We Are Preparing A Warm Bed In The Fall. Kinds. Creation Rules. Photo

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We Are Preparing A Warm Bed In The Fall. Kinds. Creation Rules. Photo
We Are Preparing A Warm Bed In The Fall. Kinds. Creation Rules. Photo
Video: We Are Preparing A Warm Bed In The Fall. Kinds. Creation Rules. Photo
Video: Sew Sweet Violet - Jooles's Journal :: Number 58 2023, February
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Warm beds usually have a dual purpose: firstly, they can free them from the need to grow seedlings (that is, the seeds can be sown in open ground), and secondly, warm beds help residents of colder regions when it is possible to sow seeds like, and plant seedlings in open ground without fear that they will die. Every gardener dreams of building a warm bed on his site in such a way that it consists of what is thrown away annually or lying around for years and is completely unnecessary on the farm. This is what we will first of all keep in mind when creating warm beds (that is, to be "cheap and cheerful").

Warm bed in a box
Warm bed in a box

Content:

  • What is a warm bed?
  • Advantages of a warm garden
  • How to create a warm garden bed?
  • Types of warm beds
  • Crop rotation in warm beds
  • Features of care in a warm bed

What is a warm bed?

Warm beds are easy to make and completely uncomplicated to use. On warm beds, you can grow tomatoes, provided that an additional drainage layer of expanded clay is created at the very base of the warm bed, as well as cucumbers (in this case, it is necessary to provide a layer that retains moisture, for example, a layer of moss). And also - greens, radishes, zucchini and pumpkin. In the case of zucchini and pumpkins, it is necessary, of course, to increase the size of the warm beds themselves, say, by 35% compared to cucumber beds.

Do not think that a warm bed is an exclusively bulk structure in the garden. Many are afraid of this and do not build them just because they are afraid of water spills in the garden during irrigation, the inability to keep the garden in its original form and maintain it throughout the season. Just for such, there is a second option for a warm bed - below the level of the soil surface, although it is not much to care for such a bed, it is still easier.

Before we begin to praise warm beds and describe in detail the procedure for their construction, I would like to very briefly talk about the essence of the bed itself. Outline it, as it were, in a section so that you can figure out: do you have all the materials you need to build a warm garden bed, or do you need to buy something. The first step is necessarily a protective layer of metal mesh at the base and a drainage layer. It should be pebbles, finely broken brick or expanded clay. And remember what we said: for a tomato, it is better to make this layer higher, because the tomato does not like moisture stagnation.

Surprisingly, many people even grow potatoes in warm beds. So, this culture also requires a thicker (20% thicker) drainage layer. By the way, not many people know, but the drainage layer can be made from both non-degradable materials (for example, when you decide to build a warm bed in this place for many years), and from materials that decompose, but extremely slowly, which will be enough for just four seasons (maximum the life of the bed).

Therefore, stock up on thick branches, chop them well into sticks that can be laid evenly in the base, and boldly build a warm bed with their help too. These sticks will also rot and decay, but very slowly. They will also emit heat: it turns out, although insignificant, but still a plus. Further, in a warm bed, the layering method is used, in which layers of various materials capable of "digesting the soil" and generating heat are covered with garden soil, which is covered with plastic wrap on top.

Bulk warm bed
Bulk warm bed

Advantages of a warm garden

  • The very first and, perhaps, the main advantage of any warm garden bed is the early receipt of all kinds of vegetable products and, at the same time, with larger fruits, and therefore, obtaining a heavier harvest;
  • Lack of concern for fertilization in the first three seasons (and possibly four, then you will find out why) of using a warm bed, since the "food" for the root system is quite enough for the one that you put in a warm bed for all three seasons. Your only concern will be watering and weeding;
  • Extreme ease of care: loosening the soil and removing the soil crust is minimized, no fertilization is needed, watering is needed, but limited - all this is really convenient;
  • We casually mentioned weeds, and so, on such beds, they, as a rule, do not exist or are extremely few, therefore, the number of weeding is reduced to a minimum;
  • There is no danger of freezing of plants from recurrent frosts, in any case, if these very frosts are not too strong and prolonged. Usually in this regard, the garden bed does just fine.

The disadvantages include additional labor costs, and sometimes material costs for organizing a warm bed, albeit very small. Building a warm bed is different from just digging up the soil and fertilizing that you did earlier. However, this minus is more than compensated for by a huge plus - the return in the form of the harvest, the receipt of large and tasty vegetables and more of them, which, to the envy of your neighbors, will appear on your table much earlier than their due date.

Well, and of course, you will reduce the work of those who clean up the garbage, or save yourself from the need to kindle fires on the site, burning all plant residues, twigs, grass, half-rotten fruits, berries, vegetables.

How to create a warm garden bed?

There are many ways to form it. Usually, however, gardeners, when creating warm beds, must be guided by the climatic features of their region of residence. We will try to help everyone at once, although it is difficult. If the seasons in your region are usually wet, that is, cool and with an abundance of rains, then your garden may begin to swamp and become oversaturated with moisture. Then the beds must be made high, knocking down boxes of boards (better impregnated with a waterproof composition).

If you build a garden bed in a normal climate, for example, in the middle lane, then it can be partially submerged in the soil, there should not be waterlogging here. If we take the cold climatic conditions of the Urals and Siberia, then it is necessary to combine the deepening into the soil, that is, digging a trench and knocking down a box of boards is the best option for such a climate.

In cold regions, and in our center too, if strong return frosts are approaching, it is not forbidden to put ordinary arcs made of hard wire over warm beds and stretch plastic wrap over them. Then you will definitely reliably protect plantings and crops in a warm bed from both cold wind and severe frost.

When choosing a place for a garden bed, which, by the way, is included in the category of its correct manufacture, you also need to be careful. It is clear that the best option is not a shadow or partial shade, but the most open and most protected from shade place.

If there is simply no more completely open area in your garden, then ensure that the garden bed is illuminated by the sun for at least five hours. You may need to remove a large bush, such as a currant, or cut down a large branch of an apple tree. But this does not mean that the garden bed should be in deep shade for the rest of the day. There should be light, but it is acceptable if it is diffused.

Try to choose the most elevated part of your garden under a warm bed. In this case, one should be guided by the fact that the bed is under constant protection from the east, west and north sides by tall bushes with a dense crown (say, irga), as well as by the wall of the house, a fence or any other building (but this is not a prerequisite, but only wish).

It is necessary to orient the location of a warm bed from east to west so that it is warmed up as much as possible by the rays of the sun. This is already a prerequisite.

Sod removal at the site of the construction of a warm bed
Sod removal at the site of the construction of a warm bed
Digging a trench for a warm bed
Digging a trench for a warm bed
Leveling the base of a warm bed
Leveling the base of a warm bed

Types of warm beds

Trench

This type of bed is most suitable, firstly, for plants that love water (pumpkin, cucumbers). Secondly, such beds can be built on soils where the groundwater level is at least two meters to the soil surface and there is no threat of prolonged stagnation of melt, rain or irrigation water.

First of all, we need to remove the topsoil and set it aside. The thickness of the removed layer should be quite large - 45-60 centimeters, and if you live in the northern region, then one meter. As for the width, for the convenience of caring for the garden and in order to carry out not too tedious earthwork, in any climatic region a width of half a meter will be enough.

We recommend using the strongest metal mesh as the first layer. This will be a kind of limitation of the garden and to some extent relieve it from subsidence, as well as the penetration of mice and moles, but will not retain moisture. Next is a drainage layer. As we already said, it can be pebbles, broken brick, expanded clay or twigs, slightly or strongly rotten boards, pieces of cardboard of different thicknesses, thick paper, or rather large debris that can decompose over time.

Usually, the height of the drainage layer is about 18-22 cm, and for tomatoes it can be made a couple of centimeters higher. Next, we lay a layer of soil, it is quite possible to take the one that remains from the digging of the hole itself. The height of this layer should be about three centimeters.

The next stage is the laying of a wide variety of plant residues. These may include ordinary grass (say, after mowing the lawn or otherwise), weeds (only without formed seeds on them), rotting or starting to rot vegetables, fruits and fruits, waste from the kitchen (potato peelings, etc.). This layer should be approximately 14-16 cm.

On top we again lay a layer of soil six or eight centimeters thick. On top of this layer, you will need to lay a layer of humus, preferably not completely rotted, but about half. Its height should be about 9-12 cm. If there is no layer of semi-rotten humus at hand, then a layer of semi-rotted manure can be used. If it is not there, you can reuse a layer of plant residues, for example, cut grass of the same thickness. Not the best option though.

On top of our flaky "cake" you can put any fresh and weed-free garden soil, in a layer of 25-30 cm (for roots - 40) cm. It remains to level everything well with rain, melted or settled water at room temperature and cover with plastic wrap.

By the way about the film: when exactly should you cover a warm bed-trench with a film - in autumn or spring? Most are inclined towards the autumn shelter, but with one condition - in the spring, the film must be removed from the garden as soon as possible so that it begins to warm up quickly.

The next option for the beds is bulk

This option of a warm bed is ideal for plants that love a moderate amount of moisture (the same tomatoes), as well as for regions with low temperatures in summer and high humidity in combination with rain.

Theoretically, it is possible to equip a bulk bed with the proper skill and patience even in a swampy area that was previously completely unsuitable for use or in those regions where there is a threat of recurrent frosts or significant temperature changes.

Laying a layer of small branches and wood debris on the bottom of a warm bed
Laying a layer of small branches and wood debris on the bottom of a warm bed
Laying a layer of green mass in a warm bed
Laying a layer of green mass in a warm bed
Laying a layer of coarse wood
Laying a layer of coarse wood

First, choose a place, as described above. Next, we place the very first layer on this place, that is, drainage: everything is the same and with the same layer (about two tens of centimeters). On this layer we line a variety of plant waste with a thickness of about 12-16 cm. Sprinkle this layer with garden soil.

On top of the soil layer, humus or its substitutes (as we wrote about above) should be poured with a thickness of 9-11 cm.And then, almost the most important thing, all these layers should be covered with weeds, preferably fresh and well-rested garden soil at 55-60 cm. Then everything is covered with a film. In this case, it is better to cover it with a film in the fall.

The only thing left to do is to build a box of fresh boards around this bed, soaked in the appropriate material from rapid decay, so that the bed does not fall apart.

Combined warm bed trench-box

It is, in fact, suitable for any vegetable crops and for the overwhelming number of climatic zones. We can safely say that this is a universal warm bed, which combines all the advantages of a warm bed-trench and a warm bed-box.

We start by removing the soil layer, but less - up to 25-35 cm, no more. Next, you can lay a metal mesh to protect against rodents, or, if you are not afraid of their penetration, you can lay boards on the sides, exactly along the profile of the resulting trench so that they stick out above the soil surface by about half a meter.

The layers are the same - drainage, any plant waste, then a layer of humus and on top - garden soil. Do not forget to sprinkle each layer with soil. After the bed is ready, it must be shed to the ground and apply drugs to accelerate decay, and everything must be covered with a film until spring.

Laying a layer of leaf litter in a warm bed
Laying a layer of leaf litter in a warm bed
Backfilling all layers of a warm bed with soil
Backfilling all layers of a warm bed with soil
Installing a wooden box over a warm bed
Installing a wooden box over a warm bed

Crop rotation in warm beds

In order for the cultivation of vegetable crops in warm beds to be complete, crop rotation must be observed. This does not always work out if there is only one bed. Therefore, if possible, you should make several warm beds on the site and even experiment which one is more effective: a bed-trench, a bed-box or a combined bed.

In the very first season of the garden's existence, vegetable growers recommend planting pumpkin crops on it. Further, for the second season, you can plant cucumbers, as well as pumpkins, bell peppers, tomatoes and eggplants.

The next, third year of using a warm bed - here you can plant carrots, beets, potatoes, onions and radishes.

In the fourth, final year of the existence of a warm bed, it is advisable to plant any legumes that form nodules, accumulate nitrogen, and when you scatter the bed over the site, also fertilize the soil with the maximum available nitrogen.

Features of care in a warm bed

In the south - these are the first days of April, to the north - in mid-April, but strictly under the film, in the center - about mid-April, but the film is completely optional; and then in May the first shoots will appear on the warm beds built with their own hands.

A story about creating a warm bed would be completely incomplete without a couple of words about how to care for plants on a practically constantly “burning” garden somewhere inside. We wrote above that watering is needed, but limited. So, this limitation is rain, and if it is not there, then the garden still needs watering. In no case should the soil on a warm bed dry out.

Then you can use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the soil: if it is more than 50 degrees (which is actually possible only on sheltered beds), then the shelters need to be removed or the bed must be ventilated. But try to do these procedures during the day, not in the evening, so that there are no significant temperature changes.

Lutrasil can lower the soil temperature if you are using a bed with shelter in cold northern conditions. It is a non-woven material that allows moisture and air to pass freely, unlike film. It also protects plants well from the scorching sun.

Warm bed-box, covered with fertile soil
Warm bed-box, covered with fertile soil

Don't be afraid to experiment in your garden, especially when it comes to warm beds. With a high degree of probability, your experience will be successful, and you will receive fresh produce much earlier than the owner of the neighboring plot receives it. We advise you to make a couple of warm beds on the site, then there will simply be no problems with crop rotation, and you will be able to use the soil according to all "garden" rules.

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