts on January 1.
According to the chronological index to 1891, published by the Moscow Provincial Council, this year has elapsed time: from the Nativity of Christ - 1891, the creation of the world - 7399, the foundation of the Russian state - 1029, the Baptism of the Russian people - 903, the beginning of the Moscow state - 564, the destruction of the serf rights - 30 years.
- As a day passes, so the whole year will pass, they said in the old days.
- If the night of January 1 is stellar, then there will be a large harvest of berries in the summer. What is the first day of January, so is the first day of summer.
January 2 - Ignatius the God-bearer. On this day, prayers were held in the villages and icons were carried around the village in procession to protect peasant goods from any misfortune.
January 5 - Fedul.
Fedul came, the wind blew - for the harvest
January 6 - Christmas Eve. By this time, they were doing a lot of cleaning in the huts: they washed the ceilings, walls, scraped with a knife and rubbed the floors with juniper. We went to the bathhouse, changed clothes, laid the table with straw. They ate on Christmas Eve in a strict way: cabbage with kvass, bread, broth or soup (a type of apple and pear compote or generally lean food).
In the evening, they put kutya (a kind of ceremonial porridge) on the table: boiled wheat or barley with bird cherry, who is richer - rice with raisins. We were preparing for tomorrow's feast - mashing pies, putting on pancakes, starting a "bite" - cookies, kneading dough for donuts.
In the evening, Kolyada went to their houses - guys in disguise in turned-out fur coats and with animal masks on their faces. They exalted the owners, not sparing generous words. They said: "Kolyada was born on the eve of Christmas, Kolyada from Novgorod is traveling across the Christmas-Eve Bridge" (a reminder of the imminent celebration).
New Year's Eve and the first days of the New Year (old style) were called Christmastide. They lasted 12 days: from January 7 to January 19. At the same time, the days from 7 to 14 January were considered holy evenings, from 14 to 19 January - terrible: these days they took care of cattle, barns from evil spirits.
On Christmastide in Russia, weddings were celebrated, in the afternoon they organized skating. From Christmastide in the villages they began to prepare for spring - they sowed seeds, repaired equipment.
Christmas celebrations coincide with the winter solstice. The turn of the sun for summer meant the approach of spring with the bustle of the harvest. Therefore, they noted: if the days are dark and warm on Christmastide, then good bread will be born, while bright days will lead to poor harvest. We watched how many stars in the sky before Christmas. If there is a lot, there will be a lot of mushrooms and berries.
- A clear day means a good harvest.
- If the paths are black - the harvest for buckwheat.
- A starry firmament - a berry year awaits and there is a lot of offspring for livestock.
January 7 - Christmas. Christmas frosts.
Christmas - the birth of Jesus Christ - is celebrated at different times: by Catholics on December 25 of the new style, and by the Russian Orthodox Church on December 25 of the old style (January 7 of the new style).
On this day, according to an ancient custom, the time before matins was devoted to "sowing" the huts. Shepherds did it. Walking around the houses, they congratulated the owners on the holiday and threw a handful of oats into each hut with the verdicts: “On the living, on the fertile, third - on health”; “On the floor, under the bench - lambs, on the bench - children!”; “The lambs are behind the bench, the calves are at the bench, and the pigs are all over the hut!”; "I sow-sow spring wheat, oats, buckwheat for calves, lambs and all the peasants!"
It is customary to start the Christmas break with delicious and plentiful food. A variety of pork dishes were prepared everywhere. Once in Russia an indispensable Christmas treat was a pig stuffed with porridge, or a boar's head with horseradish; it was customary to serve a ham, baked, smoked or boiled hot with peas, roast or aspic from a pig, jelly from pork legs or head, fried pork belly with potatoes.
In many places, “cows”, “bulls”, “sheep”, “birds”, and “roosters” were baked from wheat dough for the holiday. These cookies - "kazulki" - were presented to relatives, friends and acquaintances, they decorated the windows. Relatives and acquaintances went to each other with congratulations and treats.
- Drifts filled high - by a good year.
- If there is a thaw, the spring will be early and warm.
January 8 - Babi holiday, the holiday of porridge. "Everyone walks with a spoon on the feast of porridge - a full scoop will not disperse a family." They are carpenters, play musical instruments.
January 12 - Anisyas are winter. “Guest, gostinok, step on the threshold. Before the guest on the table - and mushrooms, and pickles, and a brew from the oven on the table swords.
January 13 - New Year's Eve (old style) - Vasilyev's evening. Generosity. Peasant families would sit down to take apart a pig's head, symbolizing fertility and prosperity. They ate porridge mashed from peas, and said:
- "Vasilyev's evening - a rich generous evening";
- “On the New Year's Eve - fat kutia, fat”;
- "A pig and a boar for Vasilyev's evening."
Gardeners shake off snow from apple trees at midnight for harvest. If at night the wind blows from the south - the year will be hot and prosperous, from the west - to an abundance of milk and fish, from the east - wait for the fruit harvest.
January 14 - New Year. Vasilyev's day. Basil the Great. In the middle of winter. If there is fog - to the harvest. The beginning of the year is the middle of winter. Winter, break of winter.
January 15 - Sylvester. Chicken feast. The children are given clay roosters. January drives the blizzard seven miles away.
January 17 - the last Christmas divination with the same laments as on New Year's Eve: "Ugly, God, everyone lives in the bins for the whole baptized world."
January 18 - Epiphany Christmas Eve - a hungry evening. The day before Epiphany is called Epiphany Christmas Eve (or the Nomad), since at this time they fast and eat somach, i.e. lean porridge, and vegetables. In the Tver region on Christmas Eve, they baked juices with berries; in other places, unleavened cakes were prepared on hemp juice, mostly yogurt, as well as pancakes, honey pancakes and lean pies with peas, potatoes, and porridge. The Kaluga peasants have their own way of preparing the syche: raw barley was pounded, seasoned with honey and steamed in a sealed container in the oven.
- Snow falls under Epiphany - bread will arrive.
- A full month is a big spill.
January 19 - Epiphany. Epiphany frosts. "Crack frost, do not crack, but the water cracks are gone." People call this day the Epiphany
- Clear and cold weather - towards dry summer; cloudy and snowy - to a bountiful harvest.
- If the day is warm - the bread will be dark, that is, thick, cold, clear - the summer will be dry, cloudy and snowy - expect a bountiful harvest.
- If there is a blizzard, then take revenge on her in three months.
- Baptism for a full month - to be big water.
- Dogs bark a lot - there will be a lot of game and animals.
January 21 - Emelyan Winter. "Emelyan, wind the blizzard." Snowstorm in winter for custom. The character of winter is finally judged. Watch the wind: it blows from the south - promises a formidable summer.
January 23 - Grigory Letoukazatel.
If there is frost on trees, haystacks and haystacks - to a wet and cold summer
January 24 - Fedoseevo is warm. If it's warm, know the early spring has gone.
January 25 - Tatiana.
Snow on Tatyana - rainy summer, the sun will show through - by the early arrival of birds
January 28 - Peter-Paul added a day. If there is a wind, the year will be damp.
January 29 - Peter is half-food, which means that half of the winter food has been eaten by domestic animals.
January 30 - Anton perezimny. A wintertime - it will give you hope, warm it up, and then deceive you - it will tighten everything with frost. Don't trust the warm weather in winter.
January 31 - Athanasius-clematis. Afanasievsky frosts. "Afanasy da Cyrillo is being taken by the snout."
Frosts are noted: Vvedensky (December 4), Nikolsky (December 19), Christmas (January 7), Vasilievsky - from Christmas to New Year - from January 7 to 13, Epiphany (January 19), Afanasyevsky (January 31), Sretensky (15 February), Vlasyevsky (February 24), Annunciation (April 7).
January is the winter month. In nature, life is almost invisible. Trees, with the exception of conifers, are bare. Only some mammals and birds remaining for the winter are visible: tits, woodpeckers, pikas, buntings and others.
Shurs, waxwings, bullfinches and tap dancers arrive from the north. Tits fly from tree to tree, get food. Crossbills begin to build nests in conifers. Under a bush, on a soft bed of leaves, a hedgehog sleeps.
A bear sleeps in a den. A badger sleeps in its deep hole. The wolf, fox, ferret and marten roam in search of food. A weasel, which has turned white by winter, hunts for mice. A marten hunts for a gray squirrel. The white hare gnaws at young aspen trees. The mole does not sleep either: it is warm in the ground, and the food under its nose is earthworms.
Elks begin to lose their antlers; sheds antlers and red deer. The ruff goes into hibernation, the beginning of spawning in burbot (caviar is small, sticky). Butterflies, flies and beetles are not visible, but under the bark of stumps you can find flies, beetles, forest bugs, spiders, caterpillars.
In January, the birch chaga mushroom and pine buds are harvested.